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Proceedings of the Fifth Italian Conference on Computational Linguistics CLiC-it 2018

 | 
Elena Cabrio
, 
Alessandro Mazzei
, 
Fabio Tamburini

Contributed Papers

Neural Surface Realization for Italian

Valerio Basile et Alessandro Mazzei

Résumé

We present an architecture based on neural networks to generate natural language from unordered dependency trees. The task is split into the two subproblems of word order prediction and morphology inflection. We test our model gold corpus (the Italian portion of the Universal Dependency treebanks) and an automatically parsed corpus from the Web.

Questo lavoro introduce un’architettura basata su reti neurali per generare frasi in linguaggio naturale a partire da alberi a dipendenze. Il processo è diviso nei due sottoproblemi dell’ordinamento di parole e dell’inflessione morfologica, per i quali la nostra architettura prevede due modelli indipendenti, il cui risultato è combinato nella fase finale. Abbiamo testato il modello usando un gold corpus e un silver corpus ottenuto dal Web.

Texte intégral

1 Introduction

1Natural Language Generation is the process of producing natural language utterances from an abstract representation of knowledge. As opposed to Natural Language Understanding, where the input is well-defined (typically a text or speech segment) and the output may vary in terms of complexity and scope of the analysis, in the generation process the input can take different forms and levels of abstraction, depending on the specific goals and applicative scenarios. However, the input structures for generation should be at least formally defined.

2In this work we focus on the final part of the standard NLG pipeline defined by Reiter and Dale (2000), that is, surface realization, the task of producing natural language from formal abstract representations of sentences’ meaning and syntax.

3We consider the surface realization of unordered Universal Dependency (UD) trees, i.e., syntactic structures where the words of a sentence are connected by labeled directed arcs in a tree-like fashion. The labels on the arcs indicate the syntactic relation holding between each word and its dependent words (Figure 1a). We approach the surface realization task in a supervised statistical setting. In particular, we draw inspiration from Basile (2015) by dividing the task into the two independent subtasks of word order prediction and morphology inflection prediction. Two neural network-based models run in parallel on the same input structure, and their output is later combined to produce the final surface form.

4A first version of the system implementing our proposed architecture (called the DipInfo-UniTo realizer) was submitted to the shallow track of the Surface Realization Shared Task 2018 (Mille et al., 2018). The main research goal of this paper is to provide a critical analysis for tuning the training data and learning parameters of the DipInfo-UniTo realizer.

2 Neural network-based Surface Realization

5In the following sections, we detail the two neural networks employed to solve the subtasks of word order prediction (2.1) and morphology inflection (2.2) respectively.

2.1 Word Ordering

6We reformulate the problem of sentence-wise word ordering in terms of reordering the subtrees of its syntactical structure. The algorithm is composed of three steps: i) splitting the unordered tree into single-level unordered subtrees; ii) predicting the local word order for each subtree; iii) recomposing the single-level ordered subtrees into a single multi-level ordered tree to obtain the global word order.

7In the first step, we split the original unordered universal dependency multilevel tree into a number of single-level unordered trees, where each subtree is composed by a head (the root) and all its dependents (the children), similarly to Bohnet et al. (2012). An example is shown in Figure 1: from the (unordered) tree representing the sentence “Numerose sue opere contengono prodotti chimici tossici.” (1a), each of its component subtrees (limited to one-level dependency) is considered separarately (1b). The head and the dependents of each subtree form an unordered list of lexical items. Crucially, we leverage the flat structure of the subtrees in order to extract structures that are suitable as input to the learning to rank algorithm in the next step of the process.

Figure 1: Splitting the input tree into subtrees to extract lists of items for learning to rank.

Image 10000000000002AF000002B8609A1BD1.jpg

8In the second step of the algorithm, we predict the relative order of the head and the dependents of each subtree with a learning to rank approach. We employ the list-wise learning to rank algorithm ListNet, proposed by Cao et al. (2007). The relatively small size of the lists of items to rank allows us to use a list-wise approach, as opposed to pair-wise or poin-twise approaches, while keeping the computation times manageable. ListNet uses a list-wise loss function based on top one probability, i.e., the probability of an element of being the first one in the ranking. The top one probability model approximates the permutation probability model that assigns a probability to each possible permutation of an ordered list. This approximation is necessary to keep the problem tractable by avoiding the exponential explosion of the number of permutations. Formally, the top one probability of an object j is defined as

Image 100000000000009800000022672EB68F.jpg

9that is, the sum of the probabilities of all the possible permutations of n objects (denoted as Ωn ) where j is the first element. s=(s1, …, sn) is a given list of scores, i.e., the position of elements in the list. Considering two permutations of the same list y and z (for instance, the predicted order and the reference order) their distance is computed using cross entropy. The distance measure and the top one probabilities of the list elements are used in the loss function:

Image 100000000000009F0000002296AD79BC.jpg

10The list-wise loss function is plugged into a linear neural network model to provide a learning environment. ListNet takes as input a sequence of ordered lists of feature vectors (the features are encoded as numeric vectors). The weights of the network are iteratively adjusted by computing a list-wise cost function that measure the distance between the reference ranking and the prediction of the model and passing its value to the gradient descent algorithm for optimization of the parameters.

