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Life, Fish and Mangroves

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Melissa Marschke

Index

Texte intégral

A

ACLEDA bank, 98

adaptive governance, 20

aquaculture (fish farming), 40

access and control of, 44

development encouraged by prime minister, 31, 47

freshwater, 43

owner-operated small-scale, 56, 88

ponds, 124

shrimp, 88

start-up capital for, 40

strategy for longer-term survival, 88

in Tonle Sap lake and Mekong River, 40

aquatic species, 29, 41, 62n9, 83, 94, 104, 108

aquatic stocks

decline in, 53, 148

depletion of, 44

large-scale resource extraction and, 77

management at local level, 77

Asian fishing communities, 139

Association of Southeast Asian Nations, 9

B

Béné, Christopher, 5, 137, 154

Berkes, Fikret, 5

biodiversity reserves, 141

biophysical system, 18

biotic resources, 43–44

blast fishing, 48, 77

bottom fish, 42

business entrepreneurs, 76, 121, 123, 126–28, 132, 146

C

Cambodia

authoritarian roots, 26

bombing during Vietnam War, 13

Charcoal Ban, 71

competition within main fishing grounds, 71

corrupt officials share corrupt money, 143

democratic elections, local-level, 24

economic growth in, 15, 131–32

factories and migrant labour, 15

fisheries, total annual production, 42–43

fisheries as fourth-largest employer in, 42

fishery sector reform, 30

fishing gear, theft of, 59–60, 71, 81, 97–101

food/economic crisis, 71

France, independence from, 7

Khmer Rouge regime, genocidal, 7, 13, 50

land and biotic resources, competing claims over, 43–44

levels of inequality, rising, 15

market liberalization, 53

markets, fluctuations in, 71

national budget and foreign funding, 32

policy framework for resource governance, 25

political consolidation and government departments, 134–36

population in rural areas, 132

population of, 15

poverty rates, 15, 56

regulatory agencies ignore environmental and social safeguards, 125

resources, decline in, 71

royalty fees from sand mining, 126

rule by strong leaders, 29

sand export sector, 125

socialist economic practices, 53

state-controlled marketing system, 54

trade embargo by the West, 13

Vietnamese occupation, 49

Cambodia at the Crossroads: Strengthening Accountability to Reduce Poverty (World Bank), 23, 164

