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Revolution or Renaissance

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D. Paul Schafer

Index

Texte intégral

A

African Union, 115

aggregate demand, 76-77, 96-97, 102, 107, 227

Agnew, John, 187

agrarian society, 23

agricultural cooperatives, 47

agricultural revolution, 24, 107

Alisjahbana, Takdir, 190, 261, 263

Allport, Gordon, 186

alternative economics movement, 90, 270

altruism, 202-3

American culture, 169-70

American Declaration of

Independence, 9-10

Americanization, 116, 255

Anthropologists
Benedict, Ruth, 119, 134, 161, 165, 173, 186, 188, 233, 264
Boas, Franz, 161, 187-88
Bunzel, Ruth, 188, 265
Burnett Tylor, Edward, 143, 187
Evans-Pritchard, Edward, 188, 267
Firth, Raymond, 188, 267
Frobenius, Leo, 187-88
Geertz, Clifford, 171, 268
Hall, Edward, 9, 161, 171-72, 189
Harris, Marvin, 143, 269
Kluckhohn, Clyde, 159, 161, 164, 187, 271
Kroeber, Alfred, 159, 161, 164, 187, 271
Lévy-Bruhl, Lucien, 188, 272
Linton, Ralph, 161, 186, 272
Malinowski, Bronislaw, 146-47, 161, 188, 272
Mead, Margaret, 161, 186, 188, 273
Morgan, Lewis Henry, 188, 274
Pitt-Rivers, A. L-F, 188, 274
Radcliffe-Brown, Alfred Reginald, 188, 275
Redfield, Robert, 168-69, 275
Rivers, William Halsey, 188, 275

anti-globalization movement, 211, 226

Arkwright, Richard, 24-25

Arnold, Matthew, 151, 160-61, 186, 263

Ashanti culture, 185

Ashley, William, 30

Ashton, Thomas S., 23, 264

Asian Pacific Economic Council, 115

Austrian school of economics, 63-64, 86

Authors
Dickens, Charles, 27, 50
Engels, Friedrich, 10, 27, 53-55
Heckscher, Eli F., 11, 30, 269
Owen, Robert, 27, 51
Parsons, Talcott, 30

B

Bacon, Sir Francis, 11, 21

Bagehot, Walter, 50

balance of payments, 82, 115, 118

Barber, William J., 20, 32, 37, 40, 60, 264

Bartok, Bela, 245

basic human needs, 146-49, 219-20

Bateson, Gregory, 145, 264

Baumol, William, 189, 264

Benedict, Ruth, 119, 134, 161, 165, 173, 186, 188, 233, 264

Benin culture, 185

Benson, A. C., 171

Bentham, Jeremy, 60

Bickley, Verner, 209, 238, 264

“big push” theory of development, 79

Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, 225

Birket-Smith, Kaj, 241, 264

Blake, William, 170

Bloomsbury Group, 189

Boas, Franz, 161, 187-88

Bôhm-Bawerk, Eugen von, 63

Boulding, Elise, 2, 190, 215, 265

Boulton, Matthew, 9

Braisted, Paul J., 212, 239-40, 256, 265

Braudel, Fernand, 189, 265

Bray, John Francis, 51

Brentano, Lujo, 30

Britain
bad harvests in, 42
capitalism, growth in, 29, 36
capitalist class in, 45
colonies, 23, 41, 49
cotton textile industry, 25
duties on imports, 44
geographical exploration, 11
industrial revolution, 12, 23-27
law of absolute advantage, 45
law of diminishing returns, 40, 49
manufacturing vs. agriculture, 50
mercantalism, 11
output per capita, 26
patents, 24
population growth, 24-25, 41
Protestant ethic, 28
religious and capitalistic changes, 28
rule of India, 25
socialist thinkers, 57
technological inventions, 9
terrorist attacks, 2
trade in foreign grain, 44
wool and cotton, 25

British culture, 170-71

Brook, Peter, 212

Brundtland, Gro Harlem, 89

Buckle, 181

budgetary surpluses, 77, 88

Bunzel, Ruth, 188, 265

Burckhardt, Jacob, 180-81, 189, 246, 265

Burke, Joseph, 189, 242, 265

Burnett Tylor, Edward, 143, 187

business cycle theory, 63

C

Calvinism, 28, 30

Canada
capitalist world, 57
culture, 176-77
culture vs. Americanization, 252
economic development, high level, 114
free trade zone, resistance to, 117
immigration policy, 176
land claim resolution, 200
materialism, 126
multiculturalism, 177
multiplier effect of the arts, 97
trade with Britain, 49

Cantillon, Richard, 21

capital accumulation
corporations, competition by, 225
economic age, shortcomings of, 128
facilitating, 13
human capital, 105
income stream through, 18
investment for, 67
lack of, 43
modern world system, 31
monetary and material wealth, 114
money supply and monetary
policies, 87
pessimistic views, 39
potential for, 17
production contribution, 104
productivity improvements, 120
profit and profit motive, 105-6
return on money invested, 105
savings ploughed into production, 29
Smith’s ideas, 17, 19, 31, 35, 39
specialization, 102, 104
strong economies, 194
surplus of production over consumption, 12, 19
wealth, creation and augmentation of, 17

capital formation, 79-84, 126

Capital (Marx), 53, 272

capital-output ratio, 79

capitalism
Austrian school of economics, 63
collapse of, 54
contemporary, 2
contradictions in, 22, 34, 54
corporate, 223
economic age, 3
economic and political liberalism, 10, 34
gap between rich and poor, 131
laissez faire rewards, 70
Marx’s ideas, 71
Marx’s view, 54, 57-58
modern world system, 31
Pareto’s ideas, 65
path of development, global, 255
religion and rise of, 27-31, 35
Schumpeter’s ideas, 63-64
spread of, 38
The Wealth of Nations, 37
world as dehumanized, 131-32
world of, 36

capitalistic
age, 3
class in society, 66
development, 29
outlook, Protestant/Catholic, 30
spirit during Reformation, 30
spirit of production and consumption, 28
system of production, 29-30

capitalists
class, as most powerful, 52-54
class differences, 39
colonial development and international trade, 36
Corn Laws and imported grain, 44
cotton and huge profits, 25
economic advantage of, 52
living standards, 38
Marx’s ideas, 53-54, 57, 66, 70
owners of machinery, equipment and capital, 17
Pareto’s ideas, 66
population growth and production, 43
quasi-rent and potential profits, 68
rebellion by, 44
standard of living improvement, 18
surplus value on capital, 52
taxation issues, 46

Capra, Fritjof, 145, 265

Carlyle, Thomas, 34, 42, 186

carrying capacity of Earth
material inputs and outputs, 126
natural environment, damage to, 131
polices for future, 88
population growth, global, 1, 88-89, 132, 197, 206, 215
renewable and non-renewable
resources consumption, 145, 260

