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EVALITA Evaluation of NLP and Speech Tools for Italian - December 17th, 2020

 | 
Valerio Basile
, 
Danilo Croce
, 
Maria Maro
, 
et al.

DIACR-Ita: Diachronic Lexical Semantics

DIACR-Ita @ EVALITA2020: Overview of the EVALITA2020 Diachronic Lexical Semantics (DIACR-Ita) Task

Pierpaolo Basile, Annalina Caputo, Tommaso Caselli, Pierluigi Cassotti et Rossella Varvara

Résumé

This paper describes the first edition of the “Diachronic Lexical Semantics” (DIACR-Ita) task at the EVALITA 2020 campaign. The task challenges participants to develop systems that can automatically detect if a given word has changed its meaning over time, given contextual information from corpora. The task, at its first edition, attracted 9 participant teams and collected a total of 36 submission runs.

Texte intégral

1. Background and Motivation

1The Diachronic Lexical Semantics (DIACR-Ita) task focuses on the automatic recognition of lexical semantic change over time, combining together computational and historical linguistics. The aim of the task can be shortly described as follows: given contextual information from corpora, systems are challenged to detect if a given word has changed its meaning over time.

2Word meanings can evolve in different ways. They can undergo pejoration or amelioration (when meanings become respectively more negative or more positive) or they can be object of broadening (also referred to as generalization or extension) or narrowing (also known as restriction or specialization). For instance, the English word dog is a clear case of broadening, since its more general meaning came from the late Old English “dog of a powerful breed” (Traugott 2006). On the contrary, the Old English word deor with the general meaning of “animal” became deer in present-day English. Semantic changes can be further classified on the basis of the cognitive process that originated them, i.e. either from metonymy or metaphor. Lastly, it is possible to distinguish among changes due to language-internal or language-external factors (Hollmann 2009). The latter usually reflects a change in society, as in the case of technological advancements (e.g. cell, from the meaning of “prisoner cell” to “cell phone”).

3The problem of the automatic analysis of lexical semantic change is gaining momentum in the Natural Language Processinng (NLP) and Computational Linguistics (CL) communities, as shown by the growing number of publications on the diachronic analysis of language and the organisation of related events such as the 1st International Workshop on Computational Approaches to Historical Language Change1 and the project “Towards Computational Lexical Semantic Change Detection”2. Following this trend, SemEval 2020 has hosted for the first time a task on automatic recognition of lexical semantic change: the SemEval 2020 Task 1 - Unsupervised Lexical Semantic Change Detection3 (Schlechtweg et al. 2020). While this task targets a number of different languages, namely Swedish, Latin, and German, Italian is not present.

4Many are the existing approaches, data sets, and evaluation strategies used to detect semantic change, or drift. Most of the approaches rely on diachronic word embeddings, some of these are created as post-processing of static word embeddings, such as ; while others create dynamic word embeddings where vectors share the same space for all time periods (Del Tredici, Nissim, and Zaninello 2016; Yao et al. 2018; Rudolph and Blei 2018; Dubossarsky et al. 2019). Recent work exploits word sense induction algorithms to discover semantic shifts (Tahmasebi and Risse 2017; Hu, Li, and Liang 2019) by analyzing how induced senses change over time. Finally, propose a simple approach based on the neighbors’ intersection between two corpora. The neighborhood of a word is separately computed in each corpus, then the intersection is exploited to compute a measure of the semantic shift. The neighborhood in each corpus can be computed using the cosine similarity between word embeddings built on the same corpus without using vectors alignment. A more complete state of the art is described in a critical and concise way in the latest surveys (Tahmasebi, Borin, and Jatowt 2018; Kutuzov et al. 2018; Tang 2018).

5Almost all of the previously mentioned methods use English as the target language for the diachronic analysis, leaving the other languages still under-explored. To date, only one evaluation has been carried out on Italian using the Kronos-it dataset (Basile, Semeraro, and Caputo 2019).

6The DIACR-Ita task at the EVALITA 2020 campaign (V. Basile et al. 2020) fosters the implementation of new systems purposely designed for the Italian language. To achieve this goal, a new dataset for the evaluation of lexical semantic change on Italian has been developed based on the “L’Unità” corpus (P. Basile et al. 2020). This is the first Italian dataset manually annotated with semantic shifts between two different time periods.

2. Task Description

7The goal of DIACR-Ita is to establish if a set of target words change their meaning across two time periods, T1 and T2, where T1 precedes T2.

