Proceedings of the Second Italian Conference on Computational Linguistics CLiCit 2015
 , ,Word Sense Discrimination: A gangplank algorithm
Résumé
In this paper we present an unsupervised, graphbased approach for Word Sense Discrimination. Given a set of text sentences, a word cooccurrence graph is derived and a distance based on Jaccard index is defined on it; subsequently, the new distance is used to cluster the neighbour nodes of ambiguous terms using the concept of “gangplanks” as edges that separate denser regions (“islands”) in the graph. The proposed approach has been evaluated on a real data set, showing promising performance in Word Sense Discrimination.
Texte intégral
1. Introduction
1Word Sense Disambiguation is a challenging research task in Computational Linguistics and Natural Language Processing. The main reasons behind the difficulties of this task are ambiguity and arbitrariness of human language: just depending on its context, the same term can assume different interpretations, or senses, in an unpredictable manner. In the last decade, three main research directions have been investigated (Navigli, 2009; Navigli, 2012): 1) supervised (Zhong and Ng, 2010; Mihalcea and Faruque, 2004), 2) knowledgebased (Navigli and Ponzetto, 2012; Schmitz et al., 2012) and 3) unsupervised Word Sense Disambiguation (Dorow and Widdows, 2003; Véronis, 2004), where the last approach is better defined as “induction” or “discrimination”. In this paper we focus on the automatic discovery of senses from raw text, by pursuing an unsupervised Word Sense Discrimination paradigm. We are interested in the development of a method that can be generally independent from the register or the linguistic wellformedness of a text document, and, given an adequate preprocessing step, from language. Among the many unsupervised research directions, i.e. context clustering (Schütze, 1998), word clustering (Lin, 1998), probabilistic clustering (Brody and Lapata, 2009) and cooccurrence graph clustering (Widdows and Dorow, 2002), we committed to the last one, based on the assumption that word cooccurrence graphs can reveal local structural properties tied to the different senses a word might assume in different contexts.
2Given a global word cooccurrence graph, the main goal is to exploit the subgraph induced by the neighbourhood of the word to be disambiguated (a “word cloud”). There, we define separator edges (“gangplanks”) and use them as the means to cluster the word cloud: the fundamental assumption is that, in the end, every cluster will correspond to a different sense of the word.
3The paper is organized as follows. In section 2 we explain how we build our cooccurrence graph and word clouds by means of a weighted Jaccard distance. In section 3 we describe the gangplank algorithm. In section 4 we present the algorithm’s results on our data set and their evaluation. In section 5 we give a brief overview on related work and section 6 presents some short conclusions.
2. Building the word graphs
4Given a set of sentences, we derive a global cooccurrence word graph. It is a weighted, undirected graph where each node corresponds to a word (token) and there is an edge between two nodes if and only if the corresponding words cooccur in the same sentence. Edge weights are the respective frequencies of such cooccurrences. It has been shown (i Cancho and Sole, 2001)´ that a word graph like this tends to behave like a smallworld, scalefree graph (Watts and Strogatz, 1998). In short, the graph is very cohesive and its cohesion hinges on few nodes from which nearly every other node can be reached. A similar structure can be quite difficult to handle for our purposes, since on the one hand the largest part of the graph tends to behave as a single, inextricable unit, and on the other hand the graph collapses in a myriad connected components if the hub nodes are removed: we are interested in a clustering between the two extremes. To mitigate this problem, a word filtering step is performed. Stopwords and irrelevant word classes (based on partofspeech tagging), as e.g. adverbs and adjectives, are removed. Only nouns and verbs are retained.
2.1 A weighted Jaccard distance
 1 A multiset is a set where an element can recur more than once, and can be defined as a set of coupl (...)
5Given the previously outlined word graph, we introduce a graphbased distance between nodes derived from Jaccard index that will be enclosed in our clustering algorithm. Given a graph G, each neighbourhood of a node w in G is treated as a multiset1, where its elements correspond to the neighbour nodes of w and their multiplicity is the weight of the edge that connects them to w, i.e. the number of times they cooccur with w. We have defined the “automultiplicity” of w in this multiset as the greatest weight between all such edges. Given two multisets A and B, now we can define the weighted Jaccard distance as
1 ‒ _{}
6where the intersection is the multiset with the least multiplicity for each element of both (possibly 0, so not counting it) and the union is the multiset with the greatest multiplicity for each element of both. The cardinality of a multiset is the sum of all the multiplicities of its elements. The weighted Jaccard distance provides a measure of how much the contexts of two words overlap, taking into account the importance of each context by means of the weights. A distance of 1 means that contexts do not overlap, and on the contrary a distance of 0 implies a complete overlap. The weighted Jaccard distance can of course be expanded to neighbourhoods of depth greater than 1: for increasing depths, we would take into account contexts of neighbour words, contexts of contexts, and so on. This means that the greater the depth, the less significant the Jaccard distance becomes. It can be shown that, for depth d, any two elements have Jaccard distance (strictly) less than 1 if and only if the shortest path connecting them consists of at most 2d edges. This lemma will be used in the next section.
