Version classiqueVersion mobile
OpenEdition Books

Sport Policy in Canada

 | 
Lucie Thibault
, 
Jean Harvey

Section I. An overview of sport policy in Canada

Chapter I. The Evolution of Federal Sport Policy from 1960 to Today

Lucie Thibault et Jean Harvey

Texte intégral

1As noted in the introduction to this book, contemporary analysis of government involvement in ‘amateur’ sport is not only warranted, it is essential given the significant changes that have occurred in Canadian sport and in federal government involvement in sport since the publications of Macintosh and his colleagues as well as others (cf. Cantelon, 2003; Harvey, 1988, 2002, 2008; Harvey & Cantelon, 1988; Macintosh, 1996; Macintosh, Bedecki, & Franks, 1987; Macintosh & Whitson, 1990). For example, since 1987, Canada has hosted two Olympic Winter Games (Calgary 1988 and Vancouver 2010), Ben Johnson was caught using a banned substance in the 1988 Seoul Olympic Games, and an inquiry investigating the use of banned performance-enhancing substances in Canadian sports (Dubin, 1990) was conducted. In addition, during this time period the sport system was put under close scrutiny as the very purpose and place of government in sport was reassessed (e.g., Sport: The Way Ahead; Mills Report) (Mills, 1998; Minister’s Task Force, 1992). The position of Minister of State for Fitness and Amateur Sport was abolished in 1993, while at the same time, Sport Canada was moved to the newly created Department of Canadian Heritage. Canada hosted the Commonwealth Games in 1994 in Victoria and the Pan Am Games in 1999 in Winnipeg. Under the leadership of the new Secretary of State for Sport, Denis Coderre, an extensive pan-Canadian consultation process involving all major sport stakeholders was undertaken, which culminated in the Report on the National Summit on Sport (Government of Canada, 2001), the Canadian Sport Policy in 2002 (Sport Canada, 2002), and federal legislation in the form of an act to promote physical activity and sport (Bill C-12) in 2003 (Parliament of Canada, 2003). The original Canadian Sport Policy was subsequently renewed in 2012 (Sport Canada, 2012). Bill C-12 and the Canadian Sport Policy are part of a series of laws and policies developed by Sport Canada. Table 1.1 (below) provides a chronological outline of these laws and policies. For the most part, these will be examined in different chapters throughout this book. In the present chapter, we will provide a brief historical overview of federal government involvement in sport, where major features of increased government involvement in our sport system will be outlined.

2In the late 1950s and early 1960s, the Canadian government started to consider a more direct involvement in our nation’s sport system. Several events led politicians and bureaucrats down this path. For example, Canada’s lack of gold medal performances in ice hockey during the 1956 and 1960 Olympic Winter Games, meager results at the 1960 Olympic Summer Games combined with poor levels of fitness among Canadians, led to increased pressure on politicians and the federal government to become directly involved in sport and fitness in the early 1960s. Giving further support for government involvement was the Prime Minister at the time, John Diefenbaker (Progressive Conservative government). As a young, aspiring politician who had attended the 1936 Olympic Games in Berlin as a spectator and then, as Prime Minister, the Pan American Games in Chicago in 1959, Diefenbaker experienced firsthand the power of sport to enhance national pride, identity and unity (Kidd, 2001; Macintosh et al., 1987). The Government of Canada would soon develop legislation that would secure its involvement for the future. In September 1961, the federal government passed Bill C-131, an Act to Encourage Fitness and Amateur Sport. In the years following Bill C-131, the nature of government involvement was predominantly in the form of grants to provincial governments to ensure the implementation of fitness programs as well as programs to enhance athletic performance in international competitions (Macintosh et al., 1987). In the mid-1960s, the federal government also created the Canada Games—a multi-sport national competition for youth held every two years (alternating between summer and winter games) where athletes represent their provinces and territories. The first games were held in 1967 in Quebec City (Macintosh et al., 1987).

Table 1.1 Sport Canada Legislation and Policies

Year

Legislation or Policy

1985

Federal Government Policy on Tobacco Sponsorship of National Sport Organizations

1994

National Sports of Canada Act

1995

Department of Canadian Heritage Act

2002

Canadian Sport Policy

2003

Bill C-12: An Act to Promote Physical Activity and Sport

2005

Sport Canada’s Policy on Aboriginal Peoples’ Participation in Sport

2006

Policy on Sport for Persons With a Disability

2007

Bill C-47: The Olympic and Paralympic Marks Act

2008

Federal Policy for Hosting International Sport Events

2009

Actively Engaged: A Policy on Sport for Women and Girls

2011

The Canadian Policy Against Doping in Sport

2012

Canadian Sport Policy

  • 1 Nancy Greene was recently appointed Senator in January 2009 by Prime Minister Harper (Senate of Ca (...)

3The extent of government involvement took on greater proportion in the late 1960s and 1970s. In his electoral campaign for Prime Minister, Pierre Elliott Trudeau (Liberal government) made a promise to examine sport. Following his election in 1968, Trudeau honoured this promise and created a task force to examine the state of amateur and professional sport and explore the role of government and national and international sport organizations in promoting and developing Canadian sport (Macintosh et al., 1987). The task force included Nancy Greene,1 a prominent downhill skier who won the inaugural World Cup in 1967 and won gold (giant slalom) and silver (slalom) medals at the 1968 Olympic Winter Games in Grenoble. In 1969, the Report of the Task Force on Sports for Canadians was published (Rae, 1969). Several of the task force recommendations would eventually be implemented by the Ministry of National Health and Welfare through a document presented by then Minister John Munro entitled A Proposed Sports Policy for Canadians (Munro, 1970). Several arm’s-length agencies such as the Coaching Association of Canada, ParticipACTION, Hockey Canada and the National Sport and Recreation Centre were created during the early 1970s to support national sport organizations; office space was subsequently provided to these organizations in Ottawa along with funding to hire one full-time employee (Macintosh, 1996; Macintosh et al., 1987). These government initiatives were well received by national sport organizations.