Carson, Rachel, 144, 265

Catholicism, 28, 30

centrality of economics, 31, 35, 56, 79, 82, 95, 125

Chamberlin, E. H., 23, 70, 265-66

Chicago school of economics, 86, 88

Child
deaths from water-borne disease, 126
equality, 152
exploitation, 152
labour, 38-39, 52-53, 127, 225

Child, Julia, 245

Child, Sir Josiah, 11, 21

children’s rights, 153

China, 185

classless society, 55

Clement, W. R., 242-43, 266

Club of Rome, 88-89

cokeblasting process, 24

Cole, G. D. H., 57

Collection of Traditional Music of the World, 245

colonialism, 11, 36, 54, 83, 151, 154, 183

colonies, 23, 30, 35-36, 45, 73

commercial elites, 87

commercial revolution, 24, 184

communications age, 3, 5

communism, 54, 57, 63

The Communist Manifesto (Marx and Engels), 10, 54, 81

Competition
capitalists or manufacturers, 53
consumption vs. conservation, 135, 157
cooperation vs., 206, 225
corporate, 225-26
corporate capitalist monopoly, 223
dehumanized and impersonal, 131-32
dominant force in society, 102
economic and political liberalism, 45
environmental conditions, 51
excessive, 211
free-trade world, 31
for high incomes, 113
in humanized economies, 194
imperfect, 70, 72, 77
markets, 58
monopolistic, 70, 86
motivation of people, 206
perfect, 65, 70, 87, 106
producers and consumers, 31
profit motive, 106
profits and profit margins, 18
vigorous, 68-69
in vigorous economy, 206
virtues of, 106

Concheiro, Antonio Alonso, 232

Condorcet, Marie-Jean-Antoine

Nicolas de, 38, 40, 181, 266

conservation, 135, 157, 206, 211, 222, 246, 255

conspicuous consumption, 108

consumer and producer satisfaction, 66

consumer goods, 34

consumer industry, 26

consumer price indices, 32

consumer satisfaction, 62, 68-70, 86, 97, 101

consumption
under, 21, 42, 53
abstain from, 29
alarming proportions, 128
capitalistic spirit of, 28
carrying capacity of the Earth, 126
changing, 108
Chicago school of economists, 87
classical and neoclassical
economists, 74
complexities of, 76
component of aggregate demand, 76
conservation vs., 135, 157
conspicuous, 108
contemporary economics, 85
development economics, 84
economic age, 93, 131
excessive, 29, 132, 134, 211, 217
of food, 61
generation of, 226
global economy, 114
global warming, 120
government concern, 108
higher, 107-9
human dimension vs., 157
Keynesian economics, 73-76, 86, 107-8
lower, 107-8
mass, 82
of material, 98
of material goods and services, 125, 198
of material wealth, 31-32, 98, 125
materialistic way of life, 126
modern world system, 33
modern world system in US, 115, 118
motives that drive, 108
neoclassical economics, 58, 69
objective of, 107, 194
patterns, 33, 108
physiocrats and surplus, 12
population growth, 89
potential profits, 68
production vs., 17, 19, 35, 77, 98, 103, 108-9
profitable, 105
promotion of, 125
psychological and social factors, 108
renewable and non-renewable
resources, 4, 126, 198
resource sharing vs., 194
satisfaction from, 62
Smith’s ideas, 10, 31-33
stimulating, 97, 224
surplus of production over, 35
tensions and conflicts in world, 238
theories of, 72
volume of, 114

cooperation
balance and harmony, 157
corporate ideology, new, 223
cultural, 212, 239-40
cultural world system, 211
by cultures of the world, 256
democratization and decentralization, 206
economic goals, 194
economies, humanized, 194
examples of, 239
humanities, concern by, 192
international, 230
opportunities for, 248
by World organizations, 222-23
world’s future, 1, 135
worldwide, 240

Corn Law, 44-45

corporate capitalism, 223

corporate cultural responsibility, 225

corporate profits, 97, 105, 202

corporatism, 2-3

Cort, Henry, 24

cotton gin, 24

cotton textile industry, 25-26

Council of Europe, 233

Cournot, Augustin, 60

credit is money,” 29

Critique of Political Economy (Marx), 56

Crompton, Samuel, 24-25

Cuéllar, Javier Pérez de, 157

Cultural
animators, 205
circles, 187
education, 156, 183, 232-34, 260
exchange programs, 208
heritage of humankind, 246-48
indicators, 222-23
legacy, 199
model of development, 195-200, 196f2
renaissance, 242-44
worldview, 191-93

cultural age
cities, liveable and sustainable, 234-37
citizenship, cultural approach to, 230-31
corporate ideology, new, 223-26
creativity, focus on, 155-56
cultural as a crucial force, 156-58
cultural concerns, key, 200-207
cultural heritage of humankind, 245-48
cultural interpretations of history, 179-84
cultural model of development, 195-200, 196f2
cultural renaissance, 242-44
cultural tradition, great, 184-90
cultural world stage, 207-13
cultural worldview, 191-93
culture, nature of, 159-66
culture and cultures, development of, 193-95
cultures, character of, 166-78
education, breakthrough to, 231-34
environmental movement, 143-46
environmental reality, new, 215-18
the holistic transformation, 140-43
human needs, encounter with, 146-49
human needs, fulfilling, 218-21
identity, necessity of, 153-55
political system, new, 226-30
quality of life, quest for, 149-51
struggle for equality, 151-53
united world, 237-40
wealth, new meaning of, 221-23
world culture, global federation of, 255-58
world culture(s), 248-54

Cultural Information and Research Centres Liaison in Europe (Circle), 233

Culture and Politics in Canada (Schafer), 176, 276

culture of Renaissance Italy, 180-81, 242

Culturelink, 233

Cvjeticanin, Biserka, 205, 266

Czech culture, 169

D

Daniélou, Alain, 245

Darby, Abraham, 24-25

Darwin, Charles, 10, 51, 106, 144, 266

debt load, 203, 218, 222, 224, 227

decentralization, 175, 204, 206, 229

Declaration of Human Rights, 152

deep ecology, 145, 218, 276

demand for product, 17, 47, 59, 61

democracy
American Declaration of Independence, 9
Austrian school of economics, 63, 86
commitment to, 229
cultural, 204
global captialism, 86
global ethics, 231
global path of development, 255
Schumpeter’s ideas, 63
Smith’s ideas, 34
terrorism vs., 5
triumph of capitalism and, 57
world system, present, 3
world trade organizations, 34

democratization, 175, 204, 206, 229

developed countries
developing countries, as market to, 84
developing countries dependence on, 83
domestic capacity of, 252
environmental action, 216
equality, value and dignity of people, 183
export-led development in less, 112
human needs, fulfillment of, 219
international institutions, 114
protective tariffs, 84
quality of life, 218
transition to, 122