8Following the SemEval 2020 Task 1 settings, we focus on the comparison of two time periods. In this way, we tackle two issues:

  1. We reduce the number of time periods for which data has to be annotated;

  2. We reduce the task complexity, allowing for the use of different models’ architectures, and thus widening the range of potential participants.

  • 4 The word originally referred to an acrobatic manoeuvre of aeroplanes. Nowadays, it is also used to (...)

9During the test phase, participants have been provided with two corpora C1 and C2 (for the time periods T1 and T2, respectively), and a list of target words. For each target word, systems have to decide whether the word changed or not its meaning between T1 and T2, according to its occurrences in sentences in C1 and C2. For instance, the meaning of the word “imbarcata” is known to have expanded4, i.e, it has acquired a new sense, from T1 to T2. This will be reflected in different occurrences of the word usage in sentences between C1 and C2.

10The task is formulated as a closed task, i.e. participants must train their model only on the data provided in the task. However, participants may rely on pre-trained word embeddings, but they cannot train embeddings on additional diachronic Italian corpora, they can use only synchronic corpora.

3. Data

11This section provides an overview of the datasets that were made available to the participants in the two different stages of the evaluation challenge, namely trial and test.

3.1 Trial data

12The trial phase corresponds to the evaluation window in which the participants have to build their systems before the official test data are release. The following data were provided:

  • An example of 5 trial target words for which predictions are needed;

  • An example of gold standard for the trial target words;

  • A sample submission file for the trial target words;

  • Two trial corpora that participants could use to develop their models and check the compliance of the generated output to the required format;

  • An evaluation and some additional utility scripts for managing corpora.

13Trial data do not reflect the actual data from C1 and C2. The sample training corpora and target words were artificially built just to provide an example of the data format for developing their systems. Since the training corpus is publicly available on the Internet, we decided not to release these data during the trial phase to prevent participants from identifying the source data and consequently potential set of target words.

3.2 Test data

14For the test phase, the following data were provided:

  • A diachronic split of the “L’Unità” corpus into the two sub-corpora, C1 and C2, each belonging to a specific time period;

  • 18 target words, among which 6 were identified as target of semantic meaning change between the two time periods.

Corpus Creation

15The “L’Unità” diachronic corpus (P. Basile et al. 2020) is a collection of documents extracted from the digital archive of the newspaper “L’Unità.”5

16For the task, the corpus has been initially split into two sub-corpora, C1, corresponding to the time period T1=[1945-1970], and C2, corresponding to the time period T2=[1990-2014].

17To facilitate participants in the closed-task formulation, the corpora were provided in a pre-processed format. In particular, we adopted a tab separated format, with one token per line. For each token, we provided its corresponding part-of-speech and lemma. Sentences are separated by empty lines. Data were pre-processed with UDPipe6 using the ISDT-UD v2.5 model. An example of the data format is illustrated below.

Questa PRON questo
è AUX essere
una DET uno
frase NOUN frase
. PUNCT .

Questa PRON questo
è AUX essere
un' DET uno
altra ADJ altro
frase NOUN frase
. PUNCT .

18Participants are free to combine the available information as they want. Furthermore, to facilitate the generation of word embeddings, we made available a script for generating a format containing one sentence per line.

19The whole “L’Unità” diachronic corpus has been built, cleaned and annotated automatically. This process consisted of several steps, namely:

Step 1: Downloading

20All PDF files are downloaded from the source site and stored into a folder structure that mimics the publication year of each article.

Step 2: Text extraction

21The text is extracted from the PDF files by using the Apache Tika library.7 First, the library tries to extract the embedded text if present in the PDF. If this process fails, the internal OCR system is used. It is important to notice that during this step several OCR errors may occur due to different reasons. The processing of the early years of publications, i.e., between 1945–1948, represented a non trivial challenge for the extraction of the textual data. In particular, we noticed that the page format had a major impact on the quality of the OCR. In these period, the newspaper has quite an unconventional format where a few large pages contain many articles scattered into several columns. This affected the performance of the OCR due to its failure in properly identifying the column boundaries.

