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Sport Policy in Canada

 | 
Lucie Thibault
, 
Jean Harvey

Index

Texte intégral

Note: A guide to abbreviations is on pages x–xiii.

Aboriginal sport, 267–93; accountability, 275, 279–80; assimilation, 392, 395; in Australia, 267, 289n2, 290n6; background, 274–78; Best Practices, 286–87; and CSP, 277–80, 287–88; double helix model, 268–73, 286, 289; duality of structure (Giddens), 268, 272–73; elite athletes, 277, 283, 286, 289; F-P/T bilateral agreements, 60–61, 63–64, 63t, 283–86; funding, 60–61, 281–82, 284, 286, 288–89, 333; funding for bilateral agreements, 63t; limitations, 280–88; Maskwachees Declaration, 277; Mills Report, 271–72, 276–77; Olympics and Paralympics, 53–54, 386–87; overview, 267–69, 288–89; power relations, 274, 285–86; and self-determination, 270; and social development, 275–76, 279–80, 282, 283, 286–87, 289; sport as socially constructed, 273–74; sport policy (2005), 267–69, 272, 277–80, 282–83, 289n1; sport policy action plans, 279, 287–89; two-row wampum belt model, 290n3

Aboriginal Sport Circle (ASC): and CSP, 268, 277; demographics, 282; elite sport, 289; funding, 281, 284–86; history, 276–78; mandate, 284; power relations, 274, 285–86; PTASBs, 276, 284–86, 288

Actively Engaged (2009), 278, 287, 319, 334–36, 339

An Act to Encourage Fitness and Amateur Sport. See Bill C-131 Act to Encourage Fitness and Amateur Sport (1961)

Adam, Dyane, 361, 363

Adams, Jeff, 310–11

Africa and SDP programs, 77–80, 88

agreements and multi-level governance. See multi-level governance and agreements

Alberta: funding for bilateral agreements, 62t–63t; ministry for sport, recreation and physical activity, 46t. See also Calgary; Edmonton; Olympic Games, 1988, Calgary

Allinger, Cathy Priestner and Todd, 116–17, 120, 127, 140n4, 224

Amateur Athletic Union of Canada (AAU), 320–21

An Act to Promote Physical Activity and Sport (2003). See Bill C-12: An Act to Promote Physical Activity and Sport (2003)

anti-doping policies. See doping in sport

apartheid, 73–74, 343

archery, 188

Arctic Winter Games, 270–71

Athlete Assistance Program (AAP): agreements, 157–59; overview, 25, 105, 155–59, 156t, 160, 165; people with disabilities, 306–8

athlete development, 147–76; AAP athlete agreements, 157–59; advocacy by AthletesCAN, 75, 147, 165–67; B2ten, 162–63; CAN Fund, 162–63; CCES and ethics, 19, 168, 231, 235–36; COC funds, 160–62; corporate funds, 163–64; crowdfunding, 164; dispute resolution, 4, 26, 158, 166, 167–68, 364; funding history, 154–55, 163–64; image rights, 158–59; NSO funds, 163; overview, 147–49, 168–70; stakeholder theory, 148. See also Athlete Assistance Program; Canadian Sport Centres/Institutes; Long-Term Athlete Development; Own the Podium

AthletesCAN, 75, 147, 165–67

Athletics Canada: event areas, 308; funding, 313n2; people with disabilities, 296, 302–3, 305–12, 313n2

Atlantic provinces: Sport Centres/Institutes, 151

Australia: Aboriginal sport, 267, 289n2, 290n6; facilities, 209n15; LTAD, 140n5; Olympics and Paralympics, 100t, 124, 188, 201; Sport Institutes, 121, 135; public policy, 398–99

B2ten, 162–63

Babiak, Katherine, 165–66, 168–69, 411; on athlete development, 147–76

Balyi, Istvan, 26, 128

Barbados and SDP, 78

basketball, 112t, 133, 188

Baumann, Alex, 117, 121, 135

Beamish, Rob, 411; on doping policies, 217–42

Beatty, Perrin, 16t

Beijing Olympics. See Olympic Games, 2008, Beijing

Best Ever, 15, 118, 225, 259

Best Practices—Physical Activity Programs for Aboriginal Youth, 286–87

Best Report, 107–8, 140n2, 359

bilingualism. See official languages

Bill C-12: An Act to Promote Physical Activity and Sport (2003): Aboriginal sport, 277–78; dispute resolution, 4, 167; funding, 45, 354; hosting mega-events, 251, 254; multi-level governance, 45; official languages, 354, 363–64; overview, 26; participation, 190, 191, 193, 332–33; sport for development, 83; women in sport, 339

Bill C-131 Act to Encourage Fitness and Amateur Sport (1961): background, 190; hosting policy, 246; multi-level governance, 45; overview, 13, 26, 45; participation, 179; people with disabilities, 298–99

Bilodeau, Alexandre, 136

bisexuals. See sexual orientation

Blainey, Justine, 325

Blais Report (2003), 250–55

blindness and sport, 297, 306

Botswana and SDP, 81

boxing, 123

boys in sport. See children and youth; men and gender

The Brighton Declaration, 331, 333

Brisson Report, 120

British Columbia: advocacy for athletes, 167; funding for bilateral agreements, 62t–63t; ministry for sport, recreation and physical activity, 46t; Sport Centre, Victoria, 26–27, 135. See also Olympic Games, 2010, Vancouver; Paralympic Games, 2010, Vancouver; Vancouver Organizing Committee (VANOC)

Brundage, Avery, 219–20

Cadieux, Pierre, 17t, 230

Calgary: Sport Institute, 151. See also Olympic Games, 1988, Calgary; WinSport Canada

Campagnolo, Iona, 14–15, 16t, 247, 248, 1 323

Campbell, Kim, government, 19, 250

Canada Games, 13, 51–53, 55, 56f, 57 1

Canadian Association for the Advancement of Women and Sport and Physical Activity (CAAWS), 324, 328–31, 333, 343–44 1

Canadian Athletes Association, 75. See also AthletesCAN

Canadian Athletes Now Fund, 162–63, 170n5. See also CAN Fund

Canadian Centre for Drug-Free Sport, 19, 230–31

Canadian Centre for Ethics in Sport (CCES), 19, 168, 231, 235–36 1

Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms (1982): official languages, 353, 358; people with disabilities, 295–96, 311; sex, gender or sexual orientation, 324–25, 343 1

Canadian Francophone Games, 353

Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA), 77, 79, 84–85, 88–89 1

Canadian Olympic Committee (COC): athlete development, 160–62; doping policies, 222; and IOC, 40, 409; overview, 104t, 170n3; partnerships, 151; people with disabilities, 310–11. See also Canadian Sport Centres/Institutes