Dialogues Concerning Natural Religion (Hume), 146

Dickens, Charles, 27, 50

discriminatory protectionist measures, 84

disparities in income and wealth
commitment to eliminate, 152
distribution problem, 202
gains in reducing, 126
global North and South, 130
life-threatening, 130
main classes in society, 38
Marx’s ideas, 71
Pareto’s law of income distribution, 133
problems on global horizon, 120
resources, unequal sharing of, 195

distribution
basic human needs, 219-20
capitalistic system of, 26, 28
contemporary economics, 85-87
in cultural age, 202
economic age, 120-22
economic age shortcomings, 126-28, 131, 134, 152
economic model of development, 98, 110
humanized economics, 194, 198
Huntington’s ideas, 238
inequalities in, 71, 87
Keynes’ideas, 73
Marx’s ideas, 52, 60, 65, 71
Mill’s ideas, 47-48
modern world system, 125
neoclassical economics, 58-59, 69
Pareto’s ideas, 65, 133
Polanyi’s ideas, 110
of power among national, regional and municipal governments, 237
Ricardos ideas, 42-44
Smith’s theory of, 17-18, 31-34
Walras’s ideas, 65
of wealth and income, unequal, 26, 33
Weber’s ideas, 29

division of labour, 13, 15-16, 18, 31

Domar, Evsey, 79, 267

domestic economy, 81, 84

Dumont, Fernand, 158

E

Ebadi, Shirin, 152

economic age
balance sheet on, 130-35
capitalism, 3
classical economics, 39-51
consumption, 93, 131
contemporary economics, 85-91
development economics, 78-84
distribution, 120-22
dominant forces of society, 102-13
economic growth, 3, 120, 123-24, 200, 202
economic model of development, 10f1, 98-102
economic worldview, 93-98
environmental crisis, 1, 120, 131, 133
globalization, 111
industrial revolution in Britain, 23-27
investment, 105
Keynesian economics, 37, 54, 72-79, 85-88, 95, 123, 146
Marxian economics, 37, 51-58, 65-66, 70, 72, 76, 146
modern world systems, 113-18
natural environment, 124, 133
neoclassical economics, 58-72
post-Keynesian economics, 54, 87-88, 95
religion and the rise of capitalism, 27-30
shortcomings, 124-31, 134, 152
strengths of, 120-24
The Wealth of Nations, 10-22
world system, 31-36, 134, 201

economic and political liberalism, 13, 16,31,34, 45,65

economic base, 54, 98-100, 100f1, 101

economic growth
Americanization path, 255
classic economics, 39, 49
consumer needs, 131, 224
contemporary economics, 85
of countries in the world, 114
by developing countries, 127
developmental economics, 79
economic age, 3, 120, 123-24
economic age, dominant forces, 200, 202
economic model of development, 101-3, 105-6
economic worldview, 94
environment pressures, 199
environmental crisis, 123
environmentalists, concern of, 125
excessive rates of, 202
gap between rich and poor
countries, 133
global new economy, 97-98
government, role of, 226-28
Harrod and Domar’s ideas, 79
Hirschman’s ideas, 80
industrial revolution in Britain, 26, 38
international infrastructure, 115
Keynes’s ideas, 72-73, 75-78, 87, 95, 107-8
Malthus’s ideas, 41
Marx’s ideas, 60, 66
Mill’s ideas, 48
modern world system, 31, 116
multidimensional process, 141
natural environment, 131
neoclassical economics, 70, 72
Nurkse’s ideas, 80
organic collectivities, 130
post World War II, 79
preoccupation with increasing, 122, 124
Protestant ethic, 35
Ricardo’s ideas, 43-44
Rostow’s ideas, 81-82
shortcomings in, 90-91
Smith’s ideas, 10, 17-18, 35
sustainable development, 89
world resource consumption, 126

economic model of development, 98-102, 100f1

economic models
classical, 39-51
contemporary, 85-91
development, 78-84
Keynesian, 37, 54, 72-79, 85-88, 95, 123, 146
Marxian, 37, 51-58, 65-66, 70, 72, 76, 146
modern world system, 31-36, 113-18, 134, 201
neoclassical, 58-72
post-Keynesian, 54, 87-88, 95

economic worldview, 93-99, 101-2, 117, 120, 191-93

economists. See also Smith, Adam
Barber, William J., 20, 32, 37, 40, 60, 264
Baumol, William, 189, 264
Bentham, Jeremy, 60
Bohm-Bawerk, Eugen von, 63
Chamberlin, E. H., 23, 70, 265-66
Cournot, Augustin, 60
Domar, Evsey, 79, 267
Ehrlich, Paul, 88, 267
Friedman, Milton, 4, 86, 268
Galbraith, John Kenneth, 4, 122, 189, 268
Gossen, Hermann Heinrich, 60
Harrod, Sir Roy, 79, 269
Hayek, Friedrich A. von, 63
Hicks, John, 71, 122, 269
Hirschman, Albert, 80, 270
Jacobs, Jane, 217, 236, 270
Jevons, William Stanley, 59-64, 66, 68, 270
Kaldor, Nicholas, 87, 270
Kalecki, Michal, 87, 270
Keynes, John Maynard, 4, 10, 17, 72-76, 78, 85, 88, 96, 107, 189, 227, 271
Keynesian, 104, 107, 223, 226-27
Knight, Frank, 70
Leibenstein, Harvey, 80, 272
Lewis, Arthur, 30, 80, 187, 272
Malthus, Thomas Robert, 4, 38-42, 46, 48-49, 52, 54, 74, 88, 122, 132, 272
Marshall, Alfred, 4, 66-70, 78, 98, 272
Marx, Karl, 4, 10, 17, 27, 51-61, 64-66, 71, 74, 78, 85, 90, 95, 98, 104, 113, 122, 272
Menger, Carl, 59, 62-66, 68, 273
Mill, John Stuart, 4, 36, 39, 47-50, 52, 74, 85, 90, 98, 112, 122, 273
Mises, Ludwig von, 63
Myrdal, Gunnar, 30, 80, 122, 274
Nurkse, Ragnar, 80, 274
Pareto, Vilfredo, 65-66, 71, 86, 133, 274
Pigou, A. C., 71, 123, 274
post-Keynesian, 54, 87-88, 95, 104, 221, 223
Prebisch, Raúl, 80, 275
Ricardo, David, 4, 38-39, 42-49, 52-53, 56, 74, 85, 90, 96, 103, 112, 122, 275
Robinson, Joan, 60, 70, 87, 275
Rosenstein-Rodan, Paul N., 79-80, 275
Rostow, Walt, 81-82, 275
Say, Jean-Baptiste, 74, 108, 121
Schumpeter, Joseph, 24, 63-64, 86, 276
Sraffa, Piero, 70, 277
Thüne, Johann Heinrich von, 60
Veblen, Thorstein, 71, 108, 278
Walras, Léon, 59, 64-67, 278
Wieser, Friedrich von, 63