Step 3: Cleaning

22In this step, we try to fix some text extraction issues. We identified two lines of actions, the first dealing with paragraph splits and the second with noisy text. In the text extraction process, paragraphs are separated by means of an empty line. However, word hyphenation can trigger errors in the paragraph segmentation phase by wrongly adding empty lines. We addressed this issue by reconstructing the paragraph on a single text line, thus ensuring that empty lines are only used to delimit the actual paragraphs. In our case, noisy text corresponds to tokens whose composing characters are wrongly interpreted by the OCR mixing together alphabetical characters with numbers or symbols. Two heuristics were implemented to limit the amount of noisy text. The first heuristic requires that paragraphs must contain at least five tokens composed by only alphabetical characters. The second heuristic requires that at least 60% of each paragraph must contain words that are attested in a dictionary. For this, we did not use a reference dictionary, but we automatically created it by extracting tokens from the Paisà corpus (Lyding et al. 2014). Numbers were excluded and only alphabetical strings were retained. The output of the cleaning process is a plain text file for each year where each paragraph is separated by an empty line.

Step 4: Processing

23All plain text files produced by the cleaning step are processed by a Python script that splits each paragraph into sentences and analyses each sentence with UDPipe 8 ISDT-UD v2.5 model. In this way, we obtain tokens, part-of-speech tags, and lemmas. The processed data are then stored in a vertical format as illustrated is Section 3.

24After these preparation steps, the valid and retained data for the task span over a temporal period between 1948 and 2014. We revised the initial split of the two sub-corpora as follows: C1 ranges between T1=[1948-1970], and C2 between T2=[1990-2014]. Table 1 illustrates the distributions of the tokens across the two time periods for the sub-corpora. The difference in the number of tokens between C1 and C2 reflects differences in the trends in the number of daily published articles, due to cheaper printing costs and the availability of new technologies such as the World Wide Web.

Table 1: Official Training Corpora: Occurrence of Tokens

Corpus

Period

#Tokens

L’Unità

1948-1970

52,287,734

L’Unità

1990-2014

196,539,403

Creation of the Gold Standard

25The selection of the target words that compose the Gold Standard data required a manual annotation. Identifying words that have undergone a semantic change is not an easy task. To boost the identification of candidate target words, we adopted a semi-automatic method. In the following paragraphs we illustrate in detail our approach.

Step 1: Selection of candidate words

26The initial selection of potential candidate words was based on Kronos-IT (Basile, Semeraro, and Caputo 2019). Kronos-IT is a dataset for the evaluation of semantic change point detection algorithms for the Italian language automatically built by using a web scraping strategy. In particular, it exploits the information presents on the online dictionary “Sabatini Colletti”9 to create a pool of words that have undergone a semantic change. In the dictionary, some lemmas are tagged with the year of the first attestation of its sense. In some cases, associated with the lemma there are multiple years attesting the introduction of new senses for that word. Kronos-IT uses this information to identify the set of semantic changing words. We retained those words that were predicted to have changed their meaning after 1970, so as to match the temporal periods of the sub-corpora. In this way, we obtained 106 candidate lemmas.

Step 2: Filtering candidate targets

27A challenging issue is the attestation of the potential candidate words in both sub-corpora with a relatively high number of occurrences to account for different contexts of use. Frequency, indeed, plays a quite relevant role for the task: infrequent tokens must be discarded because they affect the quality of word representations. The initial list of candidate targets has been further cleaned by removing all tokens that occur less than 20 times in each corpora. Moreover, we conducted a further analysis by manually inspecting some randomly sampled lemma contexts. The aim of this analysis was to remove targets for which the lemmas occurrences are affected by OCR errors. This analysis was performed by the means of the Sketch Engine10, in particular we analyze concordances of the target word in order to discover OCR errors. One of such words was “toro” derived from the mistaken OCR of “loro”. At the end of this process, we obtained a list of 27 candidate targets for the annotation.

Step 3: Manual Annotation

  • 11 This means that in case a target words occurs less than 100 times, all occurrences were annotated.

28For each target, we randomly extracted up to 100 sentences from each of the sub-corpus11. Each sentence was then annotated by two annotators: they were asked to assign each occurrence to one of the meaning of the lemma according to those reported in the Sabatini-Coletti dictionary. In case the meaning of the word in a sentence was not present in the list of senses reported in the reference dictionary, the annotators were allowed to add the sense to the word. In total, we annotated 2,336 occurrences of the candidate target words.

Step 4: Annotation check

29All cases of disagreement were collectively discussed among all of the annotators to reach a final decision. We observed that some disagreements were also due to a biased interpretation of the context of occurrence by one of the annotators. These cases mainly concerned short ambiguous sentences that prevented a clear identification of the word meaning. As a result of this step, a few candidates were removed from the pool of candidates because occurring in too ambiguous context.