11The choice of features for the supervised learning to rank component is a critical point of our solution. We use several word-level features encoded as one-hot vectors, namely: the universal POS-tag, the treebank specific POS tag, the morphology features and the head-status of the word (head of the single-level tree vs. leaf). Furthermore, we included word representations, differentiating between content words and function words: for open-class word lemmas (content words) we added the corresponding language-specific word embedding to the feature vector, from the pre-trained multilingual model Polyglot (Al-Rfou’ et al., 2013). Closed-class word lemmas (function words) are encoded as one-hot bags of words vectors. An implementation of the feature encoding for the word ordering module of our architecture is available online1.

  • 2 As a consequence of the design of our approach, the DipInfo-UniTo realizer cannot predict the corre (...)

12In the third step of the word ordering algorithm, we reconstruct the global (i.e. sentence-level) order from the local order of the one-level trees under the hypothesis of projectivity2 — see Basile and Mazzei (2018) for details on this step.

2.2 Morphology Inflection

13The second component of our architecture is responsible for the morphology inflection. The task is formulated as an alignment problem between characters that can be modeled with the sequence to sequence paradigm. We use a deep neural network architecture based on a hard attention mechanism. The model has been recently introduced by Aharoni and Goldberg (2017). The model consists of a neural network in an encoder-decoder setting. However, at each step of the training, the model can either write a symbol to the output sequence, or move the attention pointer to the next state of the sequence. This mechanism is meant to model the natural monotonic alignment between the input and output sequences, while allowing the freedom to condition the output on the entire input sequence.

14We employ all the morphological features provided by the UD annotation and the dependency relation binding the word to its head, that is, we transform the training files into a set of structures ((lemma, features), form) in order to learn the neural inflectional model associating a (lemma, features) to the corresponding form. An example of training instance for our morphology inflection module is the following:

lemma: artificiale

features:

uPoS=ADJ

xPoS=A

rel=amod

Number=Plur

form: artificiali

15Corresponding to the word form artificiali, an inflected form (plural) of the lemma artificiale (artificial).

3 Evaluation

16In this section, we present an evaluation of the models presented in Section 2, with particular consideration for two crucial points influencing the performances of the DipInfo-UniTo realizer, namely training data and learning parameters settings. In Basile and Mazzei (2018), the hardware limitations did not allow for an extensive experimentation dedicated to the optimization of the realizer performances. In this paper, we aim to bridge this gap by experimenting with higher computing capabilities, specifically a virtualized GNU/Linux box with 16-core and 64GB of RAM.

3.1 Training Data

17For our experiments, we used the four Italian corpora annotated with Universal Dependencies available on the Universal Dependency repositories3. In total, they comprise 270,703 tokens and 12,838 sentences. We have previously used this corpus for the training of the DipInfo-UniTo realizer that participated to the SRST18 competition (Baroni et al., 2009). We refer to this corpus as Gold-SRST18 henceforth.

18Moreover, we used a larger corpus extracted from ItWaC, a large unannotated corpus of Italian (Baroni et al., 2009). We parsed ItWaC with UDpipe (Straka and Straková, 2017), and selected a random sample of 9,427 sentence (274,115 tokens). We refer to this corpus as Silver-WaC henceforth.

3.2 Word Ordering Performances

  • 4 Our implementation of ListNet featuring a regularization parameter to prevent overfitting is availa (...)

19We trained the word order prediction module of our system4 on the Gold-SRST18 corpus as well as on the larger corpus created by concatenating Gold-SRST18 and Silver-WaC.

20The performance of the ListNet algorithm for word ordering is given in terms of average Kendall’s Tau (Kendall, 1938, τ ), a measure of rank correlation used to give a score to each of the rankings predicted by our model for every subtree (Figure 2). τ measures the similarity between two rankings by counting how many pairs of elements are swapped with respect to the original ordering out of all possible pairs of n elements:

Image 10000000000001190000002274FF68D9.jpg

21Therefore, τ ranges from -1 to 1.