4These initiatives were further sustained with the announcement in 1971 by the International Olympic Committee (IOC) that the 1976 Summer Olympic Games would be awarded to Montreal. The announcement provided the impetus for the federal government’s emphasis on high performance sport (over the development of mass sport, fitness, or recreation). Several programs were initiated to prepare athletes for the Games. For example, athlete assistance programs (i.e., Game Plan, Game Plan 76) overseen by the Canadian Olympic Association (renamed the Canadian Olympic Committee in 2002) were developed to provide financial support to athletes preparing for the 1972 and 1976 Games. A lottery system (Loto-Canada) was created by the federal government to provide additional funding for the organization of the 1976 Games. National sport organizations benefited from greater federal funding in the years preceding the Games (Macintosh et al., 1987).

5From an international perspective, the Montreal Games were considered a success, (particularly when compared to the 1972 Munich Olympic Games); however, from a fiscal perspective the 1976 Games were a financial disaster, with a reported deficit of CA$ 1B to CA$ 1.5B. It would take three decades to pay this deficit off—with funds originating mostly from taxation on tobacco products (Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, 2006). Of note, regarding our athletes’ performances at these Games, Canada would become the first host-nation not to win a gold medal during the Games.

6Shortly after the 1976 Montreal Games, the Liberal government created the position of Minister of State for Fitness and Amateur Sport (to work under the aegis of the Ministry of National Health and Welfare), with Iona Campagnolo appointed as its first minister. During her term, Campagnolo undertook a comprehensive review of Canada’s sport and consulted with several stakeholders. In 1979, she released Partners in Pursuit of Excellence—A National Policy on Amateur Sport. Although this document was never tabled in the House of Commons, responsibilities regarding high performance sport would remain in the purview of the federal government while the responsibility for mass sport and recreation would be devolved to provincial and local governments. During Campagnolo’s term, Canada hosted the 1978 Commonwealth Games in Edmonton and finished in first place overall, capturing 109 of 395 medals. This victory and Campagnolo’s presence in the Games’ closing ceremonies reaffirmed the involvement of the federal government in high performance sport (Macintosh et al., 1987).

7In 1981, the IOC selected Calgary as host-city of the 1988 Olympic Winter Games. As was the case for the 1976 Games, the decision led to several government initiatives to prepare athletes for the event. One of these initiatives included Best Ever ’88, a program wherein national sport organizations would receive federal funding to develop and implement four-year plans to enhance the preparation of their athletes (Macintosh & Whitson, 1990). The 1980s were marked by a high turnover rate in the ministers appointed to the sport portfolio (see Table 1.2 for a complete list of ministers responsible for sport since 1976). The 1980s were also marked by increasing levels of organization and bureaucracy within the Canadian sport system, with the hiring of more paid administrative and technical staff in most national sport organizations and in a number of provincial sport organizations. This led to the increased bureaucratization and professionalization of sport organizations as structures, policies, and systems were established and implemented (Macintosh & Whitson, 1990). But while the Games in Calgary were deemed successful, once again Canadian athletes failed to secure a gold medal for the country. By the 1990s, the increased bureaucratization and professionalization of sport organizations would lead to changes in governance in which paid executives took on greater responsibilities for the development of policies and strategies for their sport in shared leadership with volunteer executives.

8The 1988 Summer Olympic Games in Seoul shook the foundation of Canada’s sport system when Ben Johnson’s win in the 100-metre race and his subsequent disqualification a few days later became the biggest story at the Games. The disqualification based on Johnson’s positive drug test eventually resulted in the establishment by the federal government of an inquiry into the use of drugs and banned practices intended to increase athletic performance. This commission led by Justice Charles Dubin resulted in a comprehensive 1990 report entitled Commission of Inquiry Into the Use of Drugs and Banned Practices Intended to Increase Athletic Performance. Dubin’s (1990) critical examination of Canada’s high performance sport led to a new doping policy (Canadian Policy on Penalties for Doping in Sport) and several other reports, many of them also scrutinizing the Canadian government’s (over)emphasis on international results for athletes and recommending an examination and adoption of ‘ethical’ sport practices (e.g., Values and Ethics in Amateur Sport. Morality, Leadership, Education; Sport: The Way Ahead; The Status of the High Performance Athlete in Canada). A list of these documents, including other sportrelated documents published by the federal government and national non-profit organizations, is provided in Table 1.3. In addition to the publication of a number of reports, two organizations were created as a result of the Dubin inquiry: Fair Play Canada and the Canadian Centre for Drug-Free Sport. These two organizations eventually merged in 1995 to form the Canadian Centre for Ethics in Sport (Canadian Centre for Ethics in Sport, n.d.).

  • 2 Information for this table originated from the following sources: Canadian Heritage. (2000). Feder (...)

Table 1.2 Canadian Ministers/Secretary of State for Sport 1976–20132

Table 1.2 Canadian Ministers/Secretary of State for Sport 1976–20132

Table 1.2 (Continued)

Table 1.2 (Continued)
  • 3 According to the Government of Canada website [http://www.pco-bcp.gc.ca/mgm/dtail.asp?lang=eng (...)
  • 4 The Government of Canada’s website [http://www2.parl.gc.ca/parlinfo/Compilations/FederalGovernment (...)