Step 5: Creation of the gold standard

30We retained as valid instances of lexical semantic change all those targets that had occurrences of one specific sense only in T2, and never in T1. In other words, in the context of this task, a valid lexical semantic change corresponds to the acquisition of a new meaning by a target word. Out of the 23 candidate target words, only 6 of them show a semantic change in T2. All the other targets did not show a diachronic meaning change. In the final Gold Standard, we kept 12 candidate target words that did not change meaning obtaining a final set of 18 target words.

31The Gold Standard contains 18 targets listed as lemmas, one lemma per line, with an accompanying label to mark whether the lemmas has undergone semantic change (label 1) or not (label 0). Participants were given a file containing the 18 target lemmas, one per each line, without annotation. The expected system output is a modification of this file where the participant had to annotate each target lemma with the system prediction (0 or 1).

4. Evaluation

32The task is formulated as a binary classification problem. Systems predictions are evaluated against the change labels annotated in the Gold Standard by using accuracy.

G) contains both positive (P) and negative (N) examples, i.e. . For example: . Then, true positives (positive targets classified as positive) are , true negatives (negative targets classified as negative) are , false negatives (positive targets classified as negative) are and false positives (negative targets classified as positive) are .

33We can then compute the accuracy as:

4.1 Baselines

34We provided two baseline models:

  • Frequencies: The absolute value of the difference between the word frequencies in the two sub-corpora;

  • Collocations: For each word, we build two vector representations consisting of the Bag-of-Collocations related to the two different time periods (T0 and T1). Then, we compute the cosine similarity between the two BoCs. It is the same approach evaluated in (Basile, Semeraro, and Caputo 2019).

35In both baselines, we use a threshold to predict if the word has changed its meaning. While for the frequencies, a change is detected when the difference is higher than the average. For the collocations a semantic change occurs when the similarity between the two time periods drops under the average plus the variance. Both the average and the variance are computed on the set of target words.

5. Systems

3621 teams registered to the DIACR-Ita task. However, 9 teams participated in the final task for a total of 36 submitted runs. Based on the algorithms employed, we can group systems into four categories: Post-alignment, Joint Alignment, Contextual Embeddings, Graph-based and PoS tag features (see Table 2). The first two classes are characterised by the type of alignment used. Post-alignment systems first train static word embeddings for each time periods, and then align them. Joint Alignment systems train word embeddings and jointly align vectors across all time slices. Contextual Embeddings systems use contextualized embeddings, such as BERT (Devlin et al. 2019); while Graph-based systems rely on graph algorithms. PoS tag features system rely on the distribution of targets PoS tags across the two time periods. The majority of participating systems use cosine distance as a measure of semantic change, i.e. compute the cosine distance between the vectors of the target lemmas among time periods. Other systems use the Average Pairwise Cosine Distance or the Average Canberra Distance, since the cosine distance does not fit contextual embeddings representations. The last group of systems uses graph-based measures.

Table 2: Systems types

System

Type

OP-IMS

Post-alignement

UWB Team

Post-alignement

CIC-NLP

PoS tag features

UNIMIB

Jointly alignment

QMUL-SDS

Jointly alignment

VI-IMS

Jointly alignment

CL-IMS

Contextual Embeddings

unipd

Contextual Embeddings

SBM-IMS

Graph

37We report a short description of each team (best submission) as follows:

38OP-IMS (Kaiser, Schlechtweg, and Schulte Im Walde 2020) This team uses Skipgram model with Negative sampling (SGNS) to compute word embeddings, the resulting matrices are mean-centred. Word embeddings are aligned using Orthogonal Procrustes. They choose cosine similarity to compare vectors of different word spaces and a threshold based on mean and standard deviation to classify target words.

39UWB Team (Pražák, Přibáň, and Taylor 2020) The team maps semantic spaces using linear transformations, such as Canonical Correlation Analysis and Orthogonal Transformation and cosine similarity as a measure to decide if a target word is stable or not. They use a threshold based on mean.

40CIC-NLP (Angel et al. 2020) This team analyses the Part-Of-Speech distribution over the two corpora and create vectors with information about the most common word POS-tags. Then, they obtain a score using pairs of vectors of the two time periods and the sum of Euclidean, Manhattan and cosine distance. They rank targets in discerning order. Finally, they label first upper-third targets as changed words.