Cambodian embassy, 126

Cambodian government

Fisheries Policy, 25

Forestry Policy, 25

Land Policy, 25

legislation with strong decentralization mandate, 23

Local Governance Policies, 25

logging activities, enforced ban on, 82

military access to forest areas, 14

Protected Areas Policy, 25

Supportive policies, 25

Cambodian royalty, 50

Cambodia People Party (CPP), 27–28

Canada, 21

capture fisheries in Asia-Pacific region, 41

catfish stock, 20

centralist perspective of governing resources, 22

Chandler, David, 54

change, social, economic and political, 9

Charcoal Ban, 71

charcoal kiln owner, 1

charcoal kilns, 68

charcoal production, 10, 15, 54, 64, 75–76, 124

Chief of Police’s support of illegal activities, 112–13

Chinese merchants, 50

Chrouy Pros

artificial reefs to protect seagrass areas, 117–20, 128

commune councils, elected, 116–19

commune planning policy, 116–20

concerns, environmental and livelihood, 116

environmental education, 118

fishing conflicts, 116–17

Koh Kong’s provincial governor and, 117–18

mangrove replanting, 116, 118

net destruction by trawls, 120

push-net fishers, 119

resource management committee, 113

resource management committees, village-level, 116

seagrass conservation areas, 119–20

Chrouy Pros Bay (fishing grounds), 88, 99, 105, 109–18, 121, 124, 141

Chrouy Pros village, 112

civic duty, 29

civic virtue, 138

civil service, 7

civil war funding from timber sales, 14

classic agrarian questions à la Bernstein, 4–5

climate variation, 18

coastal fishers, 44, 46

coastal management, 40

coastal resources, 2, 11, 51, 56, 126, 147

cockles, 104

cod fishery, Canadian, 18–19

collective rights, 19

collectivization, 52

co-management adaptive, 20

commons governance theories of, 19–20

community-based, 33

community patrols and, 136

community vs. governmental approach to, 36

finances, lack of, 140

fisheries, 20, 30

of fisheries, 20, 30

of fisheries resources, 82

governance approach of, 20

with government technical departments, 24

internal struggles to promote the adoption of, 140

Khmer society functions and existing hierarchies vs., 149

of natural resources, 36

other terms for, 20

of poverty reduction and empowerment of the marginalized, 21

shared responsibility and authority for decision-making, 20

with technical departments of Ministries, 24

common pool resources, management of, 19

commons governance, 19, 138

Commune Chief of Police, 112

commune council

commune development planning and, 116

commune planning and, 117

CPP-dominated, 28

Koh Sralao elected to, 82–84

Ministry of Interior’s mandate to, 26

resource management, 2

responsibilities of elected, 116

role in resource management activities, 28

Wayne Som Sak elected to, 1

Commune Development Plans, 85, 116

commune planning, 116, 118–19

Commune Police, 112

community-based management, 16, 20, 33, 36, 80, 82

community-based natural resource management site, 34

community fisheries management, 20

policies and programs, 128

sites, 31–32

Community Fisheries Office, 30, 140

Community Fisheries Sub-decree, 31–32, 110, 113

community forestry, 19, 30

community forestry management, 20

Community Forestry Sub-decree, 25

community groups, 19

community watershed management, 20

conflict-resolution mechanisms, 21, 48, 96

conflicts

fisheries-related, 44

larger-scale, 109

corruption, 8–9, 24, 125, 139, 143

corrupt officials share corrupt money, 143

CPP. See Cambodia People Party (CPP)

crab

fishers, 64–65, 69

fishery, 10, 67

fishing, 64–65, 68–69, 71

species, decline in, 72

stocks, decline in, 100

traps, 62, 64, 97–101, 110

credit markets, 98–99

culture of impunity, 9

D

DANIDA. See Danish International Development Agency (DANIDA)

Danish International Development Agency (DANIDA), 27

debt collection, 99

debt loads, high, 73, 75, 97–98, 126, 129, 137

decentralization, 6

agenda, global, 20

of fisheries sector, 29–32

as major governance reform, 23

national interests promoting, 27–29

of natural resources, 18

policies, 28, 36

policy implementation and adaptation to change, 17

as political and economic process, 22

processes, 7

processes in Western countries, 20–21

as redistribution of power and resources, 22

reforms, 6, 17, 140

as way to govern natural resources in and around villages, 11

decentralized

resource governance, 5–6, 17, 19, 22, 24, 79, 144, 148–49

resource management, 36, 134

deforestation, 10, 13–14, 77, 81, 147–48

deforestation rates, 14

democratic

decentralization, 24, 26

elections, local-level, 24

elections at commune level, 29

rule, decentralized, 16

democratization process, 2

Denmark, 21

development aid, 8

dive resorts, 47

diversity loss, 18

diversity of fish species, 41

dog-meat soup, 65, 69

donor(s)

agencies, 23, 33

agenda, 20, 26, 77

community, 16, 20, 143

development thinking of, 17

programs, 2

dynamite fisher, 1

dynamite fishing, 64, 76, 85, 91, 110

E

ecological degradation, 9

ecological impact of sand mining, 73

economic classes, newly empowered, 27

Economic Exclusive Zone (EEZ), 47

ecosystem

havoc, 10

healthy, 35

services, payment for, 147

ecotourism, 88, 98

EEZ. See Economic Exclusive Zone (EEZ)

elections for commune chiefs and councils, 27

elite alliances, 27

elites benefit from resource extraction, 127

Emerging Trends, Challenges and Innovations:

Community Based Natural

Resource Management (CBNRM) in Cambodia, 35

empowerment of poor and vulnerable groups, 17

entrepreneurs, well-connected, 10

environmental

education campaign, 92

impact assessments, 48, 123, 127, 142

sustainability, 17, 126

excess capacity, 45–47

external actors, 6, 9

extractive industries, 47, 72, 142

F

failures

in national leadership, 141–43

of village-government

partnerships, 139–41

at village level, 136–39

FAO. See Food and Agriculture

Organization (FAO)