Egypt, 185

Ehrlich, Paul, 88, 267

Einstein, Albert, 141

Eisenstein, Sergei, 190

Elgar, Edward, 171

Elgin, Duane, 206, 267

Eliot, T. S., 210, 267

Emerson, Ralph Waldo, 190

Enesco, Georges, 245

Engels, Friedrich, 10, 27, 53-55

enlightened self-interest, 31, 33

Enlightenment, 37

environmental crisis
alternative economics movement, 90
consequences of, 135
contemporary economics, 85
economic age, 1, 131, 133
economic age, need to assess, 120
economic growth, 123
environmental awareness, 145-46
environmental destruction, 145
environmental management, 216
government role, 227
human activities, 143
imbalances and deficiencies, 211
mainstream economics, 88
new model of development, 102
sustainable development, 122
sustainable solutions, 142
world in two unequal parts, 223
world problem, 157, 259

environmental movement, 5, 139, 143-46, 150

environmental safeguards, 216

equilibrium price, 65, 67-68

Ergang, Robert, 173-74, 267

Escoffier, Georges-Auguste, 245

Essays on Some Unsettled Questions of Political Economy (Mill), 47

ethnic minorities, 151

Europe
geographical explorations, 11

European Union, 34, 85, 111, 116-17, 154, 187, 248

Evans-Pritchard, Edward, 188, 267

F

Fabian Society, 55

Fanfani, Amintore, 30, 267

First Nations, 176

First Universal Forum of Culture, 233

Firth, Raymond, 188, 267

fixed capital, 53

Florentines, 181

Florida, Richard, 155, 268

flying shuttle, 24, 27

fossil fuel, 132, 216

Fourier, Charles, 51

France
geographical explorations, 11
physiocracy, 11-12

Franklin, Benjamin, 29

free trade, 2-3, 34, 46, 83, 86, 112, 117, 202, 211, 227

Free Trade Agreements, 34

French culture, 171

French Revolution, 37-38

Friedan, Betty, 152

Friedman, Milton, 4, 86, 268

Friends of the Earth, 115, 144

Frobenius, Leo, 187-88

Fuentes, Carlos, 190

G

G7 countries, 114

G8 countries, 33, 84, 114, 116, 219

Galbraith, John Kenneth, 4, 122, 189, 268

Galtung, Johan, 148-49, 268

Gandhi, Mahatma, 25, 171, 190, 209, 253, 268

Gao Xian, 255 Geertz, Clifford, 171, 268

gender equality, 153

The General Theory of Employment, Interest and Money (Keynes), 73, 271

The German Ideology (Marx), 55

Gibbon, Edward, 181

Girard, Augustin, 204, 231, 268

Global Economic Prospects Report, 127, 279

global economy, 5, 34, 85, 90, 97, 114, 126, 207

global ecosystem, 1, 124-25, 132,216

global equilibrium, 89

global ethics, 231

global village, 111, 248, 250, 253

global warming, 5, 120, 124, 127, 131, 144-45, 199

globalization
as an intrusive force, 111
as colonialism, 154
contemporary economics, 85-86, 90, 94
countervailing forces against, 249
cultures are more open today, 175
cultures as victims of, 195, 198-99
debates about, 111
development of, 112
dominant force in society, 103
economic age, 111
economic systems and cultures, changes in, 163
factors accounting for, 112
human condition, transformation of, 3
identity assertion, 154
identity erosion, 154
intercultural interaction, 156, 175, 199
international trade and free trade, 48, 83-84
planetary networks, 205
power concentrated into few hands, 131
promotion of financial and commercial interests, 131
protests against, 155, 211, 226
regional trade zones, 248-49
specialization, demand for, 201
trading blocs, 205
United States influence, 115-16
urbanization growth, 117
violent reaction to, 202
world as dynamic whole, 141
world conflict, 2
world system, current, 3

Godwin, William, 37-38, 40, 268

Goethe, Johann Wolfgang von, 181, 186

Gore, A1, 144

Gossen, Hermann Heinrich, 60

Goulet, Denis, 250, 257, 268

government involvement in the economy and markets, 12, 34, 49, 69,71,77-78

Graebner, Fritz, 187

Great Depression, 42, 73-75, 108, 123

The Great Transformation: The Political and Economic Origins of Our Time (Polanyi), 109-10, 275

Greek culture, ancient, 181, 185

greenhouse gases, 124, 215, 246

Greenpeace, 144, 215

Greenwood Publishing, 233

Greer, Germaine, 152

Gross
domestic expenditure, 32
domestic income, 32
domestic product, 32, 113-14, 126,218, 239
national product (GNP), 148

guild system of production, 30

Guizot, François, 181

Gunn, Giles, 167, 269

Gutenberg, Johannes, 243

H

Hall, Edward, 9, 161, 171-72, 189

Hallowed, Irving, 186

hand pump, 27

Haq, Mahbub ul, 145-46, 150, 269

Harding, John, 186

Hargreaves, James, 24-25

Harris, Marvin, 143, 269

Harrod, Sir Roy, 79, 269

Hartwell, R. M., 23, 269

Hayek, Friedrich A. von, 63

Heckscher, Eli F., 11, 30, 269

Heilbroner, Robert L., 42, 73, 269

Herder, Johann Gottfried von, 145, 173-75, 269

Hicks, John, 71, 122, 269

high tariff walls, 84

Hildebrand, Bruno, 50

Hirschman, Albert, 80, 270

Historians
Ashley, William, 30
Bagehot, Walter, 50
Braudel, Fernand, 189, 265
Brentano, Lujo, 30
Burckhardt, Jacob, 180-81, 189, 246, 265
Burke, Joseph, 189, 242, 265
Fanfani, Amintore, 30, 267
Gibbon, Edward, 181
Hildebrand, Bruno, 50
Huizinga, Johan, 181, 189, 194, 211, 270
Ingram, John, 50
Jones, Richard, 50
Ki-Zerbo, Joseph, 189, 271
Knies, Karl, 50
Leslie, Cliffe, 50
List, Friedrich, 50
Michelet, Jules, 244
Nef, John, 12, 23,274
Petrie, W. M. F., 189, 274
Polanyi, Karl, 109-10, 129, 275
Robertson, H. M., 30, 275
Roscher, Wilhelm, 50
Sombart, Werner, 30, 50
Spengler, Oswald, 179, 181, 189, 277
Spiethoff, Arthur, 50
Tawney, R. H., 30, 277
Toynbee, Arnold, 23, 181, 189, 278
Weintraub, Karl, 180, 189, 194, 211, 246, 279

holism, 143, 193, 201, 206

holistic medicine, 140

homelessness, 112, 157, 218, 237, 256

Honigmann, John, 186

Howe, Elias, 24

Hugo, Victor, 21

Huizinga, Johan, 181, 189, 194, 211, 270

human capital, 105

Human Development Index (HDI), 148

Human Genome Project, 141

human rights, 93, 203-4, 230-31
abuses, 153, 225, 256
legislation, 152

Hume, David, 21, 146

hunger, 120, 126, 157, 194, 218, 224, 256

Hunt, Susan, 93, 270

Huntington, Samuel P., 237-38, 270

Hutcheson, Francis, 21

I

identity, 153-55

imperialism, 54, 83, 183, 195

import substitution, 83

income per capita, 32

income stream, 18, 74, 76

An Inconvenient Truth (Gore), 144

industrial revolution, 23-28, 31, 34-37, 44, 50-51, 53, 57, 80, 90-91, 107, 170, 201

industrial society, 23

information age, 3

Ingram, John, 50

An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations (Smith), 9-10, 14-15, 18, 21-23, 27,31-37, 39,41, 113, 139, 276