Note 33
Note 44

Table 1.2 (Continued)

Table 1.2 (Continued)
  • 5 The Fitness and Amateur Sport Directorate was upgraded to a ‘Branch’ in 1973 (cf. Houlihan, 1997; (...)

9In 1993, amid a pre-election reorganization of government and efforts to cut government spending, Prime Minister Kim Campbell (Progressive Conservative government) eliminated the position of Minister of State for Fitness and Amateur Sport and restructured the Fitness and Amateur Sport Branch.5 Sport Canada, then the primary unit in the branch, was subsumed by the new Department of Canadian Heritage, while Fitness Canada, the other unit, was moved to the Department of Health Canada. The mandate of sport and in particular high performance sport was perceived as a good fit in Canadian Heritage, as one of its main foci was to promote Canada both domestically and abroad (Harvey, Thibault, & Rail, 1995; Thibault & Kikulis, 2011).

10In the 1990s, the Conservative government’s emphasis on downsizing required all departments to assess their “core business.” This resulted in a recommendation to fund selected national sport organizations (rather than funding all national sport organizations). In their quest to maximize the impact of funding, politicians and bureaucrats felt that money would be better invested in those sports in which athletes were doing well internationally. In this funding shift, the federal government would stop funding sport organizations with poor international performances. A change in government occurred before the Conservatives were able to implement this initiative; however, the funding of national sport organizations was reassessed by the Liberal government resulting in the adoption of the Sport Funding and Accountability Framework in 1996. This framework did in fact result in the selection of national sport organizations for funding based on assessments of high performance sport and sport participation and remains in effect as the process for funding national sport organizations (Harvey, 2008; Havaris & Danylchuk, 2007).

Table 1.3 Sport-Related Publications by the Government of Canada and Other Organizations 1985–2012

Year

Report

Source/Author

1985

Improved Program Delivery—Health and Sports. A Study Team Report to the Task Force on Program Review

Government of Canada

1985

High Performance Athlete Development in Canada

Federal-Provincial/Territorial Ministers of Sport

1987

National Recreation Statement

Interprovincial Sport and Recreation Council

1988

Toward 2000: Building Canada’s Sport System. The Report of the Task Force on National Sport Policy

Fitness and Amateur Sport

1990

Amateur Sport: Future Challenges

Bob Porter and John Cole

1990

Commission of Inquiry into the Use of Drugs and Banned Practices Intended to Increase Athletic Performance

Charles L. Dubin

1990

Discussion Paper Prepared for Consultation on the Dubin Report: Doping Related Matters

Fitness and Amateur Sport

1991

Values and Ethics in Amateur Sport: Morality, Leadership, Education

Fitness and Amateur Sport (Marjorie Blackhurst, Angela Schneider and Dorothy Strachan)

1992

Sport: The Way Ahead. Minister’s Task Force on Federal Sport Policy

Fitness and Amateur Sport

1992

The Status of the High Performance Athlete in Canada

Government of Canada

1993

Foundation Themes for an Emerging Sport Plan for Canada

Federal, provincial, territorial ministers responsible for sport and recreation

1994

Report of the Core Sport Commissioner

J.Cal Best

1994

Sport Participation in Canada

Statistics Canada

1994

Athlete-Centred Sport—Discussion Paper

Heather Clarke, Dan Smith, and Guy Thibault on behalf of the FederalProvincial/Territorial Sport Policy Steering Committee

1995

Sport Canada Sport Funding and Accountability Framework

Sport Canada

1995

Federal-Provincial/Territorial Planning Framework for Sport

Federal-Provincial/Territorial Ministers of Sport

1997

Physical Inactivity: A Framework for Action. Towards Healthy, Active Living for Canadians

Federal-Provincial/Territorial Advisory Committee on Fitness and Recreation

1997

Governance of the Canada Games: 1997 Clear Lake Resolution

Federal-Provincial/Territorial Ministers Responsible for Sport Interprovincial Sport & Recreation Council

1997

1996 Status of the High Performance Athlete Survey

Sport Canada

1998

Sport Canada Strategic Plan

Sport Canada

1998

Canadian Heritage Performance Report

Canadian Heritage, Sheila Copps

1998

Sport in Canada: Everybody’s Business. Leadership, Partnership and Accountability

Dennis Mills

1999

National Sport Centres—Position Paper

Sport Canada

1999

Report of National Conference on Sport and Corporate Sector

The Conference Board of Canada

1999

1999–2000 Core Support Program Guidelines

Sport Canada

2000–2001

Sport Canada Documents for the Regional Conferences on Sport (1999–2000)

Denis Coderre

2000

A Win-Win Solution: Creating a National Alternate Dispute Resolution System for Amateur Sport in Canada. Report of the Work Group to the Secretary of State (Amateur Sport)

Report of the Work Group on Alternate Dispute Resolution in Canadian Amateur Sport

2000

Official Languages in the Canadian Sports System Volume 1

Office of the Commissioner of Official Languages

2000

Official Languages in the Canadian Sport System Volume 2—Athlete Survey— Compilation of Responses

Office of the Commissioner of Official Languages

2001

National Summit on Sport

Denis Coderre

2001

London Declaration on Expectations for Fairness in Sport

Provincial/Territorial- Federal Ministers of Sport

2002

Bill C-54 An Act to Promote Physical Activity and Sport [renumbered Bill C-12 in 2003]

Government of Canada

2002

Canadian Sport Policy

Canadian Heritage

2002

Federal-Provincial/Territorial Priorities for Collaborative Action 2002–2005

Federal-Provincial/Territorial Sport Ministers

2002

The Canadian Strategy for Ethical Conduct in Sport

Work group of FederalProvincial/Territorial Sport Committee

2003

Bill C-12 An Act to Promote Physical Activity and Sport

Government of Canada

2003

Report to the Secretary of State (Physical Activity and Sport) on Hosting International Sport Events in Canada— A Proposal for a Strategic Framework

Jean-Pierre Blais, Strategic Hosting Work Group

2003

Official Languages in the Canadian Sport System: Follow-Up

Office of the Commissioner of Official Languages

2004

Targets for Athlete Performance and the Sport System. Final Draft.