fisheries

as Cambodia’s fourth-largest employer, 42

co-management, 20, 30

community, 31–32, 128

as complex systems of dynamic, interlinked social and biophysical elements, 42

concession leases, 50

conflicts, deaths from, 115

contribution to nutrition, livelihoods and GDP in Cambodia, 39

decline in, 2, 39–41

ecosystems, 41–42

excess capacity, 45–47

governance challenges, 12

governance practices, 12

laws and policies, 45

laws and policies, absence of enforcement of, 45

neo-Malthusian narratives about, 45

open access nature of, 46

output controls for industrial, 46

provide animal protein for rural Cambodians, 43

provide a range of livelihood and developmental values, 39

sector, decentralization of, 29–32

small-scale, 39, 45–46, 50–51, 137

Southeast Asia, 44

total annual production, 42–43

upland, 43

user-group rights for small-scale, 46

Fisheries Administration

bans on trawls in shallow water not inforced, 128

co-management with technical departments of, 24

community-based fisheries management focus, 49

community emphasis and, 32

democratic decentralization, support for, 26

fishing disputes, reluctance to deal with, 101

fishing gear, confiscation of, 114

fish rangers, lacked, 111

local fish rangers, 115

patrolling, limited budget for, 128

policies, fails to follow its own, 141

resource management, endorsed local-level, 80

sand mining not permitted in protected areas, 127

trawls, unable to regulate, 117

underfunding, chronic, 113

villagers’ right to prevent illegal fishing activities, 31

Fisheries Federation, 87–88

Fisheries Law, 25, 31, 51, 53, 109–10, 114

fisheries management

activities a local level, 31

in and around villages, 55

“bay wide” approach to, 88

committees and community fisheries, 32

common regulations and approaches to, 88

community-based groups and, 31, 49

fisheries governance and, 41

fisheries officer explains the rules, 112

fisheries officers insist on following regulations of, 114

hands-off approach, 29

history of, 40, 49–55

local fisheries management, 58

local fishers and, 55

mangrove or flood forest protection, 146n20

multiple actors vying for aquatic and coastal resources, 58

national plans and policies promoting exportation of fisheries vs., 46

output controls for industrial fisheries, 46

patrolling and encouraging changes in mesh size of nets, 102

policing approaches to, failure of, 30

quota and licencing, 46

shared interest by fishers and the state, 30

strategies, 101–3

user-group rights for small-scale fisheries, area-based, 46

at the village level, 55

Fisheries Policy, 25

fisheries resources

decline in, 104

inshore, near-shore, and offshore water areas, 45

open-access nature of, 136

regulating access to, 45

during Vietnamese occupation, 49

fisheries sector reform, 34

fisheries sites, community, 31

fishers

coastal, 44, 46

crab, 64–65, 69

larger-scale, 46

local, 55

migrant, 108

push-net, 119

small-scale, 45–46, 103

trawl, 108, 112–13, 119

fishery stock, decline in, 30, 51

fishing

area, commercially zoned, 30

boat licencing, 46

explosives use in, 33

gear, legislation restricting, 49

gear, taxable, 43

gear restrictions, 29

grounds converted into exclusive “fishing lots,” 37

lots, 30

resource-based livelihood activity, 15

rights auctioned to private bidders, 50

fishing gear

police have vested interest in continuing theft of, 98

theft and excess capacity issues, 81

theft and resource management committee, 97–99, 138

theft of, 59–60, 71, 81, 97–101

fish selling, 1

flood forest, 55

Flyvbjerg, Brent, 5

Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), 14, 33

foreign

aid, 32

dredging companies, 72–73

trawls, 46, 53

forest exploitation, 71

forest management, informal system of, 55

Forestry Administration, 24, 80, 93–94

forestry issues, communities working on, 80

Forestry Policy, 25

forests converted for agriculture production, 37

French colonial administration, 40, 50

French colonial archives for Cambodia, 49

G

gap between rich and poor, 9

garbage bins for each household, 92

gas prices, 76, 91

gas prices, high, 76

gift-giving, 8

gill nets

crab fishing using, 65

for crabs, 58

fishing in Chrous Pros Bay, 74

illegal use in shallow-water, 109–10

less wealthy households fished with, 62

replacing, 108

stolen or destroyed, 71, 99–100, 107–8

global

decentralization agenda, 20

fish production, 43

forest cover survey, 14

inland fisheries production, 43

South, 21

Global Witness reports, 123, 125–27, 140

governance

adaptive, 20

institutions, 6

local-level, 33

mechanisms, local, 150

at multiple levels, 7

process adapted to cultural context, 128

reforms, 2, 9, 80, 145n19

reforms emphasizing

decentralization, 9

scholars, 7

government bureaucrats, 29, 132, 134–35, 140

government-led research team, donorfunded, 81

grassroots participation, 36

Gulf of Thailand, 14, 39, 41, 44, 51, 53

H

hierarchical power structure, 36

honey bees, 35

Hun Sen, prime minister, 8, 27, 30–32

hunting activities, 55

I

IDRC. See International Development Research Centre (IDRC)