Intercultural Institute of Montreal, 233

interest rates, 63, 73-76, 87

International Archives for Cultural Analysis, 233

international infrastructure, 115

International Monetary Fund, 33, 82-83, 113, 115, 154, 202, 219, 222

international trade
“free-trade” world, 34
globalization and trade
liberalization, 84, 116
industrial revolution, 23
laissez-faire economics, 86
Malthus’s ideas, 41
Mill’s ideas, 47-48
moderen world system, 116, 126
modern world system, 31
promotion of, 11
Ricardos ideas, 103
Ricardos ideas, 45-46
single world culture, 248, 252-53
Smiths ideas, 13, 31, 36
Smiths ideas, 45
structural development, 83

inventions, 24-25

inventors
Arkwright, Richard, 24-25
Cort, Henry, 24
Crompton, Samuel, 24-25
Darby, Abraham, 24-25
Hargreaves, James, 24-25
Howe, Elias, 24
Kay, John, 24-25
Newcomen, Thomas, 24
Tull, Jethro, 24
Watt, James, 9-10, 24-25
Whitney, Eli, 24-25

investment
arts in urban environment, 235
capital accumulation, 105
classical economics, 48
consumption levels, 108
development economics, 84
development economists, 81
economic age, 105
economic worldview, 97
Franklin, Benjamin, 29
goal of economics, 194
government role, 226, 228
growth and developments, fuels, 115
Harrod and Domar’s ideas, 79
industrial revolution in Britain, 26
Keynesian economics, 73-76, 85, 87
liberalization of trade, 112
in marketing and advertising, 109
new corporate ideology, 223-24, 226
Nurkse’s ideas, 80
post-World War II, 79
ranking of countries by, 114
Rostow’s ideas, 82
Smiths’ideas, 31
in strong economies, 194
world economics system, 240

«invisible hand,» 13, 16-17, 31

iron industry, 25-26

Islamic countries, 116, 178

Islamic fundamentalism, 156

Italian merchant cities, 30

J

Jacobs, Jane, 217, 236, 270

Jevons, William Stanley, 59-64, 66, 68, 270

Johnson, Dr Samuel, 25

Jones, Richard, 50

K

Kaldor, Nicholas, 87, 270

Kalecki, Michal, 87, 270

Kapur Surya Foundation, 219-20, 270

Kardiner, Abram, 186

Kay, John, 24-25

Kennedy, John F., 203

Keynes, John Maynard, 4, 10, 17, 72-76, 78, 85, 88, 96, 107, 189, 227, 271

Keynesian economics, 104, 107, 223, 226-27

Ki-Zerbo, Joseph, 189, 271

King Jr., Martin Luther, 171

Kluckhohn, Clyde, 159, 161, 164, 187, 271

Knies, Karl, 50

Knight, Frank, 70

knowledge-based economy, 105

Kodály, Zoltán, 245

Kroeber, Alfred, 159, 161, 164, 187, 271

Kyoto Protocol, 144, 218

L

labour-management relations, 120

labour practices, 127

labour productivity, 33

labour specialization, 31

labour theory of value, 14, 46, 52, 56, 113

labourers, 15, 17-20, 38-39, 43-44, 46, 48, 52-54, 57, 184

labouring class, 22, 39, 41, 44, 48-49, 51-54

Lagassi, Emeril, 245

laissez faire, 12, 17, 21, 31, 45
economics, 65, 72, 86, 122
liberalism, 66, 70

laissez passer, 12

landlords, 17-18, 25, 38-39, 43-44, 52,71

Landsberg, Michele, 152

law of absolute advantage, 45

law of comparative advantage, 45-47, 112

law of culture, 186

law of diminishing returns, 39-40, 44, 48-49, 67, 69, 121, 132

law of income distribution, 65, 133

law of wages, 39, 48-49

laws governing distribution, 47-48

laws governing market behaviour, 71

laws governing production, 47-48

lead-lag theory of development, 80

LeDrew, Colleen, 206, 267

Leibenstein, Harvey, 80, 272

Lerner, Max, 21-22

Leslie, Cliffe, 50

Lévy-Bruhl, Lucien, 188, 272

Lewis, Arthur, 30, 80, 187, 272

liberalism, political and economic, 16-17

Linton, Ralph, 161, 186, 272

liquidity preference, 74

List, Friedrich, 50

living standards, 2, 22, 38, 41, 78, 94, 112, 123, 130, 134-35, 220, 259

Locke, John, 21

Lovelock, James, 145, 272

Luddites, 27

M

macroeconomics, 33, 72-73

Maison des Cultures du Monde, 233

Malinowski, Bronislaw, 146-47, 161, 188, 272

Malitza, Mircea, 210, 272

Malthus, Thomas Robert, 4, 38-42, 46, 48-49, 52, 54, 74, 88, 122, 132, 272

Mandela, Nelson, 171

Mantoux, Paul, 23, 272

Marginal
private net product, 71
social net product, 71
utility, 59-68, 72, 106
utility theory, 62-64, 67

marginalized peoples, 151

market
economies, 34
expansion, 15-18
gluts, 42, 74
prices of commodities, 20
society, 110, 129

Marsh, George Perkins, 144

Marshal Plan, 78

Marshall, Alfred, 4, 66-70, 78, 98, 272

Marx, Karl, 4, 10, 17, 27, 51-61, 64-66, 71, 74, 78, 85, 90, 95, 98, 104, 113, 122, 272