Thérèse Brisson (F-P/T Work Group #4) submitted to InterProvincial Sport and Recreation Council

2004

Own the Podium 2010. Final Report of the Independent Task Force

Cathy Priestner Allinger and Todd Priestner

2004

Investing in Sport Participation 2004–2008. A Discussion Paper

Sport Canada

2005

Status of the High Performance Athlete in 2004

Ekos Research Associates

2005

Sport Canada Sport Excellence Strategy

Canadian Heritage

2005

Long-Term Athlete Development: Canadian Sport for Life

Sheila Robertson and Ann Hamilton (Eds.), Canadian Sport Centres

2005

Strengthening Canada: The Socio- Economic Benefits of Participation in Canada

Bloom, M., Grant, M. and Watt, D. Conference Board of Canada

2005

Investing in Canada: Leveraging the Economic and Social Capital of Sport and Physical Activity

Sport Matters Group

2006

Linguistic Barriers to Access to High Performance Sport Study—2005

Mira Svoboda (Ekos) and Peter Donnelly

2006

Achieving Excellence: Valuing Canada’s Participation in High Performance Sport

Bloom, M., Gagnon, N. and Hughes, D. Conference Board of Canada

2006

Road to Excellence Business Plan for the Summer Olympic and Paralympic Sports

Roger Jackson, Canadian Olympic Committee and Canadian Paralympic Committee

2007

Federal-Provincial/Territorial Priorities for Collaborative Action 2007–2012

Federal-Provincial/Territorial Sport Ministers

2007

Proposal Sport Canada 2008–12 Action Plan for Official Languages In Response to the Recommendations of the Report: Linguistic Barriers to Access to High Performance Sport Study—2005

Canadian Heritage, Sport Canada

2008

Sport Participation Strategy 2008–2012

Canadian Heritage, Sport Canada

2008

Raising Our Game For Vancouver 2010: Towards a Canadian Model of Linguistic Duality in International Sport

Office of the Commissioner of Official Languages

2009

A Report on the Status of Coaches in Canada

Coaching Association of Canada; Coaching Research Group, University of Alberta; funded by Sport Canada

2009

Raising Our Game For Vancouver 2010: Towards a Canadian Model of Linguistic Duality in International Sport—A Follow Up

Office of the Commissioner of Official Languages

2009

The 2010 and Beyond Panel Final Report and Recommendations

David Zussman (Chair of panel), panel commissioned by Gary Lunn, Minister of Sport, Government of Canada

2010

2009 Status of the High Performance Athlete

Ekos Research Associates

2010

Evaluation of the Canadian Sport Policy: Final Report

The Sutcliffe Group

2010

Raising Our Game For Vancouver 2010: Final report on the Vancouver 2010 Olympic and Paralympic Winter Games

Office of the Commissioner of Official Languages

2010

Canada’s Games: The Government of Canada and the 2010 Vancouver Olympic and Paralympic Winter Games

Canadian Heritage

2010

Environmental Scan 2010: Trends and Issues in Canada and in Sport

Policy Research Group, Canadian Heritage

2010

Canadian Sport Policy Renewal and Sport Participation

Joanne Kay, Sport Canada

2010

Canadian Sport Policy Renewal: Summary of Findings from the National Sport Community Engagement and Consultation Process

The Sport Matters Group and Sport Canada

2010

The Canadian Sport Policy: Toward a More Comprehensive Vision Discussion Paper

Public Policy Forum

2010

Canadian Sport Policy Renewal Workshop Summary Report

Public Policy Forum

2011

Community-Building Through Sport: Final Report of the Community Perspectives Project

Public Policy Forum

2011

Analysis of the Canadian Sport Policy Renewal Federal-Provincial/Territorial Government Consultations and e-Survey Data

Conference Board of Canada

2011

Towards a Renewed Canadian Sport Policy Discussion Paper

Sport Canada

2011

Canadian Sport Policy Renewal National Gathering Summary Report

Groupe Intersol Group

2011

Summary Report Canadian Sport Policy Renewal Consultations with the National Sport Community and Related Sectors

Sport Canada, in collaboration with Sport Information Resource Centre, Sport Matters Group, Canadian Olympic Committee, and Own the Podium

2011

OTP [Own the Podium] Evaluation 2011 Full Report

Kevin Lawrie & Rachel Corbett, Sport Law & Strategy Group Prepared for Own the Podium

2012

Canadian Sport Policy 2012

Sport Canada

2012

Federal-Provincial/Territorial Priorities for Collaborative Action 2012

Federal-Provincial/Territorial Ministers for Sport, Physical Activity and Recreation

11Greater concern for athlete support emerged in the 1990s. The creation of Canadian Sport Centres, training centres for athletes, was initiated with the collaboration of the federal government, the Canadian Olympic Committee and the Coaching Association of Canada. To date, there are seven centres/institutes serving different areas across the country: Atlantic Canada, Quebec, Ontario, Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Calgary and British Columbia/Pacific. As well, increases in funding levels to high performance athletes and in the number of athletes receiving this funding were made through the Athlete Assistance Program (in 1995–1996, in 2000–2001, and again in 2004–2005) (Thibault & Babiak, 2005).