illegal

activities, Chief of Police support for, 113

activity and bureaucrats, 140

charcoal production, 64, 68

cutting of trees, 33

cutting or hunting activities, 55

dynamite fishing, 110

fishers, 113

fishers, forest cutters and hunters, 83

fishers/fishing, 31, 113

fishing, 31, 48, 90, 96, 113

fishing boats, 96

fishing equipment, 31

hunting or fishing practices, 84

logging activities, 94

poaching, 110

resource extraction, 10, 89–90

sand mining, 95

stealing of fishing gear, 98

trawling, 91, 95, 109–10, 114, 128

trawling or blast fishing, 77, 85

wildlife hunting, 110, 115

incentive structures, 139

Indonesia, 27

industrial fisheries, 46

industrial fishing fleets, 47

information, place-based, 22

institutional actors, 6

internal actors, 6, 9

International Development Research Centre (IDRC), 33, 81n13

international fishing fleets, 43–44, 105

invertebrates, 42

K

Khmer Rouge

army strongholds, 13–14

culture, 8, 69

era, 10, 40, 49, 52

opposition forces, 14

regime, genocidal, 7, 13, 50

resistance army, 7

society, 23, 149

stronghold, 10

Koh Kong Island, 108n17, 121, 124

Koh Kong’s provincial governor, 85, 117–18

Koh Sralao’s Mosque Association, 58

Koh Sralao village

artificial reefs to protect seagrass areas, 91

basement rental for gamblers, 68–69

beauty products, 64

charcoal kilns, 68

charcoal production, 64, 75–76, 124

crab fishers, 64–65, 69

crab fishery, 67

crab fishing, 64–65, 68–69, 71

crab species, decline in, 72

crab traps, 62, 64, 97–101, 110

debt collection, 99

debt loads, high, 73, 75, 97–98, 126, 129, 137

deep-sea traps, setting, 64

doctor, monthly visit by, 60

dog-meat soup, homemade, 65, 69

Dom (key informant), 63, 65, 69–70, 90

dynamite fishing, 64, 76, 85, 91, 110

ecotourism, 88, 98

electricity generator, 67

environmental education campaign, 85

factory worker, 65

female-headed household, 62

fines for fishing illegally, 90

fisheries management strategies, 101–3

fishing conflicts, 84, 116

fishing gear, theft of, 59–60, 71, 97–101

fishing gear theft, strategies to handle, 99

fishing middleperson, 64

fish worker, 68

fruit tree planter, 66

garbage bins for each household, 92

gill nets destroyed by trawlers, 107

government-led research team, donor-funded, 81

household water supply business, 66

illegal trawling, reduction of, 91

karaoke shop, 69

land redevelopment, 69–70

livelihood activities, 74

livelihood stresses, 70–75

livelihood trajectories of villagers, 59

local ecology curriculum, 84

log transporting, 65

mangrove estuary forests, 59

mangrove forests, wildlife and aquatic habitats, protection of, 77

mangrove replanting by, 83–84, 86–89, 93–95, 99, 104, 136

Mat Sok, 57–59

middle-income earners, 75

middleperson, village, 40, 57, 61, 64–67, 97–98

Milorn (key informant), 62–63, 65, 68–69

moneylender, 64, 66n10, 68, 70

mung beans planter, 66

Muslim community, 58

narcotics plantation, 64–65

Narin (Sok’s wife), 58

open access to resources, 71

out-migration, 59, 65, 73, 76

patrolling activities, 84–91, 95–96, 99–104, 110–14

patrolling committee, 96

petition, thumb-print, 84

petition against illegal trawling, 95

pig raising, 65, 68

police bribes, 69

poorer households, 15, 39, 45, 48, 60, 74–75, 104, 148

Preun (key informant), 64, 67, 97

resource extraction activities, nonfishing-related, 62–63, 70

resource management activities, 83–89, 98–99

resource management plan, 79

rice wine seller, 68

rich households, 75

sand mining, 71–73, 75, 77, 83–85, 88

sand mining, petition to stop, 88, 95

sand mining activities, 124

services in, 61

signposting of protected areas, 84, 98

Sok (key informant), 65, 67–68, 70, 107–8, 120

Sovanna (key informant), 63–64, 66–67, 70, 82–84, 93, 124, 147

Sralao’s resource management committee, 72, 77, 80–84, 115, 121, 147

study tours, 98

taxi boat driver, 64

taxi boats, four, 63

trap fishing, 64