Marxian economists, 146

Marxism, 65-66, 71

Marxists, 55-56, 58, 64-66, 71

Masini, Eleonora Barbieri, 139, 232, 250, 257, 272-73

materialism, 3, 31, 110

materialistic age, 3

maximizing corporate profits, 97

McCulloch, John Ramsey, 38

McHale, John, 1, 4

McLuhan, Marshall, 111, 244

Mead, Margaret, 161, 186, 188, 273

Menger, Carl, 59, 62-66, 68, 273

mercantilism, 11, 16, 35

mercantilist theory, 11

Mercer, John, 187

Methodism, 29

Michelet, Jules, 244

microeconomics, 33, 72

Microsoft Corporation, 225

Mill, John Stuart, 4, 36, 39, 47-50, 52, 74, 85, 90, 98, 112, 122, 273

Mirabeau, Victor, 12

Mises, Ludwig von, 63

Misselden, Edward, 11

Mitchell, Wesley, 16

mobility of labour and capital, 31, 34

Moeser, 181

monetarization, 103, 112-13

monetary and fiscal policy, 63, 70-71, 77, 86, 88, 95, 123, 226

monetary policy, 86-87

“money can beget money,» 29

Morgan, Lewis Henry, 188, 274

multiculturalism, 177

multinational corporations, 85, 111-12, 127, 154, 205, 248

multiplier effect, 97

Mumford, Lewis, 187, 274

Mun, Thomas, 11, 21

municipal planning, 236-37

Myrdal, Gunnar, 30, 80, 122, 274

N

Naess, Arne, 145, 274

Napoleonic wars, 42, 44

national accounts, 32

national character, 174, 178, 186

national income analysis, 71

natural prices of commodities, 20

natural environment
accomplishments and cultural tradition, 186
capacity of, 130
cultural connections, 163
cultural education, 233
cultural impact, 198
cultural interplay with, 199
cultural worldview, 192
culture in material and nonmaterial dimensions, 197
cultures, development of, 183
damage to, 124
DDT and Rachel Carson, 144
deep ecology, 218
degeneration of, 4
deterioration of, 88, 122, 217
devastation to, 125
economic activity, 198
economic age, shortcomings, 124, 133
economic growth, excessive, 202
economic planning and development, 125
as economic resource, 96
economic value of 89
economic worldview, 96-97, 200
economics, positioning correctly, 260
economics and, 89
environmental clean-ups, 145, 215
environmental movement, 143-44
environmentalists, 96
exploitation and abuse, response to, 199
financial or monetary value, 96
fragility of 216, 218
global population growth, 198
human cultural relationship, 145
human relationship with, 49, 131, 133, 142, 146, 160, 164, 166, 193, 199, 216-18, 241
humanity’s advantage, managing to, 94, 96
inter-connectedness of parts, 142
living in harmony with, 229
Malthus’s ideas, 41
new model of development, 102
people’s attitudes, changing, 5-6
pressure on, 198
quality of life, 255
respect for, 261
safeguarding, 194, 217
spiritualism and materialism, 192
sustainable development, 89, 122, 145
«taken for granted,» 102, 124, 198

natural order in the world, 16

neat revenue, 32

Nef, John, 12, 23, 274

net domestic product, 32

Netherlands, 11, 29, 36

New Deal, 75, 123

Newcomen, Thomas, 24

non-material needs, 132, 199, 220

noneconomic superstructure of society, 100, 100f1, 101

North American Free Trade
Agreement, 86

Northrop, F. S. C., 188, 274

Nurkse, Ragnar, 80, 274

O

Olympic Games, 97

Organization for Economic

Cooperation and Development, 33

Organization of American States, 115

Orient, 11

On the Origins of Species (Darwin), 10, 51, 144, 266

Our Common Future, 89, 144

overproduction, 21, 42, 53, 74

Owen, Robert, 27, 51

P

Pareto, Vilfredo, 65-66, 71, 86, 133, 274

Pareto optimums and efficiencies, 86

Parry, Hubert, 170

Parsons, Talcott, 30

partial equilibrium, 67, 85

Paz, Octavio, 190

Persian culture, 171, 185

Petrie, W. M. F., 189, 274

Petty, Sir William, 11, 21

Pigou, A. C., 71, 123, 274

Pilon, Robert, 243, 274

Pitman, Walter, 234, 274

Pitt-Rivers, A. L-F, 188, 274

Polanyi, Karl, 109-10, 129, 275

Poor Law, 41-42

Population
of England and Wales, 24, 26
growth, 24, 40-41, 43, 48, 69, 88-89, 94, 120, 123, 197
growth and carrying capacity of Earth, 1, 88-89, 132, 197, 206, 215
revolution, 24
of world, 1, 40-42, 88-89, 102, 107, 123, 126-27, 130, 132-33, 145, 155, 178, 187, 197-98, 206, 215, 218, 260

Portugal, 11, 29-30, 36

post-Keynesian economists, 54, 87-88, 95, 104, 221, 223

poverty, 1,41, 49-50, 52, 94, 112, 120, 122, 126, 128, 132, 147, 157, 164, 194, 203, 224, 237, 256

Powys, John Cowper, 186, 275

Prebisch, Raúl, 80, 275

price and value theory, 59, 61, 63, 86

price determination, 21, 58, 60-62, 66, 69, 72, 85

price theory, 58

primary causes, 140

Principles of Economics (Marshall), 66, 272

Principles of Economics (Menger), 63, 272

Principles of Political Economy and Taxation (Ricardo), 42-43

Principles of Political Economy (Malthus), 42, 48

Production
capital accumulation, 104
capitalistic spirit, 28
capitalistic system of, 35, 70, 128
consumption and, 107
contemporary economics, 85-86
contracting out, 127
costs of, 43
cotton, 25
cultural world system, 211
in dehumanized world, 131, 134
disparities in, 152
distribution problems, 127, 202
division of labour, 15
economic age, 109-10, 120-23, 125, 130-31
as economic goal, 194
factors of, 17
factory system, 27, 50-51
fixed factor of, 39
fundamental force, 10, 97-98
Herder’s ideas, 173
human cost of, 127
human needs, 146
human needs, fulfillment of, 219
Huntington’s ideas, 238
increased, 26, 28, 104, 259
investments in, 105
Jacob’s dieas, 217
Jevons’s ideas, 61
Keynes’s ideas, 73-74, 77, 107
large-scale, 252
law of comparative advantage, 45
law of diminishing returns, 39
Malthus’s ideas, 40, 132
Marshall’s ideas, 66-67, 79
Marx’s ideas, 51-57, 60, 113, 122
medieval guild system of, 30
Mill’s ideas, 47-48, 50, 122
natural environment, 198 neoclassical economics, 58-59, 73
networks of, 58
over, 42, 74
Pareto’s ideas, 65-66
people’s attitude towards, 220
Polanyi’s ideas, 110
profits and, 105
rational system of, 28-29
regulation of, 11
Ricardo’s ideas, 42-44
Say’s ideas, 42, 108, 121
Smith’s ideas, 17-22, 24, 31-33, 42-43, 45, 103-4, 113
specialization, 102-4, 201
supply and demand, 107
surplus of, 12, 17, 35, 98
technological, 220
Veblen’s ides, 108
Weber’s ideas, 29
world system of, 32

production costs, 59, 66-67

“productive” activities in society, 100-101

“productive” and “unproductive” labour, 33

productive capacity
distribution, 202
economic age, 120-21, 123, 127, 130
needs of people, 219
Smith’s ideas, 33

produit net, 12

profit
capital accumulation, 105-6
capitalists and cotton, 25
capitalists and quasi-rent, 68
competition, 18, 106
corporate, 97, 105, 202
generation, 29, 106
maximization, 3, 10, 31, 58, 68, 102, 106, 128, 131,224
motive, 2, 35, 102, 105-6

