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EVALITA Evaluation of NLP and Speech Tools for Italian - December 17th, 2020

 | 
Valerio Basile
, 
Danilo Croce
, 
Maria Maro
, 
et al.

CONcreTEXT: Concreteness in Context

KonKretiKa @ CONcreTEXT: Computing concreteness indexes with sigmoid transformation and adjustment for context

Yulia Badryzlova

Résumé

The present paper is a technical report of KonKretiKa, a system for computation of concreteness indexes of words in context, submitted to the English track of the CONcreTEXT shared task. We treat concreteness as a bimodal problem and compute the concreteness indexes using paradigms of concrete and abstract seed words and distributional semantic similarity. We also conduct sigmoid transformation to achieve greater similarity to the psycholinguistically attested data, and apply dynamic adjustment of static indexes for sentential context. One of the modifications of the presented system ranked third in the task, with rs = .6634 and r = .6685 against the gold standard.

Note de l’éditeur

Copyright © 2020 for this paper by its authors. Use permitted under Creative Commons License Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0).

Texte intégral

1. Introduction

1This paper is a description of the system with the working title KonKretiKa, which was submitted to the English track of CONcreTEXT, the shared task on evaluation of concreteness in context (Gregori et al., 2020) offered at EVALITA 2020, the 7th evaluation campaign of Natural Language Processing and speech tools for the Italian language (Basile et al., 2020).

2KonKretiKa stems from our previous work on computation of such indexes for the purposes of metaphor identification.

3Computationally obtained indexes of concreteness are extensively explored in experiments for automated metaphor identification. Application of concreteness indexes to metaphor identification relies on the assumptions made by the theories of embodied and grounded cognition (Barsalou, 2008), and primary and conceptual metaphor (Lakoff and Johnson, 1980). These theories claim that human thinking is intrinsically metaphoric, since the conceptual representations underlying knowledge are grounded in sensory and motor systems, and conceptual metaphor is the primary mechanism for transferring conventional mental imagery from sensorimotor domains to the domains of subjective experience.

4An established method to compute the concreteness index of a word is to collect two sets of lexemes (‘seed lists’, or ‘paradigms’) consisting of abstract and concrete words – and to measure the lexical similarity between each word in the lexicon and each of the paradigm words.

5Turney et al. (2011) use concreteness indexes to identify linguistic metaphor in the TroFi dataset (Birke and Sarkar, 2006). They compute the concreteness index of a word by comparing its distributional semantic embedding to the vector representations of 20 abstract and 20 concrete words. The paradigm words are automatically selected from the MRC Psycholinguistic Database Machine Usable Dictionary (Coltheart, 1981), a collection of 4,295 English words rated with degrees of abstractness by human subjects in psycholinguistic experiments.

6Tsvetkov et al. (2013) also compute the concreteness indexes of English words by using a distributional semantic model and the MRC database. They train a logistic regression classifier on 1,225 most abstract and 1,225 most concrete words from MRC; the degree of concreteness of a word is the posterior probability produced by the classifier. The Tsvetkov et al. system for metaphor identification with concreteness indexes is based on cross‑lingual model transfer, when the model is trained on English data, and then the classification features are translated into other languages by means of an electronic dictionary.

7Badryzlova (2020) explores concreteness and abstractness indexes for linguistic metaphor identification in Russian and English. The paradigm words are selected in a semi-automatic fashion: the Russian paradigm is derived from the Open Semantics of the Russian Language, the semantically annotated dataset of the KartaSlov database (Kulagin, 2019); the English paradigm is selected from the MRC database (Coltheart, 1981). The indexes of concreteness and abstractness are computed for large sets of Russian and English words (about 18,000 and 17,000 lexemes, respectively). The metaphor identification in Russian is conducted on the RusMet corpus (Badryzlova, 2019; Badryzlova and Panicheva, 2018), and the English on the TroFi dataset. The author shows that the distributions of concreteness and abstractness indexes in the two languages follow the same pattern: in the lexicon, there is a distinct group of highly concrete words, which have very high concreteness and very low abstractness indexes; similarly, there is a group of distinctly abstract vocabulary, with low concreteness and high abstractness scores. Moreover, there is a general trend for abstractness indexes to increase as the corresponding concreteness indexes decrease. The author also observes statistical correlation between two Russian abstractness ratings, which may indicate that the category of abstractness is more semantically homogeneous than the category of concreteness.