video on resource governance, 87

village middleperson as money lender, 61

village school, 58, 60–61

walkie-talkie radio system, 60

waste management, 88, 92–93, 95, 98–99

waste management awards, 93

water seller, 68

Wayne (key informant), 63–64, 66, 103

wildlife poaching, patrolling area of, 91

Korean buyer, 11

L

labour, unskilled surplus, 148

land

allocation, 26, 40

and biotic resource claims, 43–44

encroachment, 79

prices, 132

speculation, 131

larger fishing boats, 15

large-scale

conflicts, 109

fisheries, 50–51

fishers, 46

fishing operations, 53

industry, 48

resource extraction, 77, 105

Law on Commune Administration, 24–25, 109

legislation restricting fishing gear, 49

livelihood

activities, 4, 10, 16, 74

mobility, 148

opportunities, 4

perspectives, 5

livelihood studies, 4n3, 5

local ecological systems, 21–22

local elites, 21

local governance, 7, 16, 89

local governance regimes, 18

local knowledge, 22, 85n14, 95

local-level democratic elections, 9

local-level governance, 33

local resource governance about, 55–56, 77, 79

processes, 6, 11, 141, 144

tragedy of the commons and, 21

local resource protection and management, 15–16

logging, moratorium on, 131

logging activities, 10

M

Making Social Science Matter (Flyvbjerg), 5, 157

Malgovernance solutions, 22

mangrove

charcoal, 93

ecosystem, 53–54

ecosystem, sustainability of, 54

estuary forests, 59

estuary villages, 1, 10, 129, 141

propagules, 94–95

replanting, 83–84, 86–89, 93–95, 99, 104, 116

trees, decline in, 10

map of Cambodia and research area, xi

marginalization, 75, 79

marijuana, 57–58, 76

marijuana plantation, 62

marine protected areas, 20, 48

market liberalization, 53

medium-scale fisheries, 50–51

middle-income earners, 75

middleperson, village, 40, 57, 61, 64–67, 97–98

migrant fishers, 108

migrant labour, 15

migration patterns, shifting, 15

Millennium Development Goals, 17, 30

mineral development, 129, 132–33

mineral extraction, 14, 44

mining companies, international, 131

Ministry of Agriculture, 52

Ministry of Environment

co-management with technical departments of, 24

democratic decentralization, support, 26

environmental impact assessments, 123, 127, 142

illegal trawling activities and, 85

local park rangers, supports, 89

park rangers, 89–91, 96, 99, 111, 115

policies, fails to follow its own, 141

resource management, endorsed local-level, 80

sand dredging impact on the environment, 123

sand mining, permits for, 121

sand mining, petition to stop, 121

sand mining not permitted in protected areas, 127

sand mining operations delegation, 123

Ministry of Industry, Mines and Energy, 142

Ministry of Interior, 26, 28

Ministry of Water Resources and Meteorology, 121, 142

moneylender, 64, 66n10, 68, 70

moratorium on logging, 131

mud crabs, 62n9, 104

multilateral lending agencies, 17

multi-party elections, 9

multi-party governance, 27

multi-stakeholder collaboration, 21

multi-stakeholder governance, 20

N

narcotics plantation, 64–65

National Environment Day, 87, 95

national fishing fleets, 46

national governance, 136

National Poverty Reduction Plans, 24

natural resource conservation, 19, 36, 145–46

natural resources

in and around villages, protection of, 147

conservation, 145

decentralization of, 16–22

depleted and rural livelihood impacted, 132

exploitation of, 4

land, forests and fish as commodities, 3

maintenance of diversity of, 4

protection of, 2

rural livelihoods affected by rights to access to, 133

sector, 6

struggles over access to, 6

utilitarian and the ecosystem functions of, 3

neo-liberal policies, 134

neo-liberal prescriptions, 8

nepotism, 8–9, 24, 134

Nietzsche, Friedrich, 5

non-governmental organization (NGO), 32–34, 36, 54, 79–80, 86, 91

non-resource based livelihoods, 10

O

obedience to authority, 8

ODA. See Overseas Development Aid (ODA)