Canadian Olympic Foundation, 161–62

Canadian Paralympic Committee (CPC): funding, 120, 165, 299–300; 1 OTP, 116–17, 118; overview, 104, 104t

Canadian Sport Centres/Institutes (CSC/CSI): funding, 152, 156t; as legacies, 257–58; official languages, 362; overview, 25, 104t, 151–52; university partnerships, 135–36

Canadian Sport Council, 329–30

Canadian Sport for Life (CS4L), 139n1, 149–52, 170n1. See also Long-Term Athlete Development

Canadian Sport Leadership Corps., 69, 80, 81, 88

Canadian Sport Policy (2002): Aboriginal sport, 277–80, 287–88; consultations 1 on, 27–29, 193, 277, 385; enhanced 1 capacity, 26, 200–201, 279; enhanced 1 excellence, 26, 99, 102–3, 134–36, 1 152–53, 200–201, 279, 336; enhanced 1 interaction, 26, 40, 59, 200–201, 279; 1 enhanced participation, 26, 29, 103, 177, 195–96, 200–201, 332–33, 1 336, 385; evaluation, 29, 135; F-P/T bilateral agreements, 60–61, 62t–63t, 1 63–64, 284; F-P/T collaboration, 55, 1 58–59; funding by SFAF, 333–34; 1 gender equity, 332–34, 339–40; high 1 performance athletes, 100, 102, 115; hosting mega-events, 251, 254; official languages, 363–64; overview, 1 26–29; people with disabilities, 129, 1 299, 311; social inclusion, 385; underrepresented groups, 284, 339

Canadian Sport Policy (2012): Aboriginal sport, 280, 287–88; 1 collaboration, 40–41; consultation 1 on, 135, 339–40, 385; evaluation, 59; 1 focus on stakeholders, 148; F-P/T collaboration, 55, 59–60; funding, 1 103–6, 104t–105t, 407–8; future 1 challenges, 64–65; high performance 1 sport, 31, 41, 102–4; history, 27–30; 1 implementation and monitoring, 31, 61, 63; official languages, 354; overview, 30–31, 30f; participation, 1 41, 206–8, 407; people with 1 disabilities, 129; policy framework, 30–31, 30f, 40–41, 150; profit-oriented 1 language, 340–41; social inclusion, 1 207, 299, 385–86; under-represented 1 groups, 59, 339–40; women in sport, 1 339–40 1

The Canadian Strategy for Ethical Conduct in Sport (2002), 48

CAN Fund, 162–63, 170n5. See also Canadian Athletes Now Fund

Capacity Support, 88

Caribbean and SDP, 77–78, 80, 88 1

cerebral palsy and sport, 297, 306, 308–9 1

Charest, Jean, 16t, 224, 249–50 1

children and youth: Aboriginal programs, 285; athlete development, 150; Canadian Sport for Life, 149–50; children’s fitness tax credit, 44, 65n5, 195; data collection on, 198; high performance sport, 131, 134; participation, 180, 203–6; social inclusion, 388–89, 395–96, 398; sport academies, 132–33; sport for development, 78–80, 83; Sport Participation Strategy (2008), 195–96, 198. See also Canada Games; education; Long-Term Athlete Development (LTAD)

Chong, Michael D., 18t

cities. See hosting mega-events; municipalities

coaches: Aboriginal sports, 271; gender, 318; official languages, 362, 365; Olympic medal rewards, 161; Paralympics, 309; sport for development, 69, 77–78; women 1 in sport, 327, 335, 338, 342. See also Canadian Sport Centres/Institutes

Coaching Association of Canada (CAC), 13, 104t, 151, 318

Coderre, Denis, 11, 17t, 21, 26

Coe, Sebastian, 125

Cold War, 73, 185, 190, 209n7, 219

Cole, John, 230

Collins, Mary, 17t, 32n4

Commissioner of Official Languages. See Office of the Commissioner of Official Languages (OCOL)

Commission of Inquiry into the Use of Drugs and Banned Practices (1990). See Dubin inquiry

Commonwealth: sport for development, 69, 71, 76–82, 88–89 1

Commonwealth Games: anti-apartheid, 73–74, 343; sport for development, 77–82, 84–85, 88 1

Commonwealth Games, 1978, Edmonton, 14–15, 259 1

Commonwealth Games, 1986, Edinburgh, 224

Commonwealth Games, 1994, Victoria, 75–76, 258 1

Commonwealth Games, 1998, Kuala Lumpur, 360

Commonwealth Games, 2010, Delhi, 88

Commonwealth Games International Development through Sport (CGC IDS), 80–81, 84–85, 88 1

Commonwealth Sport Development Program (CSDP), 69, 77–80

Commonwealth Sport Leadership Corps, 80

Copps, Sheila, 17t

Core Sport Commission (Best Report), 107–8, 140, 359 1

crowdfunding, 164

CS4L (Canadian Sport for Life), 139n1. See also Long-Term Athlete Development

cycling, 112t, 220, 231

Daniels, Lyle, 285–86

Danis, Marcel, 17t

Davis, Shani, 127

de Bosscher, V., 98, 99, 181, 190, 208n1, 209n9

de Coubertin, Pierre, 221, 227–30, 236, 1 238–39 1

Department of Health. See Fitness Canada

Dept. of Canadian Heritage, 19, 45, 274–75, 279–80, 376n8. See also Sport Canada

DeVillers, Paul, 17t, 18t, 311

Diefenbaker, John, 13

Dimeo, Paul, 219

disabilities, people with. See people with disabilities

dispute resolution: AAP agreements, 158; AthletesCAN, 166; official languages, 364; SDRCC, 4, 26, 167–68, 364. See also athlete development

Donnelly, Peter, 76, 86, 89n4, 98, 122, 123, 126, 153–54, 364–65, 383–84, 388, 390, 412; on sport participation, 177–213

doping in sport, 217–42; AAP agreements, 158; anti-doping program, 158, 168, 235–36, 239n3; CCES role, 235–36; harm-reduction strategies, 237–38; history, 15, 19, 219–23, 232–35, 238; IOC policies, 220–22; media, 226; NSO policies, 221, 229–30; Olympics, 219–20, 224, 227–30; penalties, 223–24; policies, 15, 19, 48, 235; proposed changes, 237–38; research needed, 237–38; Sport Canada, 221–25, 229, 235–36; tests, 220–21, 237–38; UNESCO Convention, 234; WADA, 70, 109, 232–36. See also Dubin inquiry

doping substances: defined, 231–32; lists of substances, 220, 233–34; pseudoephedrine, 236; steroids, 219–21, 223–24, 226–27