8The present work develops and extends the method of Badryzlova (2020) in two directions: (a) we apply sigmoid transformation to fit the curve comprised of the computed concreteness and abstractness indexes to the distribution of indexes in psycholinguistic data; and (b) we suggest a method for dynamic adjustment of the obtained indexes for sentential context, according to the requirements of the CONcreTEXT shared task (Gregori et al., 2020). The working title of the proposed system is KonKretiKa.

2. Description of the system

9We demonstrate a method for evaluating concreteness on English data; however, it can be transferred to any other language provided that the following types of resources are available: (1) a lexicon with semantic (e.g. Fellbaum, 1998; Kulagin, 2019) or psycholinguistic (e.g. Brysbaert et al., 2014; Coltheart, 1981) annotation to select the paradigm words from; (2) a pre-trained distributional semantic model; and (3) a relatively large wordlist containing lexemes with different frequencies of occurrence (ipm) in order to ensure the maximum possible variation in concreteness across the lexicon.

10When analyzing the distribution of psycholinguistic concreteness ratings, Brysbaert et al. (2014) observe that “concreteness and abstractness may be not the two extremes of a quantitative continuum […], but two qualitatively different characteristics.” of a word. Following this observation and the previous work in (Badryzlova, 2020), we treat concreteness as a bimodal property investing the word with two characteristics: the rate of concreteness and the rate of abstractness. Thus, we start by computing the standalone indexes of concreteness and of abstractness; then, the single aggregate index is computed as a function of these two indexes.

2.1 Computation of raw indexes with paradigm words and distributional semantic similarity

11Computation of the standalone concreteness and abstractness indexes is based on paradigm lists of concrete and abstract words; we use the English concrete and abstract paradigms from Badryzlova (2020). These paradigms were compiled from the MRC Psycholinguistic Database: nouns from the top and from the end of the MRC concreteness rating were drawn to populate the concrete and the abstract paradigms, respectively. The paradigm lists are presented in Table 1.

Table 1. The concrete and the abstract paradigm lists

Concrete

albatross, balloon, bench, bridge, catfish, cauliflower, chicken, clown, corkscrew, crab, daisy, deer, eagle, egg, frog, garlic, goat, harpsichord, lion, mattress, mussel, nightgown, nightingale, owl, ox, pants, peach, piano, pig, potato, quilt, rabbit, saxophone, sheep, shrimp, skyscraper, sofa, stoat, tulip, turtle

Abstract

affirmation, animosity, demeanour, derivation, determination, detestation, devotion, enuncia-tion, etiquette, fallacy, forethought, gratitude, harm, hatred, ignorance, illiteracy, impatience, independence, indolence, inefficiency, insufficiency, integrity, intellect, interposition, justifi-cation, malice, mediocrity, obedience, oblivion, optimism, prestige, pretence, reputation, re-sentment, tendency, unanimity, uneasiness, unhappiness, unreality, value

12The indexes of concreteness and abstractness were computed using a Continuous Skip-Gram model (Kutuzov et al., 2017) which had been pre-trained on the lemmatized Gigaword 5th Edition corpus (Parker et al., 2011).

13As shown in Equations 1-3, to compute a concreteness or an abstractness index (I) of a word, we measured semantic similarity (cosine distance) Sim between the vectors of this word and each word in the paradigm (concrete or abstract, respectively), and took the mean of the ten nearest semantic neighbors (NN).

Equation 1 Computation of indexes with paradigm lists

Image 100000000000031D00000022872A7F1A272D8B68.jpg

where V is the set of words in the vocabulary, S is the set of words in the seed list, k is the number of elements in S

Equation 2 Computation of indexes with paradigm lists

Image 1000000000000242000000266741AFF83EBB85DF.jpg

Equation 3 Computation of indexes with paradigm lists

Image 10000000000002070000001B07CB57ADD85DB809.jpg

14In total, we computed concreteness and abstractness indexes for approximately 23,000 English words (nouns, verbs, adjectives, and adverbs); this lexicon was taken from the Brysbaert et al. (2014) ranking, which allowed us to analyze the correlation between the computational and the large-scale psycholinguistic data at the subsequent stages of the present study (see Section 3).