Protestant ethic, 28-30

The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism (Weber), 28

Protestantism, 28, 30

Protestants, 29-30

Proudhon, Pierre-Joseph, 51

Puck, Wolfgang, 245

puddling and rolling process, 24

purchasing power of money, 21, 32

Puthenparampil, John Philip, 209, 238, 264

Q

quality of life
consumption of wealth, 31
corporations and executives, 224
cultural age, 139
culture, impact on, 258
decisive factor in life, 205
economic age, 130
economic world view, 93-94
holistic transformation, 5
improvements in, 234, 255, 259
improving, 218
index of 223
new understanding of, 223
quest for, 149-51
«right decisions in our time,» 261
working conditions, 225

Quesnay, François, 12, 21

R

Radcliffe-Brown, Alfred Reginald, 188, 275

Rapoport, Amos, 187

rate of exploitation, 52-53, 56

rate of return, 105-6, 223

Ratzel, Friedrich, 187

“Recommendation on Participation by the People at Large in Cultural Life and Their Contribution to It” (UNESCO), 204

Redfield, Robert, 168-69, 275

Reflections on Human Development (Haq), 148, 269

Reformation, 30

regional trading blocs, 85

renaissance, 185, 241-42, 244, 258

Renaissance culture, 182, 242

Renaissance Italy, 180-81, 242

rent, 17-18, 20, 43-44, 46, 49, 67

return on money invested, 105-6

Ricardo, David, 4, 38-39, 42-49, 52-53, 56, 74, 85, 90, 96, 103, 112, 122, 275

Rivers, William Halsey, 188, 275

Robertson, H. M., 30, 275

Robertus, Karl, 51

Robinson, Joan, 60, 70, 87, 275

Róheim, Géza, 186

Roosevelt, Franklin D., 73, 75

Roscher, Wilhelm, 50

Rosenstein-Rodan, Paul N., 79-80, 275

Rostow, Walt, 81-82, 275

Russian culture, 171

S

Saint-Simon, Henri de, 51

Sapir, Edward, 186

saving, 71, 73-76, 79-85, 87, 105, 108, 114

Say, Jean-Baptiste, 74, 108, 121

Say’s law, 74, 121

Scholars
Bacon, Sir Francis, 11, 21
Buckle, 181
Cantillon, Richard, 21
Child, Sir Josiah, 11, 21
Condorcet, Marie-Jean-Antoine-Nicolas de, 38, 40, 181, 266
Goethe, J.W. von, 181
Guizot, François, 181
Hume, David, 21
Hutcheson, Francis, 21
Locke, John, 21
Moeser, 181
Mun, Thomas, 11, 21
Petty, Sir William, 11, 21
Quesnay, François, 12, 21
Steuart, David, 21
Turgot, Anne-Robert-Jacques, 12, 21
Voltaire, 181

Schumacher, E. F., 206, 276

Schumpeter, Joseph, 24, 63-64, 86, 276

scientific age, 3

secondary symptoms, 140

seed drill, 24

self-correcting mechanism, 42, 69-70, 72-73, 75, 86

self-worth, 126, 220

Senghor, Leopold, 190

Senior, William Nassau, 38

Sennett, Richard, 187

Sessions, George, 145, 276

sewing machine, 24

Shaw, Bernard, 57

Sibelius, Jean, 171

Sierra Club, 144, 215

Sismondi, Jean-Charles-Léonard de, 51

size of the market, 31

Smétana, Bedrich, 169

Smith, Adam
capital accumulation, 17, 19, 31
classes, 17
distribution, 18
division of labour, 13, 15, 18
enlightened self-interest, 13, 15, 17
exchange value, 20
gross revenue, 32
impact of, 22
An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations, 9-10, 14-15, 18, 21-23, 27, 31-37, 39,41, 113, 139, 276
intrinsic worth of everything, 20
invisible hand, 16-17
labour, 14
labour specialization, 13, 15, 17
laissez faire, 17, 21
liberalism, economic and political, 13
market expansion, 15-18
market prices of commodities, 20
natural prices of commodities, 20
neat revenue, 32
per capita, 13
political economy, 31
price level, 21
productive labour, 18-19
profit maximization, 31
profits, 18
purchasing power of money, 21
rents, 18
self-regulating mechanism in the economy, 17, 110
servants of public, 19
specialization of labour, 10, 13, 15-18
standard of living, 18
surplus of production, 17, 19
theory of distribution, 17
The Theory of Moral Sentiments, 20
theory of prices, 20
theory of production, 17
unproductive labour, 18-19
value in exchange (exchange value), 14
value in use (use value), 14
wages, 18
wealth, 13, 18-19, 22

social Darwinism, 106

social development, 99, 115

social thinkers
Bray, John Francis, 51
Fourier, Charles, 51
Owen, Robert, 27, 51
Proudhon, Pierre-Joseph, 51
Robertus, Karl, 51
Saint-Simon, Henri de, 51
Sismondi, Jean-Charles-Léonard de, 51

socialist thinkers
Cole, G. D. H., 57
Shaw, Bernard, 57
Webb, Sidney and Beatrice, 57
Wells, H.G., 57

sociologist
Weber, Max, 28-30

Soedjatmoko, 190, 265

Sombart, Werner, 30, 50

Sopher, David, 187

Sorokin, Pitirim, 188, 211-12, 276-77

Soyinka, Wole, 162-63, 190, 193, 277

Spain, 2, 11, 29-30, 36, 154, 156, 228

Spanish culture, 171

spatial factors, 177-78

specialization, 3, 10, 13, 15-18, 26, 31,35, 102-6, 120, 140, 142-43, 201, 206

Spencer, Herbert, 51

Spengler, Oswald, 179, 181, 189, 277

Spiethoff, Arthur, 50

spinning jenny, 24, 27

spinning mule, 24

spirit of capitalism, 29-30

spiritual fulfillment, 98, 128, 150

spiritualism, 135, 157, 166, 192, 255

Sraffa, Piero, 70, 277
The Stages of Economic Growth: A Non-Communist Manifesto (Rostow), 81-82, 275

