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Proceedings of the Fifth Italian Conference on Computational Linguistics CLiC-it 2018

 | 
Elena Cabrio
, 
Alessandro Mazzei
, 
Fabio Tamburini

Contributed Papers

What’s in a Food Name: Knowledge Induction from Gazetteers of Food Main Ingredient

Bernardo Magnini, Vevake Balaraman, Simone Magnolini et Marco Guerini

Résumé

We investigate head-noun identification in complex noun-compounds (e.g. table is the head-noun in three legs table with white marble top). The task is of high relevancy in several application scenarios, including utterance interpretation for dialogue systems, particularly in the context of e-commerce applications, where dozens of thousand of product descriptions for several domains and different languages have to be analyzed. We define guidelines for data annotation and propose a supervised neural model that is able to achieve 0.79 F1 on Italian food noun-compounds, which we consider an excellent result given both the minimal supervision required and the high linguistic complexity of the domain.

Affrontiamo il problema di identificare head-noun in nomi composti complessi (ad esempio “tavolo” is the headnoun in “tavolo con tre gambe e piano in marmo bianco”). Il compito é di alta rilevanza in numerosi contesti applicativi, inclusa l’interpretazione di enunciati nei sistemi di dialogo, in particolare nelle applicazioni di e-commerce, dove decine di migliaia di descrizioni di prodotti per vari domini e lingue differenti devono essere analizzate. Proponiamo un modello neurale supervisionato che riesce a raggiungere lo 0.79 di F-measure, che consideriamo un risultato eccellente data la minima quantitá di supervisione richiesta e la alta complessitá linguistica del dominio.

Texte intégral

1 Introduction

1Noun-compounds are nominal descriptions that hold implicit semantic relations between their constituents (Shwartz and Dagan, 2018). For instance, an apple cake is a cake made of apples. While in the literature there has been a large interest in interpreting noun-compounds by classifying them with a fixed set of ontological relations (Nakov and Hearst, 2013), in this paper we focus on automatic recognition of the head-noun in noun-compounds. We assume that in each noun-compound there is a noun which can be considered as the more informative, as it brings the most relevant information that allows the correct interpretation of the whole noun-compound. For instance, in the apple cake example, we consider cake as the head-noun, because it brings more information than apple about the kind of food the compound describes (i.e. a dessert), its ingredients (i.e. likely, flour, milk and eggs), and the typical amount a person may eat (i.e. likely, a slice). While in simple noun-compounds the head-noun usually corresponds to the syntactic head of the compound, this is not the case for complex compounds, where the head-noun can occur in different positions of the compound, making its identification challenging. As an example, in the Italian food description filetto di vitellone senza grasso visibile, there are three nouns (i.e. filetto, vitellone and grasso) which are candidates to be the head-noun of the compound.

2There are a number of tasks and application domains where identifying noun-compound head-nouns is relevant. A rather general context is ontology population (Buitelaar et al., 2005), where entity names automatically recognized in text are confronted against entity names already present in an ontology, and have to be appropriately matched in the ontology taxonomy. Our specific application interest is conversational agents for the e-commerce domain. Particularly, understanding names of products (e.g. food, furniture, clothes, digital equipment) as expressed by users in different languages, requires the capacity to distinguish the main element in a product name (e.g. a table in I am looking for a three legs table with white marble top), in order to match them against vendor catalogues and to provide a meaningful dialogue with the user. The task is made much more challenging by the general lack of annotated data, so that fully supervised approaches are simply not feasible. Along this perspective, the long term goal of our work is to develop unsupervised techniques that can identify head-nouns in complex noun-compounds by learning properties on the base of the noun-compounds included in, possibly large, gazetteers, regardless of the domain and language in which they are described.

3In this paper we propose a supervised approach based on a neural sequence-to-sequence model (Lample et al., 2016) augmented with noun-compound structural features (Guerini et al., 2018). This model identifies the more informative token(s) in the noun-compound, that are finally tagged as the head-noun. We run experiments on Italian food names, and show that, although the domain is very complex, results are promising.

4The paper is structured as follow: we first define noun-compound head-noun identification, with specific reference to complex noun-compound (Section 2). Then we introduce the neural model we have implemented (Section 3), and finally the experimental setting and the results we have obtained (Section 4).

2 Food Compound-Nouns

5In this Section we focus on Italian compound-nouns referring to food, the domain on which we run our experiments. Similar considerations and same methodology can be applied to compound-nouns in different domains and languages.