  • 1 Scikit-learn’s MinMax Scaler (Pedregosa et al., 2011)

15The obtained computational sets of concreteness and abstractness indexes were normalized to the range [1, 7]1 in order to comply with the scale set by the CONcreTEXT shared task. In order to obtain an aggregate single-value index of a word, which would be representative of both its concreteness and abstractness, we subtracted the abstractness indexes from the concreteness indexes.

2.2 Sigmoid transformation of raw indexes

16Figure 1 shows distributions of our raw aggregate indexes and the indexes attested in psycholinguistic research (Brysbaert et al., 2014). It is noticeable that the curve of computational indexes has a much steeper slope, resulting in lower variance; consequently, the discriminative power of such indexes will also be lower.

Figure 1. Distribution of computational (raw KonKretiKa) and psycholinguistic (Brysba- ert et al.) indexes

Image 10000000000003260000011B023BBE63F9ED415A.jpg

Figure 2. Sigmoid transformations

Image 100000000000031D0000011741684D0EB4215FC8.jpg

17The raw KonKretiKa curve has the shape of a sigmoid; in generic form, the sigmoid function is described by the equation:

Image 10000000000000EA0000002A775A2CB7F6A57068.jpg

where a defines the slope of the function and b defines the inflection point. Consequently, we can transform the sigmoid by changing the a and b coefficients.

18In the submissions to the CONcreTEXT shared task, we experimented with two transformations of the raw KonKretiKa curve (Figure 2). In the first transformation, we applied a heuristically chosen combination of a and b which was intended to increase the slope and the curvature while preserving the S-shape of the sigmoid. The second transformation was intended to attain maximum resemblance of its shape to the Brysbaert et al. curve. We used grid search with different combinations of coefficients a and b to maximize the correlation between the two curves. During this fitting, only the values of the indexes are adjusted, while their initial ranks remain intact – thus, there is no data leakage from the psycholinguistic ranking. 2

2.3 Contextual adjustment

19Since the CONcreTEXT shared task requires that the concreteness indexes of target words be dynamically adjusted to their sentential context, the following heuristic was applied in the submitted KonKretiKa models. We computed the mean concreteness of all content words in the sentence (with the target word excluded) and adjusted the concreteness value of the target word accordingly. The adjusted index A was computed as follows:

Image 100000000000009400000013AA75DC55DC7D8101.jpg

20where t is the target word, R is the raw index from the KonKretiKa ranking, M is the mean concreteness of the sentence, and c is the adjustment coefficient. In the models submitted to the CONcreTEXT shared task, we applied two heuristically defined c coefficients: c = 0.5 and c = 0.8.

21Thus, the four modifications of KonKretiKa submitted to the shared task were differentiated by the two parameters: the type of transformation and the contextual adjustment coefficient.

3. Results and discussion

22The parameters of the four modifications and their results are presented in Table 2 (along with the Baselines and the Leaders). The results indicate that systems with the lower coefficient of sentential adjustment (0.5) perform better than systems with the higher adjustment coefficient (0.8) irrespective of the type of sigmoid transformation; yet, the system with Type 2 (fitted to the psycholinguistic data) transformation somewhat outperforms the system with Type 1 (S-shaped) transformation.

Table 2. Modifications of KonKretiKa and their results in the shared task

System

Transformation type

Contextual adjustment

Result (rs)

Result (r)

Leader-1

0.83313

0.83406

Leader-2

0.78541

0.78682

KonKretiKa-3

2

0.5

0.6634

0.6685

KonKretiKa-1

1

0.5

0.65102

0.66652

Baseline-2

0.55449

0.56742

KonKretiKa-4

2

0.8

0.54216

0.54465

KonKretiKa-2

1

0.8

0.54089

0.54479

Baseline-1

0.3825

0.37743

23The best of our modifications, KonKretiKa-3, demonstrated Spearman correlation with the gold standard rs = .6634 and Pearson correlation r = .6685, ranking our system third in the track, yet by a substantial margin behind the two winning system (with rs = .83313 and r = .83406 and rs = .78541 and r = .78682, respectively).