2.2 Word clouds
 2 In our case, we consider neighbourhoods of degree 1.
7Given a word w of interest, we extract from G the subgraph G_{w }induced by the open neighbourhood2 of w, originating a “word cloud”. We again perform word filtering and remove redundant words, this time using principal component analysis, retaining just words that contribute the most to the first, most important component, and considering the corresponding subgraph of G_{w }(we will denote it by the same notation).
8On it, we can define a local weighted Jaccard distance, as explained before. This allows us the transition from the word (sub)graph to a word metric space. From the metric space we build again a weighted, undirected “distance graph” D_{w}, where two nodes are connected by an edge if and only if their weighted Jaccard distance is strictly less than 1, and weights are the distances between words. As noted at the end of section 2.1, this operation practically coincides with the expansion of G_{w }where we add edges between nodes that are 2 steps away from each other and reassign a weight corresponding to distance to each edge.
3 The gangplank clustering algorithm
3.1 The algorithm
9Our objective is a clustering of D_{w }that maximizes intracluster connections and minimizes intercluster connections. As explained in Section 2, our assumption is that clusters of a word cloud will define different senses, implicitly identified with the clusters themselves.
Our approach focuses on edges. We define an edge e in D_{w }connecting two nodes u and v to be a gangplank if its weight is strictly greater than the mean of the weights of the edges departing from both its ends u and v: if this happens, then edge e is keeping distant the two local graph’s “halves” it connects (the neighbourhood of u excluding v and viceversa). In other words, the two aforementioned halves on both sides of e, seen as different subgraphs of D_{w}, are on their own more tightly connected regions than the subgraph induced by the union of u’s and v’s neighbourhoods (and thus including e) would be. To each node v we can assign the number g(v) of gangplanks going out from it; g(v) will be comprised between 0 and deg(v). We also define the ratio γ(v) = _{}.
10The smaller γ(v), the more we deem v to be in the middle of a tightly connected area, or island.
Our clustering algorithm doesn’t set a predetermined number of clusters. It starts by ranking each node v by the ratio γ(v) and takes the node with the smallest γ as the seed of the first cluster K. We start then a cycle of expansion and reduction steps. In the expansion step, we add all the neighbours of K to K. Then, in the reduction step, we begin discarding from K all the nodes whose connections are undermining the homogeneous nature of cluster K. More precisely, we rank the nodes in K by the ratio γ_{K}(u) = _{}, where g_{K}(u) and deg_{K}(u) are defined as g(u) and deg(u), but with respect to the subgraph of D_{w }induced by K. Then, we remove from K the node with the greatest nonzero γ_{K}, if there is any. Thereafter we update γ_{K }for each remaining node in K and again remove the node with the greatest nonzero ratio. We continue the reduction step until we can no longer remove any node, and hence no gangplanks are left in cluster K. The cluster’s seed will never be removed. Once the reduction step has finished, the expansion and reduction step is repeated, this time ignoring any previously discarded node. The cycle continues until no further expansion is possible. At this point we have obtained the first cluster. Now, we select the yet unclustered node with greatest γ in D_{w }and start a new cycle of expansion and reduction steps for the corresponding new cluster, and so on, until every node has been clustered.
11In the end, we’ll obtain a clustering of D_{w}. However, many clusters will often consist of just one node: these are nodes between more tightly connected areas, which we would like to assign to bigger clusters to avoid dispersion. To this end, we set m_{w }as the minimum allowed cluster size: m_{w }is the length of the shortest (filtered) sentence where w appears or 2, whichever is greater. This choice of m_{w }is motivated by the fact that, in the graph, every sentence forms a clique that we have to consider as a possible cluster. All the clusters whose size is less than m_{w }are postprocessed and their elements reassigned to one of the bigger clusters. Again, we rank these remaining nodes by γ and, starting from the node v with the smallest ratio (the less “noisy” node) and going up, we assign v to the cluster K_{m} = arg min_{K} γ_{K}(v) (the cluster with less relative gangplank connections to v), until finally all nodes have been clustered. If two or more K_{m }are eligible, the biggest one is preferred.
12A pseudocode of the proposed gangplank clustering algorithm is reported below.
3.2 The labelling step
13Once we have obtained a given number of clustersenses relative to the chosen term, we adopt a majority voting mechanism to label each of the term’s occurrences in the original sentences. For each sentence where the disambiguated term appears, we compute the Jaccard distance between the set of the sentence’s filtered words and each cluster. Then, we assign the term a label referring to the nearest cluster. It is possible that not every cluster will be assigned to a term’s occurrence; these are “weak” clusters that are maybe either too insignificant or too finegrained.