6There is a very high variety of food compound-nouns, describing various aspects of food, including: simple food names, like mortadella di fegato, pesce, gin and tonic, aglio fresco; recipes mentioning their ingredients, like scaloppine al limone, spaghetti al nero, passato di pollo, decotto di carciofo; recipes focusing on preparation style, like mandorle delle tre dame, cavolfiore alla napoletana; food names focusing on visual or shape properties, like filetto di vitellone senza grasso visibile, palline di formaggio fritte; food descriptions containing a course name, like antipasto di capesante, dessert di mascarpone; food using fantasy names, like frappé capriccioso, or insalata arlecchino; food including proper names or brands, like saint-honoré, tagliatelle Matilde, formaggio bel paese; food names focusing on cooking modalities, like pane fatto in casa, or peperoni fritti; and focusing on alimentary properties, like ragù di carne dietetico, or sangria analcolica.

7We assume that the head-noun of a food description is the more informative noun in the noun-compound, i.e. the noun that better allows to answer questions about properties of the food being described by the noun-compound. We consider the following four property related questions, in order of relevance:

  1. What food category (e.g. meat, vegetable, cake, soup, pasta, fish, liquid, salad, etc.) is described by the noun-compound?

  2. What course (e.g. main, appetizer, side dish, dessert, etc.) is described by the noun-compound?

  3. Which is the main ingredient (in term of quantity) described by the noun-compound?

  4. Which could be the overall quantity (expressed in grams) of food described by the noun-compound?

8Although our approach does not require any domain knowledge, for the purpose of human annotation and evaluation it is useful to assume a simple ontology for food, where we define the properties used for judging head-nouns and the set of possible values for each property. Table 1 reports the food ontology at the base of our work.

Table 1: Food Ontology.

Property

Values

Food category

meat, vegetable, cake, soup, pasta, fish, liquid, salad...

Course

main, first, second, appetizer, side , dessert...

Main ingredient

<simple food>

quantity

<grams>

9A good head-noun should be as much informative as possible about the noun-compound properties, or, in other terms, it should allow to infer as much as possible answers to questions 1-4. Answers to such questions are in most of the cases graduated and probabilistic, as a noun-compound contains just a fraction of the knowledge needed to answer them. For instance, given question 1) for the food noun-compound insalata noci e formaggio should be posed in the following way: knowing that formaggio is part of a food description, which is the probability that the overall description correctly refers to a food of category salad? When the probability is very low, we assume a “no guess” value for the answer.

10The core procedure for human annotations considers each content word in a food description, fills in the values of the four attributes, and then select the noun with the best guesses. Below some examples (in black the selected head of the food description):

  • insalata noci e formaggio: because insalata is a better predictor of the food category than formaggio or noci.

  • involtini di peperoni: because peperoni is a better predictor of food category (i.e. vegetable) and of the main ingredient than involtini.

  • budino al cioccolato fondente: because budino is a good predictor of food category (i.e. dessert) and a better predictor than cioccolato of the main ingredient (i.e. milk) of the noun-compound.

2.1 Task and Data Set

11Given a food noun-compound, the task we address is to predict its head-noun, labelling one or more consecutive tokens in the food description. We assume that a head is always present, even in case it is poorly informative.

12Two annotators were selected to annotate a data set of 436 food names, collected from recipe books, with their head-noun. The inter annotator agreement, computed at the token level, is Cohen’s kappa: 0.91, which is considered very high.

13In table 2 we give an overview of the data set of food-description head (FDH) we created focusing on two main orthogonal characteristics: whether the head-noun is comprised of a single token or of a multi-token, and whether the head-noun corresponds to the beginning of the food description or not. As can be seen, the vast majority of head-nouns is either made of a single token (almost 90% of cases), or starts at the beginning of the entity name (almost 80% of cases). The combination of the two accounts for roughly 70% of the cases. From the point of view of predicting the head-noun of a food name, easier cases are given by single token in first position, while harder cases are given by multi-token head inside the food name.

Table 2: Coverage on the data set of head-noun characteristics (in %): either single token or multi-token and whether appearing at the beginning of the food description or not

FDH type

Position

Single token

Multi token

Total

1st token

72.48

9.17

81.65

Not 1st token

17.89

0.46

18.35

Total

90.37

9.63

3 Model

14The architecture we use to recognize head-nouns is based on a bidirectional LSTM (Long Short Term Memory) network (Graves and Schmidhuber, 2005), similar to the one presented in (Lample et al., 2016). We briefly describe the LSTM model used in the approach and proceed with the implementation details.