3.1 Analysis of contextual adjustment

24We carried out a post hoc analysis of the contextal adjustment coefficient (c) by using grid search to maximize the correlation between KonKretiKa (Type 2 transformation) and the gold standard. Moreover, we altered the scope of the context words for which the mean sentential concreteness (M) was computed – by taking 2-3 nearest semantic neighbors (either of any part of speech, or only nouns, or only verbs); this was done in order to reduce the possible noise from the words that are not semantically related to the target in the sentence. The change of the contextual scope did not lead to a substantial difference in the result. As for the contextual adjustment coefficient, the grid search showed that c = 0.32 – which is lower than the most efficient coefficient from our earlier submissions (c = 0.5 in KonKretiKa-3) – results in a slight increase of correlations: rs = .678 and r = .688.

25A closer analysis of the test sentences suggests that contribution of contextual adjustment presumably may be increased by considering a broader context of a sentence – for instance, spanning over 1-3 adjacent sentences from the left and the right contexts; this option constitutes a possible direction for future work.

3.2 Comparison of computational and psycholinguistic data

26Pairwise correlations between the computational (KonKretiKa, KKK) and the psycholinguistic rankings (Brysbaert et al., BRY and the gold standard) are shown in Table 3. It can be seen that KKK better correlates with the BRY data than with the gold standard (rs = .743, r = .751 vs. rs = .663, r = .669, respectively). Presumably, such difference in the two correlations is due to the much larger size of the BRY lexicon. The correlation between the two psycholinguistic datasets (BRY vs. Gold) is rs = .755, r = .761, which is close to the correlation between KKK and BRY.

Table 3. Pairwise correlations: KKK – KonKretiKa, BRY – Brysbaert et al., Gold – CONcreTEXT gold stand-ard

Dataset

Gold (dynamic)

BRY (static)

KKK (static)

rs = .743
r = .751

KKK (dynamic)

rs = .663
r = .669

BRY (static)

rs = .755
r = .761

27We undertook closer pairwise comparative analysis between two pairs of rankings:

  1. Static KonKretiKa indexes (the indexes after Type 2 sigmoid transformation, without contextual adjustment) vs. the Brysbaert et al. ranking (which is also static): approximately 23,000 words – nouns, verbs, adjectives, and adverbs (the two wordlists are identical).

  2. Indexes of the target words from the CONcreTEXT test data as presented in the dynamic version of KonKretiKa (the sigmoid-transformed Type 2 indexes with contextual adjustment coefficient c = 0.32) vs. the Gold standard (where the target words are also ranked dynamically in context): 436 words – verbs and nouns.

28The top residuals between the KonKretiKa and the Brysbaert et al. indexes are presented in Table 4. Analysis of these discrepancies suggests that most of them stem from polysemy and the differences between its representation in distributional semantic models and in psycholinguistic reality. Thus, distributional semantic models do not discriminate between various meanings of words; if occurrences of one of the meanings substantially outnumber the other meanings in discourse and, as a consequence, in the training corpus, the resulting vector reflects the more frequent meaning.

Table 4. Top residuals: Brysbaert et al. (BRY) vs. KonKretiKa (KKK)

word

BRY

KKK

Diff

handmaiden (N)

6.45

1.54

4.91

tire (V)

7

2.18

4.82

bedrock (N)

6.18

1.55

4.63

alarm (N)

6.19

1.58

4.61

text (N)

6.89

2.31

4.58

nonreactive (ADJ)

2.25

6.82

-4.57

temptingly (ADV)

1.72

6.26

-4.55

hail (V)

5.96

1.5

4.47

stance (N)

5.53

1.11

4.42

nudge (N)

6.19

1.8

4.39

chasm (N)

5.84

1.45

4.39

  • 3 Continuous Skip-Gram model (Kutuzov et al., 2017), pre-trained on Gigaword 5th Edition corpus
  • 4 Definitions are cited according to Macmillan Dictionary (n.d.)

29For example, the nearest semantic neighbors of the noun handmaiden in the distributional semantic model3 are: embodiment, personification, epitome, and paragon – associating this word with its abstract, metaphoric meaning ‘something that supports something else that is more important’4, whereas for speakers of English the other, concrete meaning ‘a woman who is someone’s servant’ apparently stands out as being more salient. Similarly, among the nearest semantic neighbors of the noun chasm in the distributional semantic model are: disparity, schism, rich-poor divide, mistrust, (the) haves, divergence, antagonism, and inequality – indicating that the distributional vector of chasm is biased towards the abstract meaning of this word (‘a very big difference that separates one person or group from another’) rather than the concrete one (‘a very deep crack in rock or ice’), while human subjects see the latter meaning as more salient or prevalent.