12In 1998, Sport in Canada: Leadership, Partnership and Accountability. Everybody’s Business was published (Mills, 1998). This document is often referred to as the Mills Report (named after the Member of Parliament who chaired the committee responsible for its publication). Although the report addressed the social, cultural, economic and political significance of sport for Canadians, the media focus at the time was on proposed public subsidies for Canadian professional sport franchises, particularly National Hockey League teams. The subsequent announcement of subsidies by the Minister of Industry, John Manley, for Canadian National Hockey League teams in November 2000 was not well received by Canadians. Three days after the multi-million dollar aid package announcement, the Minister withdrew the offer (Harvey, 2008; Whitson, Harvey, & Lavoie, 2000).

13The Mills Report and the favourable social, economic, and political contexts that gave rise to its publication were precursors to the most extensive pan-Canadian consultation process ever conducted involving all stakeholders in the system. This extensive consultation was led by Denis Coderre, the then Secretary of State for Sport within the Department of Canadian Heritage, and culminated in the National Summit on Sport, held in April 2001 (Government of Canada, 2001). These events eventually led to the development of the Canadian Sport Policy, issued in May 2002 (Sport Canada, 2002) and to new legislation, Bill C-12, enacted in March 2003, known as the Physical Activity and Sport Act (Parliament of Canada, 2003). Bill C-12 was to update and replace Bill C-131. The 2002 Canadian Sport Policy focused on four priorities: enhanced participation, enhanced excellence, enhanced capacity, and enhanced interaction. With these four priorities, the federal government acknowledged the importance of focusing on both sport participation and excellence. The priority of capacity and interaction provided support to participation and excellence. Capacity referred to putting in place the necessary systems (e.g., leadership, infrastructure, sport science and technology) to support participation and excellence, while interaction referred to increasing collaboration and communication among all stakeholders in sport (Sport Canada, 2002).

14Several government initiatives were undertaken in the early 2000s. The Sport Dispute Resolution Centre of Canada was created in 2002 as a mechanism to address and resolve disputes and conflicts between athletes, coaches, and sport organizations (Thibault & Babiak, 2005). In July 2003, the IOC selected Vancouver as host of the 2010 Olympic Winter Games, a decision that led to more funding commitments on the part of the federal government. Collaboration among different sport stakeholders (e.g., the Canadian Olympic Committee, the Canadian Paralympic Committee, winter sport organizations, the Vancouver Organizing Committee, the federal government) led to the development of Own the Podium—2010, a strategy to be the best nation at the Vancouver Games. A similar collaborative strategy, Road to Excellence—2012 (focus on summer sports), was developed for the 2012 Olympic Games in London. Although Own the Podium—2010 and Road to Excellence are not federal government programs, they are fully endorsed by the government.

15Concurrently, in the mid-2000s, leaders of the Canadian Sport Centre in Victoria, with Istvan Balyi at the helm, were preparing Canadian Sport for Life (CS4L) also known as the Long-Term Athlete Development (LTAD) model, a seven-stage sport development program focused on guiding sport participants from the playground to lifelong participation by way of high performance sport for those athletes who show the necessary skills (Canadian Sport Centres, 2005). The model is designed to initiate Canadians in sport participation, training and competition based on development/maturation level rather than chronological age.

16Several policies and strategies were developed or revised by Sport Canada from the mid-2000s to the early 2010s: These include a policy on Aboriginal people’s participation in sport (2005); a policy on sport for persons with a disability (2006); a policy for hosting international sport events (revised in 2008); an action plan for official languages in the sport system (2008); a policy for women and girls in sport (revised in 2009); and a policy against doping in sport (revised in 2011). These policies are analyzed in various chapters of this book.

17The federal government continues to be the primary financial supporter of Canada’s sport system. In 2012–2013, the federal government invested CA$ 210M in sport. These funds are divided among various government programs and national sport stakeholders: national and multi-sport organizations, Canadian Sport Centres/ Institutes, the Athlete Assistance Program, sport participation initiatives, and hosting programs. In Table 1.4 and Figure 1.1, the level of funding for sport initiatives by the federal government since 1985 is provided.

18In June 2012, in Inuvik (Northwest Territories), the renewed Canadian Sport Policy (CSP) was officially endorsed by federal, provincial and territorial ministers responsible for sport, physical activity and recreation. The new 2012 CSP document was the result of a process that was initiated in 2010. As outlined in the 2012 CSP:

in 2010, a renewal process of unprecedented breadth, scope and transparency—involving governments, NGOs [non-government organizations] and communities—was launched. Its purpose was to build on the success of the 2002 Canadian Sport Policy and ensure an effective transition to its successor in 2012. (Sport Canada, 2012, p. 4)

19In fact, the renewal of the 2002 Canadian Sport Policy was based on a number of background documents and an extensive pan-Canadian consultation process (cf. Sport Information Resource Centre, 2013). The process included feedback, survey results, position papers, and reports from individuals, sport organizations and governments across Canada. Feedback was also sought from five specific target groups: official-language minority communities; Aboriginal Peoples; persons with a disability; ethno-cultural populations; and women. In addition, reports from six working groups centred on various topics relevant to sport and to the priorities of the 2002 CSP. The main focus of these six working groups centred on physical literacy, active for life, community building, interaction, capacity and excellence.

  • 6 Information obtained from Fitness and Amateur Sport Annual Reports and Sport Canada Annual Reports

20Table 1.4 Sport Canada’s Contributions to Sport Since 19856

  • 7 For fiscal years 2000–01 and 2001–02, Sport Canada contributed CA$ 20M annually to the 2001 Edmont (...)