offshore trawls, 45

oil, gas and mineral development, 131–32

oil and gas exploration, 14, 47, 142

one-party rule, authoritarian, 9

open-access nature of fisheries resources, 136

Organic Law, 25, 28

Ostrom, Elinor, 5, 19

overfishing, 13–14, 44–45, 70, 103, 105, 131

Overseas Development Aid (ODA), 33

overseas development assistance, 32

P

parcelingTonle Sap lake

parceling off to highest bidder, 51

Paris Peace Agreement, 8

park rangers, 89–91, 96, 99, 111, 115

Participatory Management of Coastal Resources (PMCR), 11n5, 81n13

patrimonial power bases, traditional, 149

patrolling activities, 84–91, 95–96, 99–104, 110–14

patronage networks, 8, 149

patronage structures, 8–9, 37

patron-client relations, 26

Philippines, 27

picked mushrooms, 62

planktivorous pelagic fish, 42

PMCR. See Participatory Management of Coastal Resources (PMCR)

poaching of wildlife, 79, 86, 91, 110

pole cultivation, 35

police

bribes, 69

Chief of Police’s support of illegal activities, 112–13

ignore the law, 89

rent-seeking activities, 114

vested interest in gear theft continuing, 98

political pluralism, 29

political system, multi-party, 8

Pol Pot, 8

poorer households, 15, 39, 45, 48, 60, 74–75, 104, 148

population in rural areas, 132

population of Cambodia, 15

poverty, 2

alleviation, 36, 39, 137

Cambodia at the Crossroads: Strengthening Accountability to Reduce Poverty (World Bank), 23, 164

rates, 15, 56

reduction, 21

rural, 132

Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers, 17

property rights, 141

Protected Areas Policy, 25

public accountability, 17

push-net fishers, 119

R

Ramsar site, 126, 141

resource extraction

business entrepreneurs and high levels of, 14

Cambodia’s elite benefits from, 127

deforestation and overfishing from, 14

development opportunities for villagers from, 59

ecosystem, negative effect on, 77

employment opportunities from, 15–16

forest depletion from, 131

illegal, 10

international headlines about, 132

large-scale, 77, 105

lawlessness and, 71

livelihood opportunities from, 2, 11, 133, 138

natural resource base, depletion of, 14, 131

natural resources depleted and rural livelihood impacted, 132

nonfishing-related, 62

as the norm, 132

oil, gas and mineral development, 131–32

overfishing from, 131

patrolling for illegal, 89

power dynamics of people vying for, 96

resource governance and, 77, 80

resource governance legislation for, 132

resource protection vs., 2

schism between livelihood opportunities vs., 2

sustainable, 149

resource governance

certification schemes and, 147

decentralized, 5–6, 17, 19, 22, 24, 79, 144, 149

decision-making between state and nonstate actors, 3

defined, 3

ecosystem services payment, 147

failure, probing, 133–43

legislation for resource extraction, 132

local, 35–36

within local fishing grounds, 12

partnerships, 20

policies, 12, 128, 134

policies over a twelve-year period, 12

policies to support, 25

policy platforms promoting local, 145

resource extraction and, 77, 80

schism between livelihood

opportunities vs., 2

strategies in coastal Cambodia, 2

village-run, 10

resource industry, privileged interests of, 19

resource management “command and control,” 18

from commons management

perspective, 134

decentralized, 36, 134

local, 35, 55, 58, 81, 83, 85, 134

operational decisions of, 2–3

village-government collaboration on, 140

resource management committee artificial reefs and demarcation of seagrass sanctuaries, 120

businesses with permits from capital, 109

central state ministry retains ultimate decision-making power, 26

Chrouy Pros’s, 113

confidence in handling issues, 147

conflict with violence, 115

fisheries officer and local fisheries management, 112

fishing gear and sand mining issues, 109

gear theft and, 97–99, 138

gear theft and excess capacity issues, 81

illegal wildlife hunting issues, 115

issues in open-access spaces, 109

joint village patrols and, 111

Koh Sralao’s, 72, 77, 80–85, 85n14, 86–89, 99, 115, 121

larger-scale conflicts, 109

lawlessness of the fishery, 138

local police and, 90, 114

mangrove replanting campaign, 136

net destruction conflicts, 120

park rangers and, 90

patrolling for illegal ressource extraction activities, 89

patrols monitoring fishing with dynamite and trawling in shallow mangrove estuary waters, 89