30As for nonreactive and temptingly, which are more concrete in the computational data, this could be explained by their perceived vagueness to human subjects, since these words do not have meanings that would be markedly juxtaposed to each other in terms of concreteness-abstractness – thus ranking them rather low in the psycholinguistic data. Meanwhile, the nearest semantic neighbors of temptingly in the distributional semantic model are: strappy sandal, capelet, knee-length skirt, enticingly, floral-print, high-heeled sandal, lace-trimmed, harem pants, and puffed sleeve – all rather concrete objects (or the properties of such objects).

31The top residuals between KonKretiKa and the gold standard are shown in Table 5. The discrepancy between the abstract meaning of vision (‘the ability to think about and plan for the future, using intelligence and imagination, especially in politics and business’) and its concrete meaning (‘the ability to see’) can also be attributed to the differences between representation of meanings in distributional semantic models and in psycholinguistic reality – the reason already discussed above. Thus, the nearest distributional semantic neighbors of vision are: worldview, ideal, visionary, thinking, perspective, idea, dream, and blueprint – rather than terms related to eyesight.

Table 5. Top residuals: KonKretiKa (KKK) vs. Gold standard

Sentence

Target word

Gold

KKK

Diff

TEXT

399

vision (N)

6.03

1.86

4.17

Check your < vision > to see if you are seeing blurry or double.

353

vision (N)

5.97

1.82

4.15

With retinal migraine, you may experience loss of < vision > in one eye and a headache that starts behind your eyes.

155

spirit (N)

6

2.33

3.67

Gin is an alcoholic < spirit > made from distilled grain or malt.

324

pain (N)

5.2

1.59

3.61

See your doctor if you are experiencing < pain > or discomfort.

61

answer (N)

5.45

1.91

3.54

Be sure to write your final < answer > without the negative sign.

385

war (N)

5.57

2.06

3.51

They have escaped from civil < war > in Liberia or Zimbabwe.

81

answer (N)

5.32

1.92

3.4

Final < answers > for equations are considered wrong unless you have broken them down to their simplest form.

237

heart (N)

6.32

2.98

3.34

The < heart > pumps blood due to an internal electrical system.

163

pain (N)

4.97

1.63

3.34

Take your medications to ease your physical < pain >.

176

agreement (N)

5.16

1.85

3.31

After signing the indemnification < agreement >, you can sign the legally binding bond agreement.

32The noun spirit in Table 5 (Sentence 155) is used in the sense of ‘strong alcoholic drink’. However, its nearest neighbors in the distributional semantic model are ethos, ideal, idealism, tradition, essence, enthusiasm, passion, faith, chivalric, zeal, credo, and compassion – indicating that the meaning ‘your attitude to life or to other people’ is dominant in the model, and the contextual adjustment we apply is not sufficient for overcoming the abstractness of the dominant meaning.

33As for the noun war, its nearest neighbors in the distributional semantic model are conflict, warfare, invasion, 1991-95 Serbo-Croatian, Israel-Hezbollah, genocide, Bosnia war, Jehad, civil-war, Croatia war, Cold War, Iran-Iraq, wartime, Vietnam-like, etc. – that is, rather abstract concepts. The only more concrete words referring to physical combat action that occur in the distributional semantic neighborhood of war are battlefield and bloodshed, but this is not enough to outweigh the abstract terms. Thus, the distributional semantic model models warfare in terms of abstract rather than concrete (such as names of weapons, military equipment, military personnel, etc.) concepts. As a result, military action is not sufficiently juxtaposed to the metaphoric meaning of war as ‘a situation in which two people or groups of people fight, argue, or are extremely unpleasant to each other’.

