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EVALITA Evaluation of NLP and Speech Tools for Italian

 | 
Tommaso Caselli
, 
Nicole Novielli
, 
Viviana Patti
, 
et al.

Part I. Introduction to Evalita 2018 and task overviews

Overview of the EVALITA 2018 Spoken Utterances Guiding Chef’s Assistant Robots (SUGAR) Task

Maria Di Maro, Antonio Origlia et Francesco Cutugno

Résumé

The SUGAR task is intended to develop a baseline to train a voice-controlled robotic agent to act as a cooking assistant. The starting point will be therefore to provide authentic spoken data collected in a simulated natural context from which semantic predicates will be extracted to classify the actions to perform. Three different approaches were used by the two SUGAR participants to solve the task. The enlightening results show the different elements of criticality underlying the task itself.

Con il task SUGAR si intende sviluppare una baseline per addestrare un aiuto-cuoco robotico controllato da comandi vocali. Il punto di partenza sarà, pertanto, quello di fornire materiale vocale autentico raccolto in un contesto naturale simulato da cui saranno estratti i predicati semantici al fine di classificare le azioni da eseguire. Tre 16 diversi approcci sono stati utilizzati dai due partecipanti per risolvere il task. I risultati mostrano i veri livelli di criticità che soggiaciono il task stesso.

Texte intégral

1 Introduction

1In the last few years, Human-Machine interaction systems have been in the spotlight, as far as computer science and linguistics are concerned, resulting in many applications such as Virtual Assistants and Conversational Agents (Cassell et al., 2000; Cauell et al., 2000; Dzikovska et al., 2003; Allen et al., 2007). The possibility to use such Artificial Intelligence technologies in domestic environments is increasingly becoming a reality (Darby, 2018; Ziefle and Valdez, 2017). In order to ensure the future possibility of making such systems even more intelligent, further researches are needed. As it has been the case with Apple SIRI and Google Assistant technologies, recent approaches transformed the former dialogue systems in direct action actuators, removing or reducing, as much as possible, clarification requests that may arise in presence of ambiguous commands. In this view, Spoken Language Understanding (SLU) is nowadays one of the major challenge of the field. Making a system able to truly understand the intention of the speaker in different contexts and react correctly, even in presence of Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR) errors, is the ultimate purpose to pursue in the field. In this context, the application of various semantic annotation schemata and criteria of knowledge modelling are of particular interest. Among different techniques used to model the interpretation process we cite: (i) semantic-frame parsing, where the frame classification with the recognition of its attribute can improve the information retrieval process for a more precise domain specific answer (Wang, 2010); (ii) semantic interpretation, for which semantic-syntactic trees can be used to extract basic semantic units and their relationships (Miller et al., 1996); (iii) intent classification, for which structures comprising generic predicates working as semantic primitives (Wierzbicka, 1972) and domain-dependent arguments can be used to represent a specific intent (Tur and Deng, 2011; Serban et al., 2018). With this particular task, we propose a possible framework for semantic classification to be tested, recurring to state-of-the-art SLU systems participating to the EVALITA-SUGAR challenge (Caselli et al., 2018).

2 Corpus Collection and Description

2In the SUGAR challenge, the underlying task is to train a voice-controlled robotic agent to act as a cooking assistant. For this purpose, a training corpus of annotated spoken commands was collected. To collect the corpus, we designed a 3D virtual environment reconstructing and simulating a real kitchen where users could interact with a robot (named Bastian) which received commands to be performed in order to accomplish some recipes. User’s orders were inspired by silent cooking videos shown in the 3D scene, thus ensuring the naturalness of the spoken production. Videos were segmented into elementary portions (frames) and sequentially proposed to the speakers who uttered a single sentence after each seen frame. In this view, speakers watched at video portions and then gave instructions to the robot to emulate what seen in the frame (Figure 1). The collected corpus then consists of a set of spoken commands, whose meaning derives from the various combination of actions, items (i.e. ingredients), tools and different modifiers.

Figure 1: 3D Recontruction of Bastian in his Kitchen. On the wall, the television showing frames of video recipes, from which users could extract actions to utter as commands

Figure 1: 3D Recontruction of Bastian in his Kitchen. On the wall, the television showing frames of video recipes, from which users could extract actions to utter as commands

3Audio files were captured in a real acoustic environment, with a microphone posed at about 1 mt of distance from the speakers. The resulting corpus contains audio files for each speaker. These files were then segmented into sentences representing isolated commands. Orthographic transcriptions of the audio files were not be provided. Consequently, participants could use whichever ASR they prefer, whose performance was not under assessment. Nevertheless, the developed systems were expected to be strongly efficient despite the possible ASR deficiencies. Each resulting audio file was paired to a textual one containing the corresponding action annotation.