Year

Sport Canada’s Contributions to Sport (CA$)

1985–86

$ 58,102,493

1986–87

$ 50,558,340

1987–88

$ 51,145,460

1988–89

$ 57,200,576

1989–90

$ 55,580,000

1990–91

$ 68,776,000

1991–92

$ 68,255,000

1992–93

$ 72,162,084

1993–94

$ 75,801,000

1994–95

$ 64,219,000

1995–96

$ 47,234,004

1996–97

$ 51,583,915

1997–98

$ 64,601,465

1998–99

$ 57,526,127

1999–00

$ 52,895,586

2000–01

$ 82,060,6187

2001–02

$ 97,553,404

2002–03

$ 79,522,155

2003–04

$ 89,500,000

2004–05

$ 121,735,422

2005–06

$ 133,241,616

2006–07

$ 138,302,344

2007–08

$ 136,558,878

2008–09

$ 151,350,728

2009–10

$ 160,113,348

2010–11

$ 197,105,538

2011–12

$ 198,908,005

2012–13

$ 210,793,641

21One of the documents that was instrumental in the CSP renewal was the evaluation of the 2002 CSP and its impact on Canada’s sport system. The Sutcliffe Group (2010, p. 54), charged with the evaluation of the 2002 CSP, found that “three of the four Policy goals (Excellence, Capacity and Interaction) [had] been met ... Participation remains an area of weakness.” Furthermore, as noted in the evaluation report:

Somewhere along the way, either because of turn-over in leadership in government or within the sport sector, or because of change of governments, or because the products of the Policy such as the CS4L/LTAD became more attractive, immediate and tangible, the Policy itself moved onto a “back burner” in governments’ dealings with the sport sector. (The Sutcliffe Group, 2010, p. 54)

  • 8 Source: Data for this figure were obtained from Table 1.4.

Figure 1.1 Sport Canada’s Contributions to Sport 1985–2013 (CA$)8

  • 9 Physical literacy is defined as the ability of an individual to “move with competence and confiden (...)

22This evaluation of the 2002 CSP, combined with the extensive consultation process with stakeholders and the numerous documents submitted for consideration for the CSP renewal process eventually culminated in a national gathering in November 2011 (Groupe Intersol Group, 2011). A total of 184 delegates attended the national gathering and discussed the central elements that should shape the 2012 CSP. Concerns over the limited success achieved with sport participation led to the emergence of a number of themes at the CSP renewal national gathering. Attendees felt that physical literacy,9 values and ethics, equity, access, inclusion and diversity should be foundational elements of the 2012 CSP. In addition, attendees believed that sport development as well as sport for development should be embraced (Groupe Intersol Group, 2011).

23Based on the findings gathered during the renewal process, the 2012 CSP included a policy vision, policy values, policy principles and a policy framework to better address the five policy goals identified. The policy framework outlined in Figure 1.2 clearly addresses the complex nature of sport and the place it occupies in Canadian society. The 2012 CSP vision “is to have, by 2022, a dynamic and innovative culture that promotes and celebrates participation and excellence in sport” (Sport Canada, 2012, p. 5). The policy values include: “fun, safety, excellence, commitment, personal development, inclusion and accessibility, and respect, fair play and ethical behaviour” (Sport Canada, 2012, p. 5). The policy principles are based on the belief that quality sport requires the consideration of the following seven principles: that sport be “values-based, inclusive, technically sound, collaborative, intentional, effective and sustainable (Sport Canada, 2012, p. 6). The policy vision, values, principles and framework provide guidance to achieve the CSP’s goals as these relate to each of the four contexts of sport participation identified in the policy in addition to physical literacy (see Figure 1.2). These four contexts are: introduction to sport, recreational sport, competitive sport, high performance sport. Introduction to sport states that Canadians should “have the fundamental skills, knowledge, and attitudes to participate in organized and unorganized sport” (Sport Canada, 2012, p. 8). Regarding recreational sport, it states that Canadians should “have the opportunity to participate in sport for fun, health, social interaction and relaxation” (Sport Canada, 2012, p. 8). Competitive sport refers to Canadians having “the opportunity to systematically improve and measure their performance against others in competition in a safe and ethical manner” while in high performance sport, “Canadians are systematically achieving world-class results at the highest levels of international competition through fair and ethical means” (Sport Canada, 2012, p. 8).

  • 10 Source: Sport Canada. (2012). Canadian Sport Policy 2012. Ottawa, ON: Canadian Heritage. Retrieved (...)

Figure 1.2 Canadian Sport Policy 2012 Policy Framework10

24In addition to these four contexts, sport for development is woven into the framework (Sport Canada, 2012). Sport for development is more encompassing than the four contexts, perceiving sport “as a tool for social and economic development and the promotion of positive values at home and abroad” (Sport Canada, 2012, p. 8).

25Similar to the 2002 CSP, federal, provincial and territorial ministers responsible for sport, physical activity and recreation identified a number of priorities for the implementation of the 2012 CSP (Federal and Provincial/Territorial Ministers Responsible for Sport, Physical Activity and Recreation, 2012). These priorities are addressed in the next chapter (Chapter II).

26Federal, provincial and territorial governments have been instrumental in the development of Canada’s sport system. Working with a number of non-profit organizations and stakeholders in the system, governments have been able to shape, through various sport policies, the level, nature and scope of sport participation and high performance sport. Given the ongoing federal government involvement in sport policy and funding, it is important to understand the relationships between the different levels of government and the various sport stakeholders (i.e., non-profit sport organizations, athletes/participants, coaches, officials and volunteers) to address the issues and challenges facing Canadian sport today.