3.1 LSTM

15Recurrent Neural Network (RNN) is a class of artificial neural network that resemble a chain of repeating modules to efficiently model sequential data (Mikolov et al., 2010). They take sequential data (x1,x2,....xn) as input and provide a representation (h1,h2,....hn) which captures the information at every time step in the input. Formally,

Image 10000000000000820000000E2AE294D2.jpg

where xt is the input at time t, U is the embedding matrix, f is a non-linear operation (such as sigmoid, tanh or ReLU) and W is the parameter of RNN learned during training.

The hidden state ht of the network at time t captures only the left context of the sequence for the input at time t. The right context for the input at time t can be captured by performing the same operation in the negative time direction. The input can be represented by both its left context Image 100000000000000A0000000E495D3720.jpg and right context Image 100000000000000C000000111A9601E7.jpg as Image 100000000000003E000000119C6F09D5.jpg. Similarly, the representation of the completed sentence is given by Image 10000000000000420000001100E5CDF8.jpg. Such processing of the input in both forward and backward time-step is known as bidirectional RNN. Though a vanilla RNN is good at modelling sequential data, it struggles to capture the long-term dependencies in the sequence. Long Short Term Memory (LSTM) (Hochreiter and Schmidhuber, 1997) is a special kind of RNN that is designed specifically to capture the long-term dependencies in sequential data. They compute the the hidden state ht as follows,

Image 1000000000000162000000EC89D94614.jpg

where xt is the embedding for input at time t; it, ft, ot are the input, forget and output gates, respectively.

3.2 Implementation

16The task of head-noun identification aims to predict a sequence of tags y={y1, y2, .., yn} given an input sequence X={x1, x2, .. xn}. The system is modeled as a sequence labelling task and consists of three main steps: i) word embedding: each word in the sequence is embedded to a higher dimension; ii) Input encoder: encoding the sequence of embeddings; iii) Classification: labelling the sequence.

Word embeddings. Each word in the input sequence is represented by a vector of d-dimensions that captures the syntactic and semantic information of the word. The representation is carried by a word embedding matrix Image 1000000000000051000000116528D492.jpg where |v| is the input vocabulary size. In addition to this, the model combines a character embedding that is learned during training using a Bi-LSTM network to deal with out of vocabulary terms and possible misspellings (Ling et al., 2015).

17To represent the core structure of a complex noun-compound, we also use the following hand-crafted features of a head-noun candidate token (Guerini et al., 2018): (i) the actual position of the token within the compound name; (ii) the length of the candidate token; (iii) the frequency of the token in the gazetteer; (iv) the average length of the noun-compounds in the gazetteer containing the token; (v) the average position of the token in the noun-compound it appears in; (vi) the bigram probability with reference to the previous token in the noun-compound; (vii) if the token can be an noun-compound; (viii) the ratio of the time the token is the first token in a noun-compound; (ix) the ratio of the time the token is the last token in a noun-compound. These handcrafted features for each word are extracted from a large corpus of Italian food names reported in (Guerini et al., 2018).

18The concatenation of word embedding, final states of bidirectional character embeddings network, and hand crafted features is used as the word representation.

19Input encoder. LSTM nodes are used to encode the input sequence of word embeddings. We employ a bidirectional LSTM (Bi-LSTM) to capture the context in both forward and backward timesteps. The hidden representation of a word at time t is given as,

Image 100000000000004B0000001424AA1612.jpg

Classification. The output layer receives the hidden representation from the Bi-LSTM and outputs a probability distribution over the possible tag sequences. Then, a conditional random field (CRF) layer (Lafferty et al., 2001) is used to model the dependency in labelling tags. The hidden representations from the Bi-LSTM are passed through a linear layer to obtain the score Pi for each word in the input sequence X={x1, x2, .., xn}. The score for each possible output tag sequence Image 10000000000000220000000E3A8C565E.jpg is then obtained as follows,

Image 10000000000000A10000001F92E5C389.jpg

where A is the transition matrix representing the transition scores from tag i to tag j. The probability of the tag sequence is then computed using a softmax operation as follows,

Image 10000000000000A00000001FDF9B3A12.jpg

20The training is done by maximizing the log probability of the correct output tag sequence.