Dubin inquiry: competition vs. ideals, 227–29, 238–39; ethics, 75, 106, 139, 191, 276; gender equity, 327, 329–30; goals of sport, 98; history, 15, 19, 227–30; and participation, 190–91, 209n10; and ‘sport for good’ movement, 74–75. See also doping in sport

Duplessis, Maurice, 37–38

Dupuy, Michel, 17t

Eastern Europe. See Europe, Eastern

Edmonton: mega-events, 14–15, 32n7, 248, 259, 276

education: physical education, 200; social class and elite athletes, 187; sport academies, 132–33; UN Millennium Goals, 69. See also children and youth; universities and colleges

Eisenhardt, Jan, 37–38

elite athletes. See high performance sport

Emerson, David, 18t

ethics and values: and businessoriented approaches, 394; CCES, 19, 168, 231, 235–36; CSP (2012), 30–31, 103; and doping, 221, 223, 227, 231, 237; Dubin inquiry, 75, 106, 139, 191, 276; overview, 19, 237; social inclusion, 383–84, 394. See also doping in sport; social inclusion; sport for development and peace

ethnicity. See race/ethnicity

Europe: history of Olympics, 217–18; participation, 76, 180, 183, 196; social inclusion, 390–91; sport for all, 179, 180, 184, 207

Europe, Eastern: ‘medals arms race,’ 185–86, 187

FACE program, 163, 170n6

facilities for sports: F-P/T collaboration priorities, 59; maintenance deficit, 200, 209n15; mega-events, 187, 258; participation, 180, 187, 200, 207–8; shortages, 204

Federal Policy for Hosting International Sport Events (2008), 102, 254–55, 354–55

Federal-Provincial/Territorial Priorities for Collaborative Action 2002–2005 (2002), 251, 284

federal sport policy: administrative structures, 45–47; F-P/T bilateral agreements, 60–61, 62t–63t, 63–64, 284; F-P/T collaboration, 55–60, 56f; funding, 39; jurisdiction, 43–44, 46; recreation and leisure, 51; vertical/horizontal relations, 47. See also history of federal sport policy; multilevel governance; Sport Canada

Fédération internationale de natation (FINA), 54

Felicien, Perdita, 188, 309–10 females in sport. See women and gender; women and girls in sport

fencing, 112t

First Nations. See Aboriginal sport

fitness. See participation

Fitness and Amateur Sport (FAS): Aboriginal sport, 270–71; doping policies, 230–31; gender inequality, 323–24; history, 11, 14, 16t, 19, 32n5, 76, 179, 184; hosting policies, 246–49; multi-level governance, 45; official languages, 357–59; publications, 20t; women in sport, 323–24. See also Bill C-131 Act to Encourage Fitness and Amateur Sport (1961); Fitness Canada; participation in sport

Fitness Canada: funding, 186; history, 19, 45, 179, 184–85; overview, 182–86, 191

Ford, David, 123

Forsyth, Janice, 412; on Aboriginal people and sport, 267–93

Fortier, D’Iberville, 357–59

Francophones: discrimination against, 360, 361; history of language rights, 355–60; OCOL’s study of (2000), 361–64; participation, 362; underrepresentation, 361, 362, 364, 365. See also official languages

la Francophonie and SDP, 69

Fraser, Graham, 412; on official languages, 351–79

Frisby, Wendy, 206, 384–85, 393, 396, 397, 413; on social inclusion, 381–403

funding: history of federal, 27–28t, 62t–63t, 155, 407–8. See also Aboriginal sport; hosting megaevents; Sport Canada, funding; Sport Funding and Accountability Framework

Game Plan 76, 248

Gauthier, Dominick, 162–63

gays. See sexual orientation

gender: Charter Rights, 324–25; coaches and officials, 318; CSP (2012) participation targets, 197; gender relations and sport, 86; gender verification tests, 70; male-defined sport models, 341; UN working group, 83. See also men and gender; women and gender

General Social Survey (GSS): coaches and officials, 318; definition of sport, 197, 209n13; male/female participants in sport, 317–18; participation, 184–85, 191, 195–99, 202, 209n14

Giddens, A., 268, 272–73

girls in sport. See children and youth; women and gender; women and girls in sport

Goldbloom, Victor, 360–61

Gosal, Bal, 18t, 88, 122

Governance of the Canada Games (1997), 48

Green, M., 98, 107, 209n9, 283, 298, 300, 304, 308

Greene, Nancy, 13, 32n1

Guergis, Helena, 18t

Halifax: hosting, 245; Sport Centre, 151

Hall, M.A., 320, 322–25, 327–29, 331, 337–38, 341–42

Hargreaves, J., 338, 343

Harnessing the Power of Sport (UN), 83

Harvey, Jean, 299, 393, 413; on history of federal sport policy, 11–35; on multilevel governance, 37–68; on sport policy, 1–8, 405–10

health education: HIV/AIDS and SDP, 69, 71, 79–81, 84, 85; infant and maternal health, 69, 78, 80; social inclusion and low-income families, 203, 206; sport for development, 80–81, 85; UN working group, 83

Heil, Jennifer, 124, 162–63

Hervieux-Payette, Céline, 16t

High Performance Athlete Development (1985), 48, 49

high performance sport, 97–145; defined, 97–98; and Dubin inquiry, 106–7; funding, 102, 134, 154–55; history, 14, 25, 320; ‘medals arms race,’ 98–99, 123, 127, 185–88, 209n9; and national identity, 3, 13, 45, 98, 136–37, 275; official languages, 362, 364–65; overview, 97–103, 134–39; and participation, 186–87, 201; post-2010 Olympics review, 120; social inclusion, 389–90; Sport Canada strategy (2005), 102; values issues, 106, 136–39. See also Canadian Sport Centres/Institutes; Commonwealth Games; doping in sport; Long-Term Athlete Development; Olympic Games; Own the Podium; Pan American Games; Paralympic Games; Sport Canada; Sport Funding and Accountability Framework

history of federal sport policy, 11–35; 1910s and 1920s, 44; 1950s and 1960s, 12–14; 1970s and 1980s, 14–15; 1990s, 15, 19, 25; 2000s, 26–31, 30f; CSP (2002), 26–29; CSP (2012), 27–31, 30f; funding for bilateral agreements, 62t–63t; funding history, 28t–29t, 62t–63t; list of legislation and policies, 12t; list of ministers, 16t–18t; list of publications, 20t–25t. See also policies, sports