Bibliographie

References

Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. (2006, December 19). Quebec’s big Owe stadium debt is over. CBC News. Retrieved from http://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/montreal/story/2006/12/19/qc-olympicstadium.html

Canadian Centre for Ethics in Sport. (n.d.). Elevating the conscience of Canadian sport. Ottawa, ON: Author. Retrieved from http://www.cces.ca/files/pdfs/CCES-PUB-Story-E.pdf

Canadian Sport Centres. (2005). Long-term athlete development. Resource paper v. 2. Canadian sport for life. Vancouver, BC: Author. Retrieved from http://canadiansportforlife.ca/sites/default/files/resources/CS4L%20 Resource%20Paper.pdf

Cantelon, H. (2003). Canadian sport and politics. In J. Crossman (Ed.), Canadian sport sociology (pp. 172–189). Toronto, ON: Thomson Nelson.

Dubin, C.L. (1990). Commission of inquiry into the use of drugs and banned practices intended to increase athletic performance. Ottawa, ON: Minister of Supply and Services Canada.

Federal and Provincial/Territorial Ministers Responsible for Sport, Physical Activity and Recreation. (2012). Federal-provincial/territorial priorities for collaborative action 2012. Ottawa, ON: Authors. Retrieved from http://sirc.ca/csprenewal.cfm

Government of Canada. (2001). Towards a Canadian Sport Policy. Report on the National Summit on Sport. Ottawa, ON: Minister of Public Works and Government Services Canada

Groupe Intersol Group. (2011). Canadian Sport Policy renewal—National gathering. Ottawa, ON: Author. Retrieved from http://sirc.ca/CSPRenewal/documents/Summary_National_Gathering.pdf

Harvey, J. (1988). Sport policy and the welfare state: An outline of the Canadian case. Sociology of Sport Journal, 5(4), 315–329.

Harvey, J. (2002). Sport and citizenship policy: A shift toward a new normative framework for evaluating sport policy in Canada? ISUMA Canadian Journal of Policy Research, 3(1), 160–165.

Harvey, J. (2008). Sport, politics, and policy. In J. Crossman (Ed.), Canadian sport sociology (pp. 221–237). Toronto, ON: Thomson Nelson.

Harvey, J., & Cantelon, H. (Eds.) (1988). Not just a game: Essays in Canadian sport sociology. Ottawa, ON: University of Ottawa Press.

Harvey, J., Thibault, L., & Rail, G. (1995). Neo-corporatism: The political management system in Canadian amateur sport and fitness. Journal of Sport and Social Issues, 19(3), 249–265.

Havaris, E.P., & Danylchuk, K.E. (2007). An assessment of Sport Canada’s Sport Funding and Accountability Framework, 1995–2004. European Sport Management Quarterly, 7, 31–53.

Houlihan, B. (1997). Sport, policy and politics: A comparative analysis. London, UK: Routledge.

Kidd, B. (2001). Essay. Canadians and the Olympics. Library and Archives Canada. Retrieved from http://www.collectionscanada.gc.ca/databases/olympians/001064-1000-e.html

Macintosh, D. (1996). Sport and government in Canada. In L. Chalip, A. Johnson, & L. Stachura (Eds.), National sports policies. An international handbook (pp. 39–66). Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.

Macintosh, D., Bedecki, T., & Franks, C.E.S. (1987). Sport and politics in Canada. Federal government involvement since 1961. Montreal, QC and Kingston, ON: McGill-Queen’s University Press.

Macintosh, D., & Whitson, D. (1990). The game planners. Transforming Canada’s sport system. Montreal, QC and Kingston, ON: McGill-Queen’s University Press.

Mills, D. (1998). Sport in Canada: Everybody’s business. Leadership, partnership and accountability. Standing Committee on Canadian Heritage, Sub- Committee on the Study of Sport in Canada. Ottawa, ON: Government of Canada. Retrieved from http://www.parl.gc.ca/HousePublications/Publication.aspx?DocId=1031530&Mode=1&Parl=36&Ses=&Language=E

Minister’s Task Force. (1992). Sport: The way ahead. Minister’s task force on Federal Sport policy. Ottawa, ON: Minister of Supply and Services Canada.

Munro, J. (1970). A proposed sports policy for Canadians. Ottawa, ON: Department of National Health and Welfare.

Parliament of Canada. (2003). Bill C-12. An Act to promote physical activity and sport (S.C. 2003, c. 2). Retrieved from http://www.parl.gc.ca/Content/LOP/LegislativeSummaries/37/2/c12-e.pdf

Physical and Health Education Canada. (2010). What is physical literacy? Retrieved from http://www.phecanada.ca/programs/physical-literacy/what-physical-literacy

Rea, H. (Chair). (1969). Report of the task force on sports for Canadians. Ottawa, ON: Department of National Health and Welfare.

Senate of Canada. (2012). Nancy Greene Raine Biography. Retrieved from http://sen.parl.gc.ca/nraine/biography.htm

Sport Canada. (2002). The Canadian Sport Policy. Ottawa, ON: Department of Canadian Heritage. Retrieved from http://www.pch.gc.ca/pgm/sc/pol/pcs-csp/2003/polsport-eng.pdf

Sport Canada. (2012). Canadian sport policy 2012. Ottawa, ON: Canadian Heritage. Retrieved from http://sirc.ca/CSPRenewal/documents/CSP2012_EN.pdf

Sport Information Resource Centre. (2013). Canadian Sport Policy renewal. Retrieved from http://sirc.ca/csprenewal.cfm#

Sutcliffe Group, The. (2010). Interprovincial Sport and Recreation Council. Evaluation of the Canadian Sport Policy. Final report. Toronto, ON: Author. Retrieved from http://www.sirc.ca/CSPRenewal/documents/CSP_Evaluation_Final_ReportEN.pdf

Thibault, L., & Babiak, K. (2005). Organizational changes in Canada’s sport system: Toward an athlete-centred approach. European Sport Management Quarterly, 5(2), 105–132.