22In Figure 2 we reported the τ values obtained at various epochs of learning for both the Gold-SRST18 and Gold-SRST18+Silver-WaC corpora. In particular, in order to investigate the influence of the learning rate parameter (LR) in the learning of the ListNet model, we reported the τ trends for LR=5•10-5 (the value originally used for the official SRST18 submission), LR=5•10-6 and LR=5•10-7. It is quite clear that the value of LR has a great impact on the performance of the word ordering, and that LR=5•10-5 is not appropriate to reach the best performance. This explains the poor performance of the DipInfo-UniTo realizer in the SRST18 competition (Table 1). Indeed, the typical zigzag shape of the curve suggests a sort of loop in the gradient learning algorithm. In contrast, the LR=5•10-6 seems to reach a plateau value after the 100th epoch with both corpora used in the experiments. We used the system tuned with this value of the learning rate to evaluate the global performance of the realizer.

Figure 2: The trend of the τ value with respect to the ListNet iteration

Image 10000000000002B60000019A498AFF9C.jpg

Figure 3: The trend of the Morphology Accuracy on the SRST18 development set with respect to the DNN training epochs

Image 10000000000002BE000001A3AC2CF37A.jpg

3.3 Morphology Inflection Performances

  • 5 An implementation of the model by [Aharoni and Goldberg, 2017] is freely available as https://githu (...)

23In order to understand the impact of the Silver-WaC corpus on the global performance of the system, we trained the DNN system for morphology inflection5 both on the Gold-SRST18 corpus and on the larger corpus composed by Gold-SRST18+ Silver-WaC. In Figure 3 we reported the accuracy on the SRST18 development set for both the corpora. A first analysis of the trend shows little improvement to the global performance of the realization from the inclusion of additional data (see the discussion in the next section).

3.4 Global Surface Realization Performances

24Finally, we evaluate the end-to-end performance of our systems by combining the output of the two modules and submitting it to the evaluation scorer of the Surface Realization Shared Task. In Table 1 we report the performance of various tests systems with respect to the BLUE-4, DIST, NIST measures, as defined by Mille et al. (2018). The first line reports the official performance of the DipInfo-Unito realizer in the SRST18 for Italian. The last line reports the best performances achieved on Italian by the participants to SRST18 (Mille et al., 2018). The other lines report the performance of the DipInfo-UniTo realizer by considering various combination of the gold and silver corpora. The results show a clear improvement for the word order module (note that the DIST metric is character-based, therefore it is more sensitive to the morphological variation than NIST and BLEU-4). In contrast, the morphology submodule performance seems to be unaffected by the use of a larger training corpus. This effect could be due different causes. Errors are present in the silver standard training set, and it is not clear to what extent the morphology analysis is correct with respect to the syntactic analysis. The other possible cause is the neural model itself. Indeed, Aharoni and Goldberg (2017) report a plateau in performance after feeding it with relatively small datasets. The DipInfo-UniTo realizer performs better than the best systems of the SRST18 challenge for one out of three metrics (NIST).

Table 1: The performances of the systems with respect to the BLUE-4, DIST, NIST measures

ListNet

Morpho

BLEU-4

DIST

NIST

Gsrst

Gsrst

24.61

36.11

8.25

G

G

36.40

32.80

9.27

G

G+S

36.60

32.70

9.30

G+S

G

36.40

32.80

9.27

G+S

G+S

36.60

32.70

9.30

-

-

44.16

58.61

9.11

4 Conclusion and Future Work

25In this paper, we considered the problem of analysing the impact of the training data and parameters tuning on the (modular and global) performance of the DipInfo-UniTo realizer. We computationally proved that the DipInfo-UniTo realizer can gives competitive results (i) by augmenting the training data set with automatically annotated sentences, and (ii) by tuning the learning parameters of the neural models.

26In future work, we intend to resolve the main lack of our approach, that is the impossibility to realize non-projective sentences. Moreover, further optimization of both neural models will be carried out on a new high-performance architecture (Aldinucci et al., 2018), by executing a systematic grid-search over the hyperparameter space, namely the regularization factor and weight initialization for ListNet, and the specific DNN hyperparameters for the morphology module.

Aknowledgment

27We thank the GARR consortium which kindly allowed to use to the GARR Cloud Platform6 to run some of the experiments described in this paper. Valerio Basile was partially funded by Progetto di Ateneo/CSP 2016 (Immigrants, Hate and Prejudice in Social Media, S1618_L2_BOSC_01).

28Alessandro Mazzei was partially supported by the HPC4AI project, funded by the Region Piedmont POR-FESR 2014-20 programme (INFRA-P call).

Bibliographie

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Notes

1 https://github.com/alexmazzei/ud2ln

2 As a consequence of the design of our approach, the DipInfo-UniTo realizer cannot predict the correct word order for non-projective sentences.

3 http://universaldependencies.org/

4 Our implementation of ListNet featuring a regularization parameter to prevent overfitting is available at https://github.com/valeriobasile/listnet

5 An implementation of the model by [Aharoni and Goldberg, 2017] is freely available as https://github.com/roeeaharoni/morphological-reinflection

6 https://cloud.garr.it

© Accademia University Press, 2018

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