34In the case of answer and agreement, their nearest distributional semantic neighbors in the model are fairly abstract concepts: explanation, answer, reply, solution, unanswerable, query, TV-talkback answer, question, and yes (for answer), and accord, pact, deal, treaty, initial, negotiation, memorandum, compromise, and negotiate (for agreement). Meanwhile, human subjects rank answer and agreement rather high in concreteness; presumably, this is a consequence of conflating the mental representations of the action of answering / reaching an agreement with their two modes – the spoken and the written, i.e. with the physical actions of speaking and writing. This conflation is not reflected in discourse – it largely exists in the mental representations of answer and agreement and, therefore, is not very distinguishable on the level of linguistic representation.

35Of interest are the cases of heart and pain, which have much lower concreteness in KonKretiKa than in the gold standard sentences where these words are used in their physical, concrete meanings. The nearest distributional semantic neighbors of heart are heart-related, coronary artery, kidney, liver, lung, arrhythmia, cardiac, angina, and aneurism. The nearest neighbors of pain are discomfort, ache, agony, tingling sensation, numbness, soreness, menstrual cramp, light-headedness, stiffness, nausea, and arthritis. It would be quite expected for such semantic neighborhood to entitle heart and pain to higher concreteness values than what they receive in KonKretiKa. A more in-depth analysis into this contradiction revealed that it stems from the vulnerability in the semantic composition of the concrete paradigm which was used to compute the raw indexes (see Table 1). The words of this paradigm belong to the two major semantic classes – living organisms (animals and plants) and man-made artifacts. The class of words denoting human beings was intentionally excluded when the paradigm was compiled on the grounds that such nouns tend to indicate abstract social roles rather than physical humans. As a consequence, physical organic objects such as body parts and organs, or physical sensations and physiological conditions received non-uniform indexes in KonKretiKa: those that refer to humans as well as to animals (e.g. in veterinary or gastronomic discourse) ranked rather high in concreteness: e.g. liver (6.6), pancreas (6.4), foot (6.3), encephalitis (6.25), kidney (6.25), entrails (6.05), tummy (5.92), womb (5.6) – whereas those that tend to be primarily associated with humans received lower indexes, e.g. heart (2.63), heartburn (2.57), scar (2.53), nausea (2.5), headache (1.61), distress (1.5), pain (1.21), queasiness (1.12), etc. Thus, comparison of the KonKretiKa computational indexes with the psycholinguistic data of CONcreTEXT allowed us to detect a potential shortcoming in our approach to the design of the concrete paradigm. As was noted in previous study (Badryzlova, 2020), the class of concrete words seems to be more semantically heterogeneous than of abstract words; therefore, it may reasonable in future experiments to diversify the concrete paradigm and expand it in size by including words that denote human beings.

4. Conclusions

36We presented KonKretiKa system for computing concreteness indexes of English words in context; the system was submitted to the English track of the CONcreTEXT shared task. The best modification of KonKretiKa ranked third in the task, with rs = .6634 and r = .6685 against the gold standard. We treat concreteness as a bimodal problem and use paradigm lists of concrete and abstract words to compute two indexes for each word, that of concreteness and of abstractness. The single aggregate index indicative of both the word’s concreteness and abstractness is computed as the function of the two respective indexes. The set of raw aggregate indexes is transformed using sigmoid transformation to increase the variance and to attain greater similarity to the psycholinguistic data. To dynamically adjust the concreteness indexes to the context, we apply an adjustment coefficient. Post hoc analysis of the adjustment coefficient indicates that lower coefficients lead to better performance. We hypothesize that the contribution of the adjustment coefficient could be increased by expanding the scope of the context, for example, by considering one or more sentences from the left and the right contexts of the target sentence. According to our analysis, the main source of divergence between the computational and the psycholinguistic indexes lies in the different representation, or salience, of word meanings in distributional semantic models and in psycholinguistic reality. Besides, analysis of divergences between the computational and the psycholinguistic rankings prompted us a potential direction for reducing the bias in composition of the concreteness paradigm, which can be overcome by diversifying the paradigm.

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Notes

1 Scikit-learn’s MinMax Scaler (Pedregosa et al., 2011)

2 The KonKretiKa ranking is available at: https://github.com/yubadryzlova/CONcreTEXT-2020

3 Continuous Skip-Gram model (Kutuzov et al., 2017), pre-trained on Gigaword 5th Edition corpus

4 Definitions are cited according to Macmillan Dictionary (n.d.)

Auteur

HSE University Moscow, Russia – yuliya.badryzlova@gmail.com

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