41UNIMIB (Belotti, Bianchi, and Palmonari 2020) The team creates temporal word embeddings using Temporal Word Embeddings with a Compass (TWEC) (Di Carlo, Bianchi, and Palmonari 2019). They use the move measure, i.e. a weighted linear combination of the cosine and Local Neighbors, introduced by (Hamilton, Leskovec, and Jurafsky 2016). They label targets as stable if the move measure is greater than 0.7.

42QMUL-SDS (Alkhalifa et al. 2020) The team uses TWEC (Di Carlo, Bianchi, and Palmonari 2019) to compute temporal word embeddings with TWEC C-BoW model (Continuous Bag of Words) default settings. They use a cosine similarity as measure of change and a threshold based on mean.

43VI-IMS The team uses SGNS to create word embeddings exploiting Vector Initialization (Kim et al. 2014). They use cosine distance as a measure of semantic change and a threshold based on the mean and the standard deviation to classify targets words.

44CL-IMS (Laicher et al. 2020) The team creates word vectors using different combinations of the first and last four layers of BERT. They rank targets according to Average Pairwise Cosine Distance, and label the first 7 targets as changed words.

45unipd (Benyou, Di Buccio, and Melucci 2020) This team uses contextualised word embeddings and an linear combination of distances metrics to measure semantic change, namely Euclidean Distance, Average Canberra distance, Hausdorff distance, as well as Jensen–Shannon divergence between cluster distributions. They rank targets according to the score obtained, and label the first half as changed words.

46SBM-IMS The team compute token vectors using BERT. They create a graph where the vertices are the vectors extracted from BERT, while the edges are the cosine distance between word vectors. They cluster the graph with Weighted Stochastic Block Model. Then, they consider the number of incoming edges from the first and second period as a measure of semantic change.

baseline-frequencies

0.500

6. Results

47Table 3 reports the final results. The best result has been achieved by two systems: OP-IMS and UWB-Team. Both systems exploit post-alignment strategy. The second system CIC-NLP uses an approach based on PoS tag features. QMUL-SDS and VI-IMS are based on joint alignment, while unipd and SBM-IMS use contextual embeddings. The last system SBM-IMS is the only graph-based approach. Moreover, we report both false negative and false positives in Figure 1. Both post-alignment systems share the same unique false negative: the target “tac”, while CIC-NLP detects two false positives. Joint-alignment systems have a number of false positives higher or at least equal to the number of false negatives. CL-IMS and unipd produce respectively 2 and 3 false negatives and both misclassify three stable words. The only graph-based approach, SBM-IMS, reports the highest number of false positives. In conclusion, the results show that systems based on post/joint alignment and PoS tag features achieve the best performance, while contextual embeddings do not perform as good in this type of task. However all the systems outperform both the baselines.

Figure 1: Number of false positives and false negatives for each system

Figure 1: Number of false positives and false negatives for each system

Table 3: Results

Team

Accuracy

OP-IMS

0.944

UWB Team

0.944

CIC-NLP

0.889

UNIMIB

0.833

QMUL-SDS

0.833

VI-IMS

0.778

CL-IMS

0.722

unipd

0.667

SBM-IMS

0.611

baseline-collocations

0.611

7. Conclusions

48We proposed for the first time the “Diachronic Lexical Semantics” (DIACR-Ita) task. The goal of the task is to develop systems able to automatically detect if a given word has changed its meaning over time, given contextual information from corpora. We created two corpora for two different time periods T1 and T2, and we manually annotated a set of target words that change/do not change meaning across these two periods. This is the first Italian dataset of this type. 9 teams participated in the task for a total of 36 submitted runs. All the systems are able to outperform the two baselines. The results suggests that methods based on post-alignment are the most suitable for this type of task, resulting in better performance even when compared to contextual embedding methods, such as BERT.

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Notes

1 https://languagechange.org/events/2019-acl-lcworkshop/

2 https://languagechange.org/

3 https://competitions.codalab.org/competitions/20948

4 The word originally referred to an acrobatic manoeuvre of aeroplanes. Nowadays, it is also used to refer to the state of being deeply in love with someone.

5 https://archivio.unita.news/

6 http://lindat.mff.cuni.cz/services/udpipe/run.php

7 https://tika.apache.org/

8 http://lindat.mff.cuni.cz/services/udpipe/run.php

9 https://dizionari.corriere.it/dizionario_italiano/

10 https://www.sketchengine.eu/

11 This means that in case a target words occurs less than 100 times, all occurrences were annotated.

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