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Borderlands

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Emmanuel Brunet-Jailly

Index

Texte intégral

A

ABC Initiative. See Arizona Border Control (ABC) Initiative

ABS. See Association of Borderland Studies (ABS)

ACTE. See Association of European Textile Collectivities (ACTE)

Action Plan for Cooperation on Border Security, 322

Acuerdo de Paz Firme y Duradera (Firm and Durable Peace Agreement), 334

AEPS. See Arctic Environmental Protection Strategy (AEPS); Task Force on Sustainable Development (AEPS)

Afghanistan, 30

Agencia Federal de Investigaciones (Federal Agency of Investigations (AFI)), 331

Agreement on Military Environmental Cooperation (AMEC), 127

Agua Prieta (town), 51-52

Alaska, 148, 151-52

Albania, 29, 30, 33

Albanian exiles, 29, 30, 33

Aliens Law (Poland), 177

AMAP. See Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Program (AMAP)

Ambos Nogales-Tucson (faith-based NGO), 47

AMEC. See Agreement on Military Environmental Cooperation (AMEC)

American Civil Liberties Union, 286

American Patrol, 50

Amsterdam Treaty, 176

Andalusian coast, 35

ant trade (fayuca hormiga), 98

Anti-drug Analysis and Information Service. See Guatemalan Servicio de Análisis e Información Antinarcóticos (Anti-drug Analysis and Information Service (SAIA))

Anti-Terrorism Act, 286, 297-300

ANWR. See Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR)

APEC. See Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) summit

Arab-looking men (terrorists), 253-54

Arar, Maher, 302-303

Arctic borders
Agreement on Military Environmental Cooperation (AMEC), 127
Alaska, 148, 151-52
Arctic Council, 125, 128, 132, 134, 138, 145, 152
Arctic Eight, 129
Arctic Environmental Protection Strategy (AEPS), 128, 129, 129 f5.2
Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Program (AMAP), 128, 130
Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR), 131
Barents Euro-Arctic Region

(BEAR), 127, 129, 134
Barents Sea region, nuclear waste in, 122, 123, 124 f5.1, 126
borderlands, 135, 137, 142 Brandt Commission, 117
CAFF agreement, 146
Canada and the Circumpolar World: The Northern Dimension of Canada’s Foreign Policy, 119
Canada-US bilateral relationship, 153
Canada-US military alliance, 146
Canadian foreign policy on, 146-48
caribou herds, Central Arctic and Porcupine, 131
Chelyabinsk nuclear reprocessing plant, 126
climate change, 122, 127, 154
Cold War legacy, 117, 122, 138, 154
Conservation of Arctic Fauna and Flora (CAFF), 128
cultural crossroads, 136
cultural survival, 121
decision-making, local, 133
DEW line, 146, 148
Emergency Preparedness and Response (EPPR), 128
Enhanced Partnership in Northern Europe (e-PINE), 149-50, 152
environmental catastrophe, 125, 126, 127
environmental threats, 126, 134, 146-47
Estonian-Russian border, 141
EUND’s trans-Atlantic agenda, 147-48
Euregio Karelia, 143
EU-Russia dialogue, 140-41
EU-Russian border, 142
EU-Russian Summit (2005), 141
EU’s Northern Dimension (EUND) strategy, 119, 139-44, 147, 152
Finland’s concerns, 128, 145
Finnish-Russian border, 141, 144
Gorbachev, Mikhail, 122, 124, 128, 138, 146, 154
governance, internationalized, 133
Greenland, 147
Gwich’in people, 131
Haparanda-Tornio borderland, 142-43, 144
High Arctic, 146
indigenous peoples, 118, 132
Inuit Circumpolar Conference, 151, 152
Inuit Tapisariat, 151, 152
Karjalat katsovat toisiaan, 144
Komi Republic (Russia), 143
Kuhmo Summer Academy, 144
Lakselv, reindeer herding area, 125
Land Claims and Selfgovernment Agreement, 133
Lapland province(Finland), 143
maritime boundaries, 136
military training and missile testing, 125
Murmansk, city of, 122
North America, 144-53
north as frontier, 137-38
North as geographical frontier, 136
North Europe Initiative (NEI), 131-32
Northern Dimension Action Plans, 147
northern Europe, regionalism, 137-39
Northern Forum, 143
Norway’s concerns, 123, 128, 139
nuclear material and weapons, smuggling of, 126
nuclear waste, 123-25, 124 f5.1, 154
Nunavut, Canadian Territory of, 134
oil reserves, 130-31, 150
På Gränsen/Rajalla (At the Boundary), 142
Palme Commission, 117
persistent organic pollutants (POPs), 133
pollution, transboundary, 118, 119, 122, 128, 154, 158
pollution from DEW line radar stations, 122
Protection of the Arctic Marine Environment (PAME), 128
Putin, Vladimir, 138
resource reserve, geostrategically, 138
Russia-Finland border, 142
security, circumpolar boundries, 135
security, civil, 121
security, environmental, 119, 120, 122, 127-32
security, human, 119, 121, 130, 139, 154, 157
security, military, 120-21, 123-27
security, regionally-based, 134-35
security and governance, 132-35
Sellafield, nuclear reprocessing plants, 126
Soviet Union, regionalism, 137-39
Stockholm Convention, 133
sustainable development, 130, 154
Sustainable Development Working Group, 125
Sweden’s concerns, 145
Task Force on Sustainable Development (AEPS), 128
Tli Cho people, 133
traditional, redrawing, 156
United Nations Commission on Human Security, 121
US National Missile Defense (NMD) system, 126
US northern policy, 148-53
Working Group on Sustainable Development (SDWG), 128