HIV/AIDS and SDP, 69, 71, 79–81, 84, 85

hockey: Bill C-131 Fitness and Amateur Sport Act, 137, 190; Cold War battles, 190, 209n7; female players, 137; funding, 113t; junior hockey fighting, 47; Olympic medals, 12; participation statistics, 198, 209n14

Hoffman, Abby, 249, 322–23, 325–27, 338–39, 341, 344, 390

Hollingsworth, Melissa, 124

hosting mega-events, 243–65; 1967 to 2000 policies, 249–51, 255–56; 2008 policy, 251–55; assessments, 250, 255, 261–62; bidding process, 245, 247, 252–54, 257, 262; Blais Report, 250–55; broadcasting and marketing, 252, 261; CSP (2012) policy, 256–57, 262; economic development, 246, 251, 256, 262; emotional connections, 136–37; federal support and bidding, 248, 250, 252; F-P/T collaboration priorities, 59; funding, 105, 247, 248–49, 250, 354–55; leadership involvement, 252, 254; legacies, 186, 248, 251, 253–54, 257–60; multiparty agreements, 51–55; official languages, 354–55, 360–61; overview, 245–46, 260–62; partnerships, 250, 251; Sport Canada strategy, 102

Houlihan, B., 32n5, 107, 133, 209n9, 232, 298, 300, 304, 308

Howe, P. David, 413; on sport for people with disabilities, 295–316

Hughes, Clara, 136–37, 141n8

illegal substances. See doping in sport

immigrants: and CSP, 64; federal programs for integration, 65n7; immigrant sport associations, 72; participation, 203; social inclusion, 390, 395, 397; as volunteers, 388. See also social inclusion

inclusion, as term, 381–82. See also social inclusion

Indigenous people. See Aboriginal sport

infant health. See health education

intellectual disabilities and sport, 297, 388

intergovernmental relationships. See multi-level governance

International Olympic Committee (IOC): amateurism clause, 238; and COC, 40, 409; doping policies, 220–22, 224, 231–32; and IPC, 305–6, 311; multi-party agreements, 53; trademarks, 409; women’s ski jumping controversy, 89n2, 342–43. See also Olympic Games

International Organizations of Sports for the Disabled (IOSD), 297–98, 304–8, 313n3

International Paralympic Committee (IPC), 297–98, 300, 305–6, 311; and IOC, 305–6, 311. See also Paralympic Games

International Working Group on Women and Sport (IWG), 70, 331–32

Investors Group funding, 164

Jackson, Roger, 26t, 117–18, 119, 154

Jarvis, Patrick, 310

Jelinek, Otto, 16t, 223–24

Jensen, Knud, 220

Jeux de l’Acadie, 353

Johnson, Ben, 15, 74, 106, 226–27

kayaking, 123

Keyes, Stan, 17t

Kidd, Bruce, 98, 122, 321, 322, 414; on sport for development, 69–94

Kihl, L.A., 168–69

Kikulis, Lisa M., 168–69, 407, 414; on high performance sport, 97–145

Koss, Johann Olav, 79

Landry, Monique, 17t, 32n3

languages, official. See official languages

Lapierre, Jean, 16t

Laumann, Silken, 236

Lay, Marion, 322, 330

Legacies Now (2010), 259–60

Lenihan, D., 40, 408

Lenskyj, H.J., 261, 338–39, 341

lesbians. See sexual orientation

London Declaration on Expectations for Fairness in Sport (2001), 48

Long-Term Athlete Development (LTAD), 128–34; adoption in other countries, 132, 140n5; Canadian Sport for Life (CS4L), 59, 139n1, 149–52, 170n1, 208; and CSP, 59, 129; evaluation of, 131–34, 140n6; F-P/T collaboration priorities, 60, 64; funding, 130; overview, 27, 128–29, 140n5; people with disabilities, 129, 139n1, 149, 300, 313n4; sport academies, 132–33; Sport Canada strategy, 102, 128–30; sport-specific plans, 130; stages, 128, 140n5, 149–50

low-income people: participation barriers, 203–6; and social inclusion, 203, 206, 382, 384–86, 389, 391, 393; women in poverty, 384. See also social inclusion

Lunn, Gary, 18t, 120

Lynch, Jack, 221

MacEachen, Allan, 246

males. See men and gender

Mandela, Nelson, 73

Manitoba: bilateral agreements, 61; funding for bilateral agreements, 62t–63t; ministry for sport, recreation and physical activity, 46t. See also Winnipeg

Manley, John, 25

Maskwachees Declaration, 277

maternal health. See health education

McCloy, Cora, 187, 246, 248, 414; on hosting policies, 243–65

McMurtry, Roy, 74

mega-events: facilities, 187; funding, 245; media coverage, 186, 243, 245; official languages, 353, 363, 372–74; overview, 243–45; participation, 186–87, 201. See also hosting mega-events

men and gender: Charter rights, 324–25; coaches and officials, 318; gender relations and sport, 86; gender verification tests, 70; male-defined sport models, 341; UN working group, 83

Merklinger, Anne, 121

Miller, J.D., 162–63

Mills, Dennis, 239n2, 290n4

Mills Report (1998), 25–26, 231, 271–72, 276–77, 360

ministers of sport, list of federal, 16t–18t

ministry for sport, recreation and physical activity, list of provincial, 46t

Montreal: major facilities, 258; Sport Institute, 135, 151, 170n2, 362. See also Olympic Games, 1976, Montreal

Morrison, Denny, 125

multi-level governance, 37–68; administrative structures, 45–47, 46t; Canada Games, 51–53; conflict of interest, 54; and CSP, 40–41, 61–63; definitions, 42; F-P/T collaboration and implementation, 55–61, 56f, 1 63; history, 38–41, 43–44, 55; 1 horizontal/vertical relations, 47, 64; jurisdictions, 43–44; legislation, 1 45; municipalities, 38–39, 43, 55, 1 64; overview, 38–42, 63–65. See also provincial/territorial governments

multi-level governance and agreements: Aboriginal bilateral agreements, 60–61, 63–64, 283–84, 285–86; F-P/T bilateral agreements, 60–61, 62t–63t, 63–64, 284; funding for Aboriginal bilateral agreements, 63t; jurisdiction agreements, 49–51; 1 multi-party agreements, 51–55; 1 Olympics and Paralympics, 53–55, 1 368, 370, 375nn7–8; overview, 48–51, 1 48t, 50t

multi-sport events: list, 244t; multi-level governance, 43; official languages, 367; overview, 243–45. See also hosting mega-events

multi-sport/service organizations (MSOs): funding from SFAF, 108–9, 108t, 354; gender equity, 329, 331–34, 342; and LTAD, 128, 130, 131; official languages, 354; performance criteria, 140n2; women in sport, 320, 328. See also Long-Term Athlete Development (LTAD)

municipalities: facilities, 204; fitness, 14; multi-level governance, 38–39, 43, 55, 64; participation support, 39, 178–79, 203–4; powers, 39, 55; social 1 inclusion, 387, 396. See also multilevel governance