 

4Training set Actions are represented as a finite set of generic predicates accepting an open set of parameters. For example, the action of putting may refer to a pot being placed on the fire

put(pot,fire)

or to an egg being put in a bowl

put(egg,bowl)

The annotation process resulted in determining the optimal action predicate corresponding to each command.

5The training set consists of audio files and predicate description pairs, where the predicate serves as an interpretation of the intention to be performed by the robot. For these scenarios, the audio files are always mapped on a single interpretative predicate. The training set consists of 1721 utterances (and therefore 1721 audio files) produced by 36 different speakers annotated by two linguistic experts. The action templates, which have been inferentially defined through the video collection, are shown in Table 1, where [ ] indicates a list of ingredients, / the alternative among possible arguments, quantity and modality are not mandatory arguments, and * is used when the argument is recoverable from the context (i.e. previous instantiated arguments, which are not uttered, not even by means of clitics or other pronouns) or from the semantics of the verb. For instance,

  • 1 fry(flowers)

friggere(fiori)1

is represented as

  • 2 add(flowers,*oil*)

aggiungere(fiori,*olio*)2

because olio (En. oil) is implicitly expressed in the semantics of the verb friggere (En. to fry) as an instrument to accomplish the action. Among other phenomena, it is worth mentioning the presence of actions paired with templates, even when the syntactic structure needs a reconstruction, as in

  • 3 cover(bowl,wrap)

coprire(ciotola,pellicola)3

which is annotated with the generic template as

  • 4 put(wrap,bowl)

mettere(pellicola,ciotola)4.

Table 1: Italian Action templates

Predicate

Arguments

prendere

quantità, [ingredienti]/recipiente

aprire

quantità, [ingredienti], recipiente

mettere

quantità, utensile/[ingredienti], elettrodomestico, modalità

sbucciare

quantità, [ingredienti], utensile

schiacciare

[ingredienti, utensile

passare

[ingredienti], utensile

grattare

[ingredienti], utensile

girare

[ingredienti], utensile

togliere

utensile/prodotto, elettrodomestico

aggiungere

quantità, [ingredienti], utensile/recipiente/elettrodomestico/[ingredienti], modalità

mescolare

[ingredienti], utensile, modalità

impastare

[ingredienti]

separare

parte/[ingredienti],ingrediente/utensile

coprire

recipiente/[ingredienti], strumento

scoprire

recipiente/[ingredienti]

controllare

temperatura, ingrediente

cuocere

quantità, [ingredienti], utensile, modalità

6In other cases, the uttered action represents the consequence of the action reported in the template, as in

  • 5 separate(part,flowers)

separare(parte,fiori)5

and

  • 6 clean(flowers)

pulire(fiori)6,

or

  • 7 stir([yeast,water])

mescolare([lievito,acqua])7

and

  • 8 melt(yeast,water)

sciogliere(lievito,acqua)8.

The argument order does not reflect the one in the audio files, but the following:

  • 9 The quantity always precedes the noun it is referred to. Therefore, it can also come before the com (...)
  • 10 action(quantity, object, complement, modality)

azione(quantità9, oggetto, complemento, modalità)10

The modality arguments are of different types and the order is adverb, cooking modality, temperature and time.

7Test set The test set consists of about 572 audio files containing uttered commands without annotations. Task participants were asked to provide, for each target command, the correct action predicate following the above-described format. Although single actions are of the same kind of the ones found in the training set and in the template file, the objects, on which such actions may be applied to, vary (i.e. different recipes, ingredients, tools...). Participants have been evaluated on the basis of correctly interpreted commands, represented in the form of predicates.

8The task could be carried out either by using only the provided linguistic information of the training set or by means of other external linguistic tools, such as ontologies, specialised lexicons, and external reasoners.

3 Evaluation Protocol

9The evaluation protocol covered the following possibilities:

  • The proposed system correctly detects the requested action and all its parameters;

  • The proposed system asks for repetition;

  • The proposed system correctly detects the requested action but it assigns wrong parameters;

  • The proposed system misses the action.

10The possibility of asking for repetitions is left to participants to avoid forcing them to provide an answer in uncertain conditions. In this case, the evaluation protocol would assign a weaker penalisation than the one considered for missing the arguments or the action. The collected corpus did not, however, contain situations in which the system asks for repetitions.