standards for emissions, 216

standards of living, 2, 31, 35

State of the World Report, 144

stationary state, 33, 39, 44, 47-49, 69, 121, 132

steam-driven pump, 24

steam engine, 9, 24, 27

Steinem, Gloria, 152

Steuart, David, 21

Steward, Julian, 145, 277

Stockholm Conference on the Human Environment, 144

strategic industries, 252-53

structural adjustment theories, 83

struggle for equality, 5, 139, 151-53

supply and demand, 17, 42, 58, 66-67, 69, 72-74, 86, 94, 108-10, 121

surplus capital, 25

survival of the fittest, 51

sustainable development, 89, 122-23, 145, 219, 255

Svob-Dokic, Nada, 191, 277

Swimme, Brian, 145, 277

T

tableau économique, 12

Tagore, Rabindranath, 190, 256, 277

tariffs, 47, 84, 112, 218

Tawney, R. H., 30, 277

taxation, 45-46, 122, 228

technological
age, 3
development, 31
innovation, 64, 115

technology revolutions, 35

terrorism, 3, 5

terrorist attacks, 2, 85, 88, 108, 116, 156, 170, 176, 178, 211, 226, 228

theoretical liberalism, 47

theory
of “balanced economic growth,” 80
of business cycle, 63
of consumer behaviour, 61, 68
of consumption, 72
of demand, 62
of development, «big push,» 79
of development, lead-lag, 80
of differential rent, 46
of distribution, 17
of economic development, 63
of employment, 75
of evolution, 106
of the firm, 70, 97
of general equilibrium, 65, 67
of the income gap, 189
of individual behaviour in the market, 62
of marginal utility, 62-64, 67
mercantilist, 11
of population, 49, 88
of price and value, 59, 61, 63, 66, 86
of prices, 20, 58
of production, 17
of rent, 49
of taxation, 45-46
of utility, 62-63
of value, 14, 46, 52, 56, 113

The Theory of Moral Sentiments, 20

Theory of Political Economy (Jevons), 61, 63, 270

The Theory of the Leisure Class (Veblen), 108, 278

Thoreau, Henry David, 144

Thüne, Johann Heinrich von, 60

time is money, 29

time scale of products, 216

Torrens, Robert, 38

toxic substances, 124, 131, 144-45, 215-16, 222

Toynbee, Arnold, 23, 181, 189, 278

trade, 111-18, 126, 131, 141, 154, 175, 201, 210, 248, 253

trade liberalization, 84, 131

traditional sector, 81, 83

traditional society, 82

Transnational Network for

Appropriate/Alternative

Technologies (Tranet), 233

transportation revolution, 24, 26

Treatise on Money (Keynes), 73, 271

Tull, Jethro, 24

Turgot, Anne-Robert-Jacques, 12, 21

Turner Broadcasting Corporation, 225

U

underdeveloped countries, 79-81, 83, 95

unemployment
collective action, need for, 256
in developing countries, 224
economic age, shortcomings of, 126, 129
globalization and corporate fraud, 226
Great Depression, 73
holism and specialization, 201
income and wealth, unequal
distribution of, 26, 87, 120
industrial revolution, 53
Keynes’s ideas, 74-75
labouring class, 53
Malthus and Marx ideas, 74
modern world system, 131
turning point, 1
urban sturctures, 52, 237
world problem, 157
WTO, resistance to, 120

unequal distribution of income and wealth, 26, 65, 67

UNESCO, 141, 156, 161-62, 204, 223, 245-46, 265

unfair trading practices, 153

United Nations, 81-82, 113-15, 126, 144, 151, 156-57, 219, 222, 225, 256, 278

United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), 144

United Nations Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, 144

United States, 31

Universal Declaration of Human Rights, 152, 230-31

urbanization, 26, 103, 107, 117

US European Recovery Program, 78

US Federal Reserve Board, 87

Utilitarianism, 47, 60-61

V

Value
in exchange (exchange value), 14
in use (use value), 14

variable capital, 53

Veblen, Thorstein, 71, 108, 278

Voltaire, 181

W

Wallace, Anthony, 186

Walras, Léon, 59, 64-67, 278

Ward, Barbara, 124, 278

water frame, 24

Watt, James, 9-10, 24-25

Wealth
creation, 20, 31, 39, 43-44, 60, 70
distribution of, 32-33, 38, 47, 52, 58
material, 114, 125
Smith’s ideas, 13, 18-19, 22

weather patterns, 217

Webb, Sidney and Beatrice, 27, 57

Weber, Max, 28-30

Weintraub, Karl, 180, 189, 194, 211, 246, 279

welfare economics, 65, 71, 87, 122

welfare of children, 115

Wells, H.G., 57

Wesley, John, 29

Whitney, Eli, 24-25

Wieser, Friedrich von, 63

Wilde, Oscar, 129

Wilkinson, John, 9

Williams, Raymond, 166, 279

Wilson, 11

Wissler, Clare, 187

Wojciechowski, Jerzy A., 177, 279

women pioneers
Ebadi, Shirin, 152
Friedan, Betty, 152
Greer, Germaine, 152
Landsberg, Michele, 152
Steinem, Gloria, 152

women’s movement, 152

World Bank, 33, 82-83, 113, 115-16, 127, 154, 179, 202, 219, 222

World Commission on Culture and Development, 146, 156, 209, 231, 279

World Commission on Environment and Development, 89, 144

World Commission on Water for the Twenty-first Century, 126

World Conference on Cultural Policies, 141, 161-62

World Decade for Culture and Development, 156

World Economic Forum, 33, 115, 223

world system
Americanization of, 116
body of thought and practice, 133
capitalism, collapse of, 64
changing, 260
component parts of, 212
control of, 249
cultural, 207-13
cultural relationships, 212-13
cultural worldview, 192
culture, understanding of, 163
cultures, interconnected parts, 210
cultures, local, regional and national, 251
deficiencies in, 133-34, 166
development of, 35, 49, 113, 210
disharmony in, 223
economic age, 134, 201
economic development, 114
economic instability, 131
economic worldview, 94
egalitarian approach to, 5
functioning of, 210, 225
fundamental concern, 33
of future, 261
genesis of, 31-35
global federation of world cultures, 255
globalization, 115
harmonious relationships, 211
history, interpretation of, 57
human condition, 4
institutions, national and international, 224
mechanics of, 32
modern, 31-33, 35, 45, 72, 112-18, 125
objectives of, 114
in peace, 258
polarization and separation, 211
present, 3-5, 10, 22, 31, 34, 93, 207, 224, 255, 258, 260-61
problems facing, 207
of production, 32
stability and order, 124
technological beliefs and religious practices, 217
transformation in, 241
United States impact on, 115
unity and harmony, 211
unity of parts, 142
unjust and unfair, 240
as a whole, 34

World Trade Organization, 31, 33-34, 83-84, 112, 154, 202, 222

Worldwatch Institute, 144

Z

Zentrum für Kulturforschung, 233

“zero sum game,” 11

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