Munro, John, 13

Namibia and SDP, 81

National Fitness Council (NFC), 37–38, 45

National Hockey League, 25

National Physical Fitness Act (1943), 45, 65n1, 298

National Recreation Statement (1987), 48, 49–50, 55, 58, 183, 189, 191 1

National Sport and Recreation Centre, 356–57

national sport organizations (NSOs): AAP agreements, 157–58; funding, 1 163; funding from SFAF, 108–9, 108t, 1 133, 192–93, 354; gender equity, 1 330–34, 342; LTAD requirement, 1 133; official languages, 353, 354, 366–67; participation, 192–93, 198; 1 performance criteria, 140n2. See also Sport Funding and Accountability Framework

National Summit on Sport (2001), 26

Native people. See Aboriginal sport

Native Sport and Recreation Program, 270–71, 285 1

Nelson, Alex, 269

Neo-corporatist, 53

Neo-liberal, 73, 84, 184, 187, 202, 223, 391, 394

New Brunswick: athlete assistance program, 160; funding for bilateral agreements, 62t–63t; ministry for 1 sport, recreation and physical activity, 46t; Sport Centre, 151

newcomers. See immigrants; social inclusion

Newfoundland and Labrador: funding for bilateral agreements, 62t–63t; ministry for sport, recreation and physical activity, 46t

Nisga’a, 273, 290n5

No Accidental Champions, 129, 139n1, 149, 300, 313n4

non-profit organizations: federal funding, 355; official languages, 357

North American Indigenous Games (NAIG): athlete travel, 60, 282, 283; elite athletes, 283; F-P/T bilateral agreements, 60; funding, 281–82; 1 history, 276–77; participation, 283 1

North American Indigenous Games (NAIG), 1990, Edmonton, 276

Northern Games Association, 270–71

Northwest Territories: Aboriginal sport, 63t, 283; athlete assistance program, 160; funding for bilateral agreements, 62t–63t; ministry for sport, recreation and physical activity, 46t

Nova Scotia: funding for bilateral agreements, 62t–63t; hosting, 245; ministry for sport, recreation and physical activity, 46t; multi-level governance, 53; Sport Centre, 151

Nunavut: funding for bilateral agreements, 62t–63t; ministry for sport, recreation and physical activity, 46t

Nye, Barry, 221

Office of the Commissioner of Official Languages (OCOL): guidelines, 372–74; and high performance sports, 352–53; major events, 358–59, 372–74; mandate, 352–53, 356, 376n8; Olympics and Paralympics, 366–74, 376nn9–14; reports and studies, 361–64

official languages, 351–79; Anglophones, 365; audits, 358–59, 362; Charter rights, 353, 358; CSP (2012), 354; discrimination against, 360, 361; funding, 358, 365; funding from SFAF, 354, 359–60, 362, 366; history, 27, 355–61; Linguistic Barriers (2006), 364, 365–66; national and cultural identity, 353, 354, 355; Official Languages Act (1969), 351–56; Olympics and Paralympics, 53, 54–55, 366–74, 376nn9–14; overview, 351–52, 355–56; participation, 362; Sport Canada policies, 364–66; studies of, 361–65; under-representation, 361, 362, 364, 365; websites and social media, 366–67. See also Office of the Commissioner of Official Languages (OCOL)

officials, sport, 318

Olivier, Jacques, 16t

Olympic Aid, 79

Olympic Games: and Aboriginal people, 53–54; amateurism, 238; athlete assistance programs, 160–62; coaches, 318; Coaches Reward Program, 161; competition vs. ideals, 218, 219, 221, 223, 227–28, 237–38; cultural events, 369, 371–72; de Coubertin’s vision, 29, 217–18; doping, 219–22, 224, 227–30; eligibility code, 238–39; federal/provincial jurisdictions, 38; fundraising programs, 161–62; gender verification tests, 70; history, 217–21; individual vs. team sports, 188; male-defined sport models, 341; medals and participation trends, 189f; medal standings, 100t–101t; media, 186, 368; Multi-Party Agreement, 53–55, 368, 370, 375nn7–8; official languages, 53, 54–55, 366–74, 376nn9–14; people with disabilities, 309–11; social inclusion, 386–87; women ski jumping controversy, 70, 89n2, 342–43, 390–91. See also Canadian Olympic Committee; Own the Podium

Olympic Games, 1936, Berlin, 218–19

Olympic Games, 1952, Helsinki, 218–19

Olympic Games, 1960, Rome, 220

Olympic Games, 1972, Munich, 140n4

Olympic Games, 1976, Montreal: funding, 14, 38; Game Plan, 249; medals, 14, 114–15, 140n4

Olympic Games, 1984, Los Angeles, 222–23, 248

Olympic Games, 1988, Seoul, 15

Olympic Games, 1992, Barcelona, 225

Olympic Games, 1996, Atlanta, 185

Olympic Games, 2000, Sydney, 100t, 124, 201

Olympic Games, 2004, Athens, 100t, 309–10

Olympic Games, 2008, Beijing: female coaches, 318; funding, 123–24, 161; medals, 100t, 161; OTP funding, 117–18, 123–24, 125

Olympic Games, 2012, London, 26, 101t, 125–26, 318

Olympic Games, 2016, Rio de Janeiro, 99

Olympic Winter Games, 1988, Calgary: Best Ever, 15, 118, 225, 259; doping, 15, 74, 106, 185, 226; funding, 15, 225, 248; legacies, 257, 259; long-term planning, 259; medals, 15, 114–15, 185

Olympic Winter Games, 1992, Albertville, 225

Olympic Winter Games, 1994, Lillehammer, 185

Olympic Winter Games, 1998, Nagano, 360

Olympic Winter Games, 2002, Salt Lake City, 101t, 118–19

Olympic Winter Games, 2006, Turin, 101t, 123

Olympic Winter Games, 2010, Vancouver: budget cuts after, 260; funding, 26, 124, 161; highlights, 136–37; legacies, 201, 258–62; medals, 101t, 119, 124, 161; ‘medals arms race,’ 98–99; Multi-Party Agreement, 53–55, 368, 370, 375nn7–8; official languages, 54–55, 367–72, 376nn9–14; social inclusion, 386–87; women ski jumpers, 70, 89n2, 342–43, 390–91. See also Own the Podium