11The designed evaluation procedure outputted the following pieces of information:

  1. an id comprising the listing number of the recognised predicate and the number of actions, in case of pluri-action predicates (1_1, 1_2, 2_1, etc);

  2. a Boolean value (1: True, 0: False) indicating if the predicate has been recognised; when the predicates were not recognised, even the argument number is set on 0;

    • 11 The reference annotation files were annotation files created for the test set although not being ma (...)

    the number of expected arguments as indicated in the reference annotation files11;

  3. the distance between the participating systems’ output file and the reference file computed by means of the Levenshtein distance (Levenshtein, 1966); the higher the computed distance in the output was, the more mistakes the system had detected;

  4. the number of arguments for which the system asked for repetition.

12Suppose the action in reference file is annotated as

  • 12 1; [take(500 g, milk), add(milk, pot)]

1; [prendere(500 g, latte), aggiungere(latte, pentola)]12

and the recognition procedure outputs

  • 13 1; take(500 g, cream)

1; prendere(500 g, panna)13

instead of returning the following result, indicating a correct recognition

1_1

(first predicate)

(1, 2, 0, 0)

1_2

(second predicate)

(1, 2, 0, 0)

the evaluation outputs

  • 14 The first action was recognised; two arguments were expected but one of them was wrong. The second (...)

1_1

(1, 2, 1, 0)

1_2

(0, 0, 0, 0)14

where the first predicate is recognised despite one mistaken argument, whereas the second predicate is not recognised at all.

13The output format had to follow the one provided for the training data. For instance, asterisks indicating the implicitness of the arguments had to be included in the output file. As a matter of fact, retrieving the implicit function of a reconstructed argument serves to catch the degree of understanding of the system, along with making use of the processing of this information for the improvement of fine-grained action detection tasks. On the other hand, the choice between alternative arguments (separated by a slash in the reference files) do not invalidate the results. In fact, to execute an action, only one of the uttered alternatives must be chosen. Therefore, when one of the alternatives was recognised, the resulting output did not contain recognition errors. On the contrary, when the system reports both alternatives in the output file, the Levenshtein distance increased. In the reference files, alternatives were also occurring as implicit arguments, when an utterance can be completed by more than one possible argument.

4 Participating Systems

14In this section, we will report the results collected from testing the two participants’ systems: the first (Section 4.1) have been developed at Fondazione Bruno Kessler (FBK), while the second by an Italian company which has decided to remain anonymous (Section 4.2). In table 2, results are summarised, showing that FBK had better performances in terms of correct predicate and arguments recognition for the intent classification, as far as the second system is concerned (Figure 2). On the other hand, the first one outputted worse results, despite the introduction of the argument repetition request. In this phase, the argument repetition percentage was not weighted in the accuracy rate of the system, which would have resulted in a slight increase of the accuracy itself, but we reported it as an additional performance of the participating system. For the anonymous system the action recognition is slightly beyond the 50%, but the argument recognition shows some issues (Figure 2) concerned with an over-fitting problem (see Section 4.2). For all three systems, recognition errors seemed to be random and not justifiable as semantically-related word selections.

4.1 FBK-HLT-NLP

15To solve the proposed task, two different approaches were introduced. The first system was similar to the architecture proposed in (Madotto et al., 2018) and was based on an encoder-decoder approach. The encoder consisted of a MemNN network (Sukhbaatar et al., 2015) that stored each previous sentences in memory, from which relevant information was retrieved for the current sentence. The decoder was a combination of i) a MemNN to decode the input to an instruction containing tokens from output vocabulary and ii) a Pointer network (Vinyals et al., 2015) that chose which token from the input was to be copied to the output instruction. This system was used to classify the SUGAR corpus intents after an ASR transcription (System 1).

Table 2: Percentages of accuracy and error rate for each tested system

Correct Actions

Correct Arguments

Incorrect Actions

Incorrect Arguments

Argument Repetition

FBK System 1a

50,16

28,31

49,83

71,68

4,11

FBK System 2

66,36

46,22

33,64

53,78

0

Anonymous System

53,89

17,46

46,11

82,54

0

aOne user is missing.

Figure 2: Results of the FBK first system

Figure 2: Results of the FBK first system

16The second approach consisted of modeling the task as a sequence to sequence problem. Rather than implementing a new system, Fairseq (Gehring et al., 2017) - a fully convolutional architecture for sequence to sequence modeling - was used. Instead of relying on Recurrent Neural Networks (RNNs) to compute intermediate encoder states z and decoder states h convolutional neural networks (CNN) were adopted. Since the amount of training data was not big enough to train the model with such a system, written synthetic data were generated. To generate new data two main methodologies were adopted: on one hand random words were substituted with similar words based on similarity mechanisms, such as word embeddings; on the other hand, training sentences were generated by replacing verbs and names with synonyms extracted from an online vocabulary (System 2).