4 Experiments and Results

4.1 Setup

21The dimension of character embedding is set to 30 and embeddings are learned using 50 hidden units in each direction. For the word embeddings, as learning this level of representation with a small dataset is highly inefficient, we decided to use pre-trained embeddings trained using skip-gram (Mikolov et al., 2013) on the Italian corpus of Wikipedia. The input encoder consists of 120 hidden units in each direction with a dropout (E. Hinton et al., 2012) of 0.5 applied between the Bi-LSTM layer and the output layer.

4.2 Baselines

22To compare the performance of the proposed approach, we provide two baselines: i) 1st token, where the 1st token of a noun-compound is chosen as its head-noun; ii) Spacy1, where the root token of the dependency tree for the noun-compound is chosen as its head-noun.

231st token. This baseline implicitly accounts for a number of linguistic behaviours of head-nouns in Italian language: (a) avoids stop words as head-nouns, as they do not occur at the first position of a noun-compound; (b) avoids adjectives as head-nouns, as they usually occur after the noun they modify; (c) captures the syntactic head of the noun-compound, which, in Italian is likely to be the first noun in a Noun Phrase; as already seen in Table 2. Summing up, the first-token baseline captures relevant linguistic behaviours, and is a strong competitor of our neural model, as in more than 80% of the entries in our dataset the first token belongs to head-noun of the noun-compound.

24Spacy. This is a widely known open-source library for natural language processing and include a syntactic dependency parser. Given an input sequence, based on the result returned by the dependency parser, the root of the sequence is chosen to be the head-noun. We used the statistical model it_core_news_sm2 released by Spacy for Italian language.

4.3 Evaluation metric

25The performance of the models are evaluated using F1 score as in CoNLL-2003 NER evaluation (Sang and Meulder, 2003), which is a standard for evaluating sequence tagging tasks.

4.4 Results

26The results for the FDH dataset are shown in Table 3. The baselines 1st token and Spacy achieve a performance of 70.27 of 62.67 respectively. In particular, the performance of syntactic dependency parser from Spacy reiterates the difference between the semantic and syntactic head. The results are shown by incremental features, for the proposed approach. The models reported without CRF, are trained using a softmax function as output layer to predict the tag. We can notice from the results that using only the pre-trained embeddings, the network suffers from a poor recall and fails to achieve even the baseline performance. However, using either character embedding or the hand-crafted features, improves the performance of the model on par with the baseline. Since the single token head-noun in FDH dataset is very high (as shown in table 2), learning the multi token head-nouns and the dependency of tags is a challenge. However, introducing the CRF layer to jointly predict the sequence of tags in combination with the hand crafted features, enables us to predict multi-token heads and improve the performance of the model to 78.09. Finally, the character embeddings learned during training helps to improves the recall further, reaching a F1 score of 79.58.

Table 3: Experimental results on FDH dataset

Accuracy

Precision

Recall

F1

Baselines

1st token

83.74

70.29

70.24

70.27

Spacy

78.47

62.70

62.67

62.67

Bi-LSTM

a) word_emb

84.06

74.10

65.18

69.28

b) a + hc_feat

85.17

75.76

66.50

70.76

c) a + char_emb

85.21

76.24

66.28

70.79

d) b + CRF

88.07

78.57

77.67

78.09

d) d + char_emb

88.59

80.58

78.62

79.58

5 Conclusion and Future Work

27We have addressed head-noun identification in complex noun-compounds, a task of high relevancy in utterance interpretation for dialogue systems. We proposed a neural model, and experiments on Italian food noun-compounds show that the model is able to outperform strong baselines even with a small amount of data. For the future we plan to extend our investigation to other domain and languages.

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Auteurs

Fondazione Bruno Kessler, Via Sommarive 18, Povo, Trento — Italy – magnini[at]fbk.eu

Fondazione Bruno Kessler, Via Sommarive 18, Povo, Trento – University of Trento, Italy – balaraman[at]fbk.eu

Fondazione Bruno Kessler, Via Sommarive 18, Povo, Trento, Italy – AdeptMind Scholar – magnolini[at]fbk.eu

Fondazione Bruno Kessler, Via Sommarive 18, Povo, Trento — Italy – guerini[at]fbk.eu

© Accademia University Press, 2018

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