Olympic Winter Games, 2014, Sochi, 89n2, 127, 390

Ontario: Aboriginal sport, 63t, 282; athlete assistance program, 160; bilateral agreements, 61; facilities, 209n15; funding for bilateral agreements, 62t–63t; gender equality, 325; ministry for sport, recreation and physical activity, 46t; social inclusion, 390; sport academies, 132–33. See also Toronto

overseas development. See sport for development and peace

Owen, Stephen, 18t

Own the Podium (OTP), 114–28, 152–54; background, 114–16; business plans, 26, 117; evaluation of, 122–28, 153–54; funding, 116, 117, 118, 119–20, 122, 125, 127–28, 153; funding of specific sports, 188; governance and structure, 121–22; legacies, 259; ‘medals arms race,’ 98–99; medal targets, 98–99, 115–16, 118, 123–26, 135; name, 118, 122–23, 127; non-profit status, 120–21; overview, 104t, 115, 152–54; Paralympics, 116–17, 118, 120; Road to Excellence, 26, 117, 123, 152; Sport Canada strategy (2005), 102; sport research (‘top secret’), 117, 123, 125, 127; tiered sports, 116, 123–24, 126; use by other nations, 127

Pan American Games: doping, 221–22; official languages, 55, 363

Pan American Games, 1983, Caracas, 221

Pan American Games, 1995, Mar del Plata, 236

Pan American Games, 1999, Winnipeg, 258, 260, 363

Pan and Parapan American Games, 2015, Toronto, 2, 55, 135, 372

Paproski, Steve, 16t

Paralympic Games: classification systems, 297–98, 305–8; coaching, 309; cultural events, 369; funding, 120, 161, 304–7; gender verification tests, 70; history, 297–99, 304–5; and IPC, 297–98, 300, 305–6, 311; medals, 100t–101t, 161; media, 120, 368; Multi-Party Agreement, 53–55, 368, 370, 375nn7–8; official languages, 54–55, 366–74, 376nn9–14; OTP, 116–17, 118, 120; overview, 304–6; social inclusion, 120, 161, 386–87. See also Canadian Paralympic Committee; Own the Podium

Paralympic Games, 1968, Tel Aviv, 298

Paralympic Games, 2000, Sydney, 100t

Paralympic Games, 2004, Athens, 100t, 309–10, 313n3

Paralympic Games, 2008, Beijing, 100t, 309–10, 313n5

Paralympic Games, 2012, London, 99, 101t

Paralympic Winter Games, 2002, Salt Lake City, 101t

Paralympic Winter Games, 2006, Turin, 101t

Paralympic Winter Games, 2010, Vancouver: funding, 120, 165, 299–300; legacies, 258–59; ‘medals arms race,’ 98–99; medal standings, 102t, 119; Multi-Party Agreement, 53–55, 368, 370, 375nn7–8; official languages, 54–55, 367–72, 376nn9–14; OTP, 116–17, 118

Paraschak, Victoria, 415; on Aboriginal people and sport, 267–93

ParticipACTION, 13, 180, 182–83, 185, 195

participation in sport, 177–213; Aboriginal policy (2005), 177, 267, 276–79, 284–87, 289n1; Active Living, 182–85; barriers, 202–4; children’s fitness tax credit, 44, 65n5, 195; commercialization, 182; CSP (2002) goals, 189–90; CSP (2012) goals, 197, 206–8; differentiation, 181, 199; facilities, 180, 187, 200, 207–8; Fitness Canada, 179, 182–85, 186, 191; F-P/T roles, 183, 189, 191, 196; funding, 186–89, 192–93; high performance vs. participation, 186–92, 189f; history, 177–80; measuring of, 196–99, 202–3; municipal support, 39, 178–79, 203–4; National Recreation Statement (1987), 48–50, 55, 58, 183, 189, 191; new ‘sport for all,’ 202–3; non-competitive activities, 181; Olympic medals and participation trends, 189f; overview, 177–78, 406–7; ParticipACTION, 13, 180, 182–83, 185, 195; research initiative, 193–94; and social inclusion, 389; Sport for All movement, 179–81, 184–85, 207; ‘sportization’ and ‘de-sportization,’ 181; Sport Participation Strategy (2008), 189–92, 194–96, 198; statistics, 180, 184–85, 191, 194–97; values, 178; women, 317–18, 332. See also Bill C-12: An Act to Promote Physical Activity and Sport (2003); Bill C-131 Act to Encourage Fitness and Amateur Sport (1961); Fitness and Amateur Sport; Fitness Canada

Partners in Pursuit of Excellence— A National Policy on Amateur Sport, 14

Pearson, Lester B., 82, 355

Peel, Ann, 75, 76, 157–58, 162, 165–67

people with disabilities, 295–316; AAP support, 306–8; Athletics Canada, 296, 302–3, 305–12, 313n2; barriers, 391; Charter rights, 295–96, 311; classification systems, 297–98, 305–8; congenital/acquired disabilities, 307–8; disablism, 312; elite sport, 296, 298, 300–301, 303–5, 308; funding, 306–8, 333; funding by charities, 304–5, 308; gender equity, 339, 341; history, 296–301; integration continuum, 302; integration/segregation, 300–304, 307–12; international federations, 297; IOSDs, 297–98, 304–8, 313n3; media coverage, 298, 309; No Accidental Champions (LTAD), 129, 139n1, 149, 300, 313n4; overview, 295–96, 311–12; participation, 296, 297, 301; SFAF assessment grid, 111t; social inclusion, 308, 388–89, 391; Special Olympics, 388–89; sport for development, 78; sport policy (2006), 287, 299, 304, 311, 312; terminology, 301–3, 312, 313n1; “universal female” model, 339; UN working group, 83. See also Paralympic Games; wheelchair sports

Perrault, Raymond, 16t

Petitclerc, Chantal, 309–10, 313n5

Petro-Canada FACE program, 163, 170n6

Physical Activity and Sport Act. See Bill C-12: An Act to Promote Physical Activity and Sport (2003)

Physical Activity and Sport Monitor (PASM), 197–99

Physical Inactivity: A Framework for Action (1997), 48

physical literacy: defined, 32n9

Podium Canada, 118, 152. See also Own the Podium

policies, sport: business-oriented models, 340–41, 391, 394; goals and objectives, 278; level of authority, 274; levels of abstraction, 3–4; overview, 1–4, 408; political backgrounds, 341; power relations, 274, 285–86, 382; public policy, as term, 4; sport, as term, 2. See also history of federal sport policy

Policy on Aboriginal Peoples’ Participation in Sport (2005), 177, 267, 278–79, 287, 289n1