Table 1: Keywords and entities
Keywords 
Tagged 
No. of 
Most common senses (≥10%) 
blizzard 
463 
23 
snowstorm 43%, video game company 37% 
caterpillar 
467 
23 
CAT machines 30%, animal 24%, The Very Hungry Caterpillar 17%, CAT company 16% 
england 
474 
11 
country (UK) 65%, national football team 10%, New England (USA) 10% 
ford 
558 
12 
Harrison Ford 40%, Ford vehicles 30%, Tom Ford (fashion designer) 25% 
india 
474 
5 
country 50%, national cricket team 48% 
jfk 
474 
13 
New York airport 61%, John Fitzgerald Kennedy 33% 
mcdonald 
425 
47 
McDonald’s (restaurants) 38% , McDonald’s (company) 31% 
mars 
440 
24 
planet 66%, Bruno Mars 17% 
milan 
594 
41 
Milano (Italy) 58%, A.C. Milan football team 24% 
pitbull 
440 
7 
rapper 49%, dog breed 48% 
venice 
482 
9 
Venezia (Italy) 55%, Venice beach (California) 42% 
4. Evaluation on tweets
4.1 Data and tagging
14In order to evaluate the performance of the proposed approach from a quantitative point of view, a benchmark data set should be employed. However, data sets like SemEval are not ideal, since they don’t present enough samples for each word, therefore yielding a sparse and most often unweighted (i.e. all weights are equal to 1) graph. For these reasons, we created an ad hoc data set consisting of 5291 tweets in English, downloaded from Twitter on a single day using eleven different keywords; the data set is summarized in Table 1. Keywords were chosen to be common nouns that may possess many different senses, and were the target of our word sense discrimination. To have a basis for evaluation, we manually tagged keywords occurring in the tweets, in order to create a ground truth.
4.2 Evaluation and results
15We evaluated the coherence of our clustering and subsequent word labelling with respect to the dataset’s “true” labels. For each keyword’s clusterderived labelling, we compare that label’s context (i.e. all the words in the corresponding filtered sentences) to all the true labels’ contexts by means of the Jaccard distance. We then identify the clusterderived label with its closest true label. We end up with a mapping σ going from some of our clusters to the true labels. To measure the quality of the proposed solution, accuracy’s performance has been computed for each disambiguated term, as reported in Table 2. The global accuracy score we obtained is 62,56%. It could be argued that accuracies are worse whenever the keyword is not polarized on two senses, as is the case for caterpillar or mcdonald, with many possible senses and no two of them covering together more than 90% of all senses. This could happen because in this case the word cloud will be fractured in many subunits, the gangplanks algorithm will tendentially split them even more and so surfacing labels will be sparse and somewhat inorganic.
16For confrontation, we also ran the Chinese Whispers algorithm (Biemann, 2006), which uses a simplified form of Markov clustering, on our graphs, obtaining a global accuracy score of 60,1% with a mean number of just 2,27 clusters per keyword (a behaviour mentioned in Section 2). Local scores are shown in Table 2. Accuracies are only better when senses are strongly polarized, e.g. for pitbull and england. In the latter case, just one cluster is found, so the algorithm’s accuracy is the same as the percentage of occurrences of the main sense.
5. Related work
17An approach similar to ours, at least in the initial graph construction, can be found in (Véronis, 2004). The weights we put on edges substantially differ from his, but, most markedly, Veronis wants´ to span some trees from some hub nodes in each word cloud. In other words, Veronis’s algorithm is´ more hierarchical in nature, where ours is more aggregative. Similar considerations can also be made for (Hope and Keller, 2013).
6. Conclusions
Table 2: Local labelling accuracies for the gangplank and Chinese Whispers clustering algorithm. Accuracies in %. No. of labels represent how many labels effectively appear in labelled tweets
blizzard 
caterpillar 
england 
ford 
india 
jfk 
mars 
mcdonald 
milan 
pitbull 
venice 

Labelling accuracy 
49,9 
42,0 
50 
87,8 
82,7 
67,5 
75,5 
40 
53,2 
64,5 
71,0 
No. of clusters 
38 
20 
46 
17 
28 
14 
9 
15 
32 
55 
34 
No. of labels 
13 
11 
7 
6 
5 
4 
5 
9 
16 
5 
7 
Chinese Whispers 
43,0 
43,7 
65,4 
80,1 
63,1 
61,2 
66,4 
40,7 
58,2 
81,1 
55,0 
18The main challenge we encountered for our word sense discrimination algorithm was the difficulty of handling a smallworld graph. Apart from that, we have to notice that word clustering just represents the last step of a process that starts with preprocessing and tokenization of a text, which are both mostly of supervised nature. Our future goals will be to investigate the relations between text preprocessing and clustering results, and how to render the whole process completely unsupervised.
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Notes
1 A multiset is a set where an element can recur more than once, and can be defined as a set of couples of the type (element, multiplicity) (Aigner, 2012).
2 In our case, we consider neighbourhoods of degree 1.
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