protection of mangrove forests and seagrass sanctuaries, 115

research reports on, 81n13

resource committees in Chrouy Pros Bay, 121

resources to stop encroachment from outsiders onto local resources, 34

sand mining, petition to stop, 123

Sovanna’s, 83–84

village awareness of, 83

village chief not in favour of, 100

village elected, 26, 34, 79, 98

village power relations and, 34

waste management, 136

resource rights, 10

rice

about, 15, 42–43, 94

production, 52

wine, 68

rich households, 75

rubber, 15, 42, 64, 66

rule of law, 23

rules of access, 19

rules of exclusion and subtractability, 19

ruling party’s grasp of rural politics, 9

rural fishers, 32

rural people, 15–16

rural poverty, 132

S

sand barges, 99, 107

sand dredging

impact on the environment, 123

sites, 121–22

technical business enterprises and, 15

sand exploration and extraction, 48

sand exports, annual value of, 127

sand export sector, Cambodia’s, 125

sand mining

activities, 109, 120–29, 136, 141–42, 147

aquatic habitat and catches, disrupts local, 48

ecological impact of, 73

in inland areas, Prime Minister halted, 142

Koh Sralao village and, 71–73, 75, 77, 83–85, 88

national governance and, 136

operations delegation, 123

permits for, 121

petition to stop, 88, 95, 121, 123

policies limiting, 48

royalty fees from, 126

scarves (kramas), 8

scientific information access, 22

seagrass, 20, 115, 117–20, 128, 147

seasonal restrictions, 46

seasons, breeding and spawning, 29, 49

shallow-water trawls, 109–11, 114, 128

shrimp

aquaculture, 88

farming, 10, 88

farms, 10

stock, 14

SIDA. See Swedish International Development Agency (SIDA)

Singapore’s land reclamation and construction projects, 72

small-scale

fisheries, 39, 45–46, 50–51, 137

fishers, 45–46, 103

social capital, 137–38

social-ecological sustainability, 4

social-ecological system of southwestern Cambodia, 5

socialism, 7

social services, poor, 9

social stratification, 36

Som Sak, Wayne, 1

South China Sea, 51

Southeast Asia fisheries, 44

Southeast Asian countries, 27

start-up capital for aquaculture, 40

state-local partnerships, 33

state regulations, 10

Strategic Development plans, 24

Sub-decree on Community Fisheries, 25, 109

suppression of opposition, 8

sustainable (sustainability) aquatic resources, 46

development, 4n2, 36

environmental, 17, 126

of mangrove ecosystem, 54

Swedish International Development Agency (SIDA), 33

T

technical officer, 110, 113–14

territorial claims, 47

Thailand, 27

Tonle Sap lake

aquaculture, small-producer, 40

aquatic resources, rich in, 43

floodplain lake, 43, 50, 52

freshwater areas of, 39, 43

government re-established concession system to raise revenues, 53

top-down rule, 24

tourism, 44, 47, 86, 88

tourist dollars, 9

trading of marine products, 51

tragedy of the commons, 21

transformative governance, 20

trawl fishers, 108, 112–13, 119

trawling

foreign, 46, 53

illegal, 77, 85, 91, 95, 109–10, 114, 128

offshore, 45

shallow-water, 109–11, 114, 128

U

UNDP. See United Nations Development Program (UNDP)

UNESCO Biosphere Reserve, 43

United Nations, 9

United Nations Development Program (UNDP), 26, 33

unsustainable path dependencies, 7

V

vessels, larger-scale, 45

Vietnam, 8, 40, 43, 47, 49, 52

Vietnamese liberation, 13

Vietnam War, 13

village. See also Koh Sralao village awareness of resource management committee, 83

chiefs, 11, 28, 70, 100

elected resource management committee, 26, 34, 79, 98

government partnerships, 139, 141

headpersons, 33

level committees, 28

middleperson, 40, 57, 61, 64–67, 97–98

power relations, 34

resource management committee, 1

violence, 2, 7, 115

voter turnout, 29

W

wage labour, 15, 76

waste management, 88, 92–93, 95, 98–99

waste management training, 92

watermelon cultivation, 55

water supply issues, 33

Western-centric economy, state and education, 8

wildlife poaching, 79, 86, 91, 110

World Bank, 23, 27, 164

World Trade Organization, 9

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