Policy on Sport for Persons With a Disability (2006), 287, 299, 304, 311, 312

Ponic, Pamela, 384, 395, 396, 415; on social inclusion, 381–403

Porritt, Arthur, 220

Porter, Bob, 230

poverty. See low-income people

Prince Edward Island: funding for bilateral agreements, 62t–63t; ministry for sport, recreation and physical activity, 46t; Sport Centre, 151

professional sport franchises: history of federal funding, 25; mega-event legacies, 258

Project Stream, 105

Provincial/Territorial Aboriginal Sport Bodies (PTASB), 276, 284–86, 288

provincial/territorial governments: administrative structures, 45–47, 46t; athlete assistance programs, 159–60; F-P/T collaboration, 55–60, 56f; funding, 39, 159–60; funding for bilateral agreements, 62t; jurisdiction, 43–44, 46, 49–50; ministries for sport, recreation and physical activity, 46t; recreation and leisure, 49–51; vertical/horizontal relations, 47. See also multi-level governance

Public Health Agency, 45, 56f

Quebec: Aboriginal sport, 63t, 285; athlete development, 155; funding for bilateral agreements, 62t–63t; ministry for sport, recreation and physical activity, 46t; multi-level governance, 37–38, 43, 47, 66n15; official languages, 54–55, 360, 362; sport academies, 133; Sport Institute, 135, 151, 170n2, 362. See also official languages; Olympic Games, 1976, Montreal

race/ethnicity: apartheid, 73–74, 343; female participation, 341; gender equity and “universal female,” 339; social inclusion, 390. See also social inclusion

RBC funding, 164

Read, Ken, 121

recreation: CSP (2012), 31; government units, 46t; National Recreation Statement (1987), 48–50, 55, 58, 183, 189, 191; provincial and local jurisdiction, 14, 49–51. See also participation in sport

refugees. See immigrants

Regan, Gerald, 16t, 248

Report to the Secretary of State on Hosting International Sport Events (2003), 250–55

research: on doping, 237–38; granting councils, 193–94; GSS on gender, 317–18; GSS on participation, 184–85, 191, 195–97; OTP ‘top secret,’ 117, 123, 125, 127; participation (SPRI), 193–94; Sport Canada (SCRI), 193–94. See also Canadian Sport Centres/Institutes

Right to Play (RTP), 70–71, 77, 79, 82–83, 89

Road to Excellence (RTE), 26, 117, 123, 152. See also Own the Podium

Rona funding, 164

Roos, Jane, 162, 170n5

rowing, 125

Roy, Diane, 310–11

Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples, 270, 276

Royal Commission on Bilingualism and Biculturalism, 355–56

running, 202–3

Russia and OTP program, 127

Safai, Parissa, 415; on women in sport, 317–49

Samaranch, Juan Antonio, 231

Saskatchewan: funding for bilateral agreements, 62t–63t; LTAD, 61; ministry for sport, recreation and physical activity, 46t; Sport Centres/Institutes, 151

Scandinavia and SDP, 76

Schalm, Sherraine, 124

SDP (sport for development and peace). See sport for development and peace

seniors: participation, 202, 204; social inclusion, 385, 388, 389

sexual orientation: Charter rights, 324–25; gender equity and “universal female,” 339; social inclusion, 382

Sherrill, C., 297–98, 305

Simpson, Tommy, 220

single sport events: mega-events, 243–45, 253. See also hosting mega-events

skiing: women ski jumping controversy, 70, 89n2, 342–43, 390–91

sliding sports, 188, 198

soccer, 77, 78, 112t, 133

social class: and elite athletes, 187; gender equity and “universal female,” 339; and participation barriers, 202. See also low-income people

social inclusion, 381–403; as ‘access,’ 392; and assimilation, 392, 395; benefits, 85–86, 382, 385, 388–89; business-oriented models, 340–41, 391, 394; community development approaches, 384, 388, 396–99; as complex and dynamic process, 383–86, 392–95, 398–99; and CSP, 207, 299, 385–86; and ethics, 383–84, 394; evaluation, 398; exclusion benefits, 388–89, 392–93; exclusion mechanisms, 389–92; history, 383–87; immigrants, 390, 395, 397; overview, 381–82, 398–99; people with disabilities, 383, 388–89, 391; power relations, 382, 384; research approaches, 395–96; strategies, 1 394–99; VANOC goals, 386–87; 1 women in sport, 390–91. See also low-income people

South Africa: apartheid, 73–74, 343

Special Olympics, 244t, 388–89

speed skating, 125, 257

Spicer, Keith, 356

Sport: The Way Ahead (1992), 11, 190–91, 276, 327–28, 330

Sport Canada: bilateral agreements with other countries, 70; collective bargaining by athletes, 75; F-P/T bilateral agreements, 60–61, 62t, 63–64; funding, 105, 156t; funding history (1985–2013), 28t, 29t, 360; high performance sport, 102, 186–92; history, 19, 45, 179; official languages, 364–66; overview, 105t; participation, 191–92; sport for development, 88; Sport Participation Strategy (2008), 189–92, 194–96, 198. See also Canadian Sport Policy (2002); Canadian Sport Policy (2012); Sport Funding and Accountability Framework

Sport Canada Policy on Women in Sport (1986), 319, 320, 325–27, 334, 337

Sport Canada Research Initiative (SCRI), 193

Sport Centres/Institutes. See Canadian Sport Centres/Institutes

Sport Dispute Resolution Centre (SDRCC), 4, 26, 167–68, 364

sport for development and peace (SDP), 69–94; advocacy, 75–76; benefits, 84–88; Commonwealth Games (CGC IDS), 80–81, 84–85, 88; development of or through sport, 77–81; framework (2000), 79–80; funding, 81–82, 88–89; future challenges, 88–89; and gender relations, 86–88; history, 72–77, 81; monitoring and evaluation, 84–88; overview, 69–72, 408–9; policy framework, 81–83; power relations, 72, 84, 87–88; Right to Play, 70–71, 77, 79, 82–83, 89; sport as social intervention, 86–87; ‘sport for good,’ 72–75, 87, 89n4; UN initiatives, 82–83, 88–89; UN Millennium Development Goals, 69, 79, 82, 84; Victoria Declaration, 75–76. See also health education

Sport for More, 61

Sport Funding and Accountability Framework (SFAF), 108–14, 192–93; agreements, 114; assessment, 110, 111t–113t, 192–93; background, 106–8; eligibility, 109–10; funding, 108–10, 114; funding decline, 108t–109; gender equity, 333–34; high performance sport, 109–10, 114; history, 19, 25; and LTAD, 110, 130, 133; official languages, 354, 359–60, 362, 366; participation, 192–93