Thibault, L., & Kikulis, L.M. (2011). Canada. In M. Nicholson, R. Hoye, & B. Houlihan (Eds.), Participation in sport. International policy perspectives (pp. 268–293). Abingdon, UK: Routledge.

Whitson, D., Harvey, J., & Lavoie, M. (2000). The Mills report, the Manley subsidy proposals, and the business of major-league sport. Canadian Public Administration, 43, 127–156.

Notes

1 Nancy Greene was recently appointed Senator in January 2009 by Prime Minister Harper (Senate of Canada, 2012).

2 Information for this table originated from the following sources: Canadian Heritage. (2000). Federal Ministers of Amateur Sport in Canada (1961 to Present). Retrieved from http://www.pch.gc.ca/SportCanada/SC_E/minister.htm
Government of Canada. (2007, January 15). Ministers of Amateur Sport in Canada. Retrieved from http://www2.parl.gc.ca/Parlinfo/Compilations/FederalGovernment/MinistersResponsible.aspx?Language=E&Ministry=&Responsability=a2570370-d959-47aa-b082-1516492eb99b Ministers of Amateur Sport in Canada. http://www.parl.gc.ca/ParlInfo/Compilations/FederalGovernment/MinistersResponsible.aspx?Ministry=&Responsability=a2570370-d959-47aa-b082-1516492eb99b&Language=E

3 According to the Government of Canada website [http://www.pco-bcp.gc.ca/mgm/dtail.asp?lang=eng&mstyid=25&mbtpid=1], Monique Landry was Minister of Communications [under Kim Campbell’s tenure as PM] but the newspapers report her role as Minister of Canadian Heritage. See, for example, the Toronto Star June 26, 1993, page A8.

4 The Government of Canada’s website [http://www2.parl.gc.ca/parlinfo/Compilations/FederalGovernment/WomenMinistry.aspx] refers to her as the Minister of National Health and Welfare and the Minister of Amateur Sport [under Kim Campbell’s tenure as PM] but the newspapers report her role as Minister of Health. See the Toronto Star June 26, 1993, page A8.

5 The Fitness and Amateur Sport Directorate was upgraded to a ‘Branch’ in 1973 (cf. Houlihan, 1997; Macintosh et al., 1987).

6 Information obtained from Fitness and Amateur Sport Annual Reports and Sport Canada Annual Reports.

7 For fiscal years 2000–01 and 2001–02, Sport Canada contributed CA$ 20M annually to the 2001 Edmonton World Championships in Athletics (IAAF). This explains the inordinate increase in Sport Canada contributions between 1999–00 and 2000–01. It also explains the decrease in contributions in 2001–02 and the ones in the following years.

8 Source: Data for this figure were obtained from Table 1.4.

9 Physical literacy is defined as the ability of an individual to “move with competence and confidence in a wide variety of physical activities in multiple environments that benefit the healthy development of the whole person” (Physical and Health Education Canada, 2010, paragraph 1).

10 Source: Sport Canada. (2012). Canadian Sport Policy 2012. Ottawa, ON: Canadian Heritage. Retrieved from http://sirc.ca/CSPRenewal/documents/CSP2012_EN.pdf, p. 7.

Table des illustrations

Titre Table 1.2 Canadian Ministers/Secretary of State for Sport 1976–20132
URL http://books.openedition.org/uop/docannexe/image/699/img-1.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 303k
Titre Table 1.2 (Continued)
Légende Note 33Note 44
URL http://books.openedition.org/uop/docannexe/image/699/img-2.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 305k
Titre Table 1.2 (Continued)
URL http://books.openedition.org/uop/docannexe/image/699/img-3.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 293k
Légende Figure 1.1 Sport Canada’s Contributions to Sport 1985–2013 (CA$)8
URL http://books.openedition.org/uop/docannexe/image/699/img-4.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 97k
Légende Figure 1.2 Canadian Sport Policy 2012 Policy Framework10
URL http://books.openedition.org/uop/docannexe/image/699/img-5.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 157k

Auteurs

Professor at Brock University. Her areas of expertise include sport policy, globalization of sport, and organizational theory as it applies to sport and leisure organizations. She also investigates the Canadian government’s role in sport and athlete involvement in the governance of sport. Her research has been funded by the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada and has appeared in such publications as: Journal of Sport Management, European Sport Management Quarterly, Journal of Sport and Social Issues, International Journal of Sport Policy and Politics, and Leisure Studies. Lucie has also published numerous book chapters

Professor and member and former director of the Research Centre for Sport in Canadian Society at the School of Human Kinetics, University of Ottawa. His main research interests are sport policy and sport in the context of globalization. His research has been supported by the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada and published in various peer-reviewed journals. He is also the co-editor (with Hart Cantelon) of Not Just a Game: Essays in Canadian Sport Sociology (1988), co-editor (along with Robert Young) of Image-Building in Canadian Municipalities (2012), and co-author of Sport and Social Movements: From the Local to the Global (2013) published by Bloomsbury

© Les Presses de l’Université d’Ottawa | University of Ottawa Press, 2013

Conditions d’utilisation : http://www.openedition.org/6540