4.2 Deep neural network for SUGAR

  • 15 The following report is a result of a conversation with the involved participant, whose report was (...)
  • 16 https://fasttext.cc/

17The anonymous participant built a deep neural network system to tackle this task15. First of all, to convert the spoken utterances into text the Google Speech API was used. The neural network used a word embeddings lexicon trained on a corpus of recipes crawled on the web (4.5 million words) as features. The word embeddings, with vectors having 100 dimensions, were trained with the skip-gram algorithm of fastText16 (Bojanowski et al., 2016).

18As a preliminary step an autoencoder to embed the predicates in a vector was built. The encoder was made of a two Bi-LSTM layers. The first one was in charge of processing the token sequences for each predicate. The second layer processed the sequence of predicates and embeds them into a vector called predicates embedding. This vector was then split into n-parts where n was the maximum number of predicates. The decoder was made of two Bi-LSTM layers, where the first layer was in charge of decoding the sequence of predicates and the second layer was in charge of decoding the sequence of token for each predicate. To test the autoencoder, a development test set was extracted from the training test. The autoencoder was able to encode and decode with no changes the 96.73% of the predicates in the development test set.

19The different possible actions have been represented as classes in a hot-encode vector, and for each action a binary flag has been used to represent whether the action was implicit or not. The predicates have been encoded into a vector, using the aforementioned encoder, and for each predicate a flag was used to represent their alleged implicitness.

20A multitask neural network was used to classify the actions, to detect whether they were implicit and to predict the predicates. The network took in input a recipe as a list of commands, each of whom was encoded by a Bi-LSTM layer. A second Bi-LSTM layer processed the command sequence and outputted a list of command embeddings. Each embeddings was split into n-parts which identified the actions included in the command. Each of these actions was passed to 4 dense layers that predicted the action class, the implicitness of the action, and the predicates embedding. Finally, the above-described decoder translated the predicates embedding into actual predicates.

5 Conclusions

21With this task we proposed a field of application for spoken language understanding research concerned with intents classification of a domain-dependent system using a limited amount of training data. The results show that further analysis should be carried out to solve such semantic recognition problems, starting with an analysis of the errors occurred in the participating systems, an enlargement of the reference corpus, up to finding a suitable pipeline for data processing, including a rule-based module to model issues such as the argument implicitness, both in anaphoric- or semantic-dependent situations. This task is therefore intended to be a first reflection, whose next developments would include the creation of a corpus for the English language and the introduction of multimodality. As a matter of fact, pointing gestures or mimed actions and movements, on the basis of which the interlocutor should be capable of re-performing them with actual tools and ingredients, are multimodal activities that are of interest for this field of application as for any other spoken understanding task where a shared context of interaction is expected.

Acknowledgments

22We thank the EVALITA 2018 organisers and the SUGAR participants for the interest expressed. A special thank also goes to Claudia Tortora, who helped us collect recipes and annotate our training set, and, last but not least, to the numerous testers who had fun talking with our dear Bastian.

Bibliographie

This work is funded by the Italian PRIN project Cultural Heritage Resources Orienting Multimodal Experience (CHROME) #B52F15000450001.

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Notes

1 fry(flowers)

2 add(flowers,*oil*)

3 cover(bowl,wrap)

4 put(wrap,bowl)

5 separate(part,flowers)

6 clean(flowers)

7 stir([yeast,water])

8 melt(yeast,water)

9 The quantity always precedes the noun it is referred to. Therefore, it can also come before the complement

10 action(quantity, object, complement, modality)

11 The reference annotation files were annotation files created for the test set although not being made available

12 1; [take(500 g, milk), add(milk, pot)]

13 1; take(500 g, cream)

14 The first action was recognised; two arguments were expected but one of them was wrong. The second action was not recognised at all.

15 The following report is a result of a conversation with the involved participant, whose report was not officially submitted to EVALITA 2018 in order to remain anonymous.

16 https://fasttext.cc/

Table des illustrations

Titre Figure 1: 3D Recontruction of Bastian in his Kitchen. On the wall, the television showing frames of video recipes, from which users could extract actions to utter as commands
URL http://books.openedition.org/aaccademia/docannexe/image/4523/img-1.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 152k
Titre Figure 2: Results of the FBK first system
URL http://books.openedition.org/aaccademia/docannexe/image/4523/img-2.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 98k

Auteurs

Università degli Studi di Napoli ‘Federico II’, Department of Humanities – maria.dimaro2[at]unina.it

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