Sport Gender Snapshot, 331–32

Sport in Canada (1998). See Mills Report

Sport Leaders Abroad, 88

Sport Medicine Council of Canada, 229–30

sport officials and gender, 318

Sport Participation Research Initiative (SPRI), 193–94

Sport Participation Strategy 2008–2012 (2008), 189–92, 194–96, 198

Sport Schools in Canada, 132–33

Sport Support Program (SSP), 105–6, 366

Status of the High Performance Athlete reports, 159, 160, 163, 165, 166

Steadward, Robert, 298, 300, 305–06, 339

substances, doping. See doping in sport

Summative Evaluation of the Department of Canadian Heritage’s Sport Hosting Program (2003), 253–54

Svoboda, Mira, 23t, 364–65

swimming, 112t, 209n15, 296, 306, 394

Targets for Athlete Performance and the Sport System (2004), 120

Tenasco, René, 270

tennis, 112t, 209n14

Tewksbury, Mark, 126

Thibault, Lucie, 165–66, 168, 416; on athlete development, 147–76; on history of federal policy, 11–35; on hosting policies, 243–65; on sport policy, 1–8, 405–10

Toronto: facilities, 209n15; Pan/Parapan (2015), 2, 55, 135, 372; participation, 203–4; sport academies, 133; Sport Institute, 135, 151

Toward 2000: Building Canada’s Sport System (1988), 224–25, 229–30

track and field: team vs. individual sports, 188. See also Athletics Canada

transgendered people. See sexual orientation

Trudeau, Pierre Elliott, 13, 16t, 70, 98, 190

True Sport, 168, 200, 386, 389–90

Trupish, Adam, 123–24

under-represented groups: and CSP, 59, 284, 339–40, 385; official languages, 361, 362, 364, 365; participation, 195–96; social inclusion, 385, 406. See also Aboriginal sport; immigrants; low-income people; people with disabilities; race/ethnicity; seniors; social inclusion; women and girls in sport

UNESCO, 180, 234

United Kingdom: LTAD model, 132, 140n5; social class and elite athletes, 187; sport academies, 133; sport for development, 76; UK Sport, 77, 127. See also Olympic Games, 2012, London

United Nations: Millennium Development Goals, 69, 79, 82, 84; sport for development and peace (UNOSDP), 82–83, 88–89

United States: Aboriginal sports, 281–82; Cold War and sports, 185, 190, 209n7, 219; doping policies, 226–27; LTAD model, 140n5; ‘medals arms race,’ 98–99, 123, 127, 185–88, 1 209n9; social class and elite athletes, 187; sport for development, 72

Universiade Games, 1983, Edmonton, 248

universities and colleges: AAP tuition support, 157; hosting legacies, 259; sport for development, 73; sport institutes, 135–36

USSR: Cold War and sports, 185, 190, 209n7, 219

Vail, Sue, 319, 323, 326, 338, 388, 396

values in sport. See ethics and values

Vancouver Organizing Committee (VANOC): Multi-Party Agreement, 53–55, 368, 370, 375nn7–8; social 1 inclusion, 386–87; women’s ski 1 jumping controversy, 342–43. See also Olympic Games, 2010, Vancouver; Paralympic Games, 2010, Vancouver

van Loan, Peter, 18t

Victoria, Sport Centre/Institute, 151

Visa funding, 164

visual impairment and sport, 297, 306

volleyball, 112t, 245

weightlifting: doping, 219, 221, 222–23, 1 224; funding, 113t

wheelchair sports: elite sports, 306, 310–11; history, 298, 306; integration, 1 308; organizations, 297, 313n3; Paralympic Games, 298, 310; sport for development, 78; and technology, 310

Whistler, Sport Centre/Institute, 151

Windhoek Call for Action, 331, 333

Winnipeg: inner city youth, 396; mega-events, 244, 258, 260, 363; Sport Centre, 151, 258, 362

WinSport Canada, Calgary, 105t, 116, 133, 136, 257

women and gender: barriers in sport, 341–44; CAAWS advocacy, 328–29, 333, 343–44; Charter rights, 324–25, 343; data collection on, 334; Dubin inquiry recommendations, 75, 327; equality to equity shift, 338–39; 1 federal policies, 332–34; feminism, 1 322, 324, 338–39, 341; funding and 1 accountability, 332–34; gender 1 equity and NSOs/MSOs, 330–35, 342; 1 global principles, 331–33; IWG on 1 Women and Sport, 70, 331–32; and 1 liberalism, 341; Olympic ski jumping controversy, 70, 89n2, 342–43, 390–91; Sport: The Way Ahead, 327–28; sport officials, 318; and “universal female,” 339; UN Millennium Development Goals, 69

women and girls in sport, 317–49; Actively Engaged (2009), 278, 287, 319, 334–36, 339; benefits, 85–86; Brighton Declaration, 331, 333; Charter rights, 324–25, 343; coaches, 318, 1 327, 335, 338, 342; conferences, 322–23, 332–33; CSP (2002) underrepresented group, 339–40; CSP (2012) targets, 197; Dubin inquiry recommendations, 327; elite athletes, 318, 336, 342; funding, 328–29, 330, 1 333–34; history (1960s–1980s), 320–27, 1 337–38; history (1990s–2010s), 327–36; 1 international organizations, 331–32; 1 leadership, 318, 327–28, 335–36, 338, 1 341–42; NSO women’s committees, 1 326–27; overview, 317–19, 344; 1 participation, 317–18, 326, 327, 335, 1 341; segregation/integration, 321, 322; and SFAF, 333–34; social inclusion, 1 390–91; Sport: The Way Ahead, 327–28, 330; Sport Canada policy 1 (1986), 319, 320, 325–27, 330, 334–35, 1 337–38; Sport Gender Snapshot, 331–32; 1 WAAF, 320–22. See also Canadian Association for the Advancement of Women and Sport and Physical Activity; women and gender

Women in Sport Policy. See Sport Canada Policy on Women in Sport (1986)

Women’s Amateur Athletic Federation (WAAF), 320–22

World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA), 70, 109, 232–36. See also doping in sport

World Championships in Athletics (IAAF), 2001, Edmonton, 32n7

World University Games, 1983, Edmonton, 259

Yalden, Maxwell, 356–57

Yukon: Aboriginal sport, 63t, 282–83; funding for bilateral agreements, 62t–63t; ministry for sport, recreation and physical activity, 46t

Zambia and SDP, 80–81

Ziegler, John, 219

Zimbabwe and SDP, 77–78, 80

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