Arctic Council, 125, 128, 132, 134, 138, 145, 152

Arctic Eight, 129

Arctic Environmental Protection Strategy (AEPS), 128, 129, 129 f5.2

Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Program (AMAP), 128, 130

Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR), 131

ARGO program, 33-34

Arizona Border Control (ABC) Initiative, 41, 52, 54, 316

Arizona Coalition for Migrant Rights, 65

Arizona Contractors Association, 48-49

Arizona Department of Commerce, 238

Arizona Homeland Defense, 50

Arizona-Sonora borderlands
Agua Prieta (town), 51-52
Ambos Nogales-Tucson (faith-based NGO), 47
American Patrol, 50
anti-migrant activists and vigilantes, 46, 47, 49-54, 65
Arizona Border Control (ABC) Initiative, 41, 52, 54
Arizona Coalition for Migrant Rights, 65
Arizona Contractors Association, 48-49
Arizona Homeland Defense, 50
Arizona voters, polls of, 59-60
automobile theft, 59
Bill 1157, 64
Bill HR4437, 48, 64
Border Action Network, 50
border patrols, DHS, 45
border security and human rights, 47-48
border-security policy, self-defeating, 44
border surveillance, self-defeating, 42
border towns, 41, 99 f2.1, 99 f2.1
BorderLinks, 44, 47
Buenos Aires National Wildlife Refuge, 54, 55
car theft, 44
casas de huéspedes (guest houses), 52
Center for Recuperation and Rehabilitation from Drug and Alcohol Addictions (CRREDA), 53
Christian Peacemaker Teams, 53
clout, local culture and political, 11
Cochise County, vigilantes in, 49-54
Cochise County Concerned Citizens (CCCC), 50
Coronado National Memorial, 56
coyote law to prosecute migrants, 61-62
crackdowns, ineffective border, 41-15
crime, accelerate, 41-15
criminal traffickers, humans and narcotics, 52
cross-border flows, 11, 45
cross-border Mexican shoppers, 51, 63
Derechos Humanos (human rights NGO), 47
Dever, County Sheriff Larry, 64
Douglas (town), 51, 52-53
Douglas-Agua Prieta (faithbased NGO), 47
drug trafficking, 42
false arrests of legal Latino residents, 62
Federal lands and Indian reservations, 67 f2.2
Frontera de Cristo (Healing Our Borders), 47, 53
gang violence, 44
guest-worker policy, 43, 44, 49
human trafficking, organized, 42, 43-44, 59, 60-61
Humane Borders, 47, 53, 54
humanitarian networks, 53
Hungry Bear Café, 51
ID production, fake, 59
informal networks, legal and criminal, 41
jails, tent city, 62
Maricopa County Attorney’s office, 46
migrant assistance camp, 53
migrant assistance organizations, 42, 43, 47
migrant deaths by walking distance, 70 f2.5
migrant deaths in California, 71 f2.6
migrant deaths in Tuscon sector, 68 f2.3, 69 f2.4
migrant deaths in West Desert (Arizona), 71 f2.6
migrants, criminals, terrorists vs. guest-worker, 42-43
migrants, criminals if undocumented, 46
migrants as illegal aliens, 43
migrants as inexpensive labour, 43
militia volunteers, US civilian, 42, 43
militias, organized civilian, 46
Minutemen, 46, 50, 51, 63
money-laundering by smugglers, 52
Napolitano, Governor Janet, 60, 65, 332
narcotics trafficking, 41, 56, 57
national park, militarization of, 58
national park, security costs, 58
National Park Service, 56-57
National Park Service ranger killed, 56, 57
Native American tribal reservation, 55
No More Deaths (No Más Muertes) NGO, 47
Operation Gatekeeper (California), 41
Operation Hawk, 50
OrganPipeMonument, 56, 57, 58
park rangers’ national security duties, 57
Pearce, Russell, 65
personal security, diminished, 42, 44
Phoenix, undocumented immigrants, 59-64
porous borderlands, transnational, 46-47
Proposition 200, 46, 63
racial profiling, 42, 52, 62
Ranch Rescue, 50
sensors on migrant paths, 55
smart-border, advocates of, 48
smart-border, undermining, 64-65
smugglers, small-scale, 43
social activists, 45
social struggles of rival groups, 45-49
Sonoran wilderness, insecurity in, 54-58
Thomas, Attorney Andrew, 61-62, 63
Tohono O’odham Nation Reservation, 54
US Air Force and Marine Corps gunnery range, 55
US Border Patrol’s Operation Safeguard 99, 49-50
US Bureau of Land Management, 55
vehicle barrier along border, 57
waterstations,networkof, 54-55
wildlife habitat destruction, 55-56, 58

armpit smugglers, 98

Ashcroft, Attorney General John, 295

Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) summit, 279

Association of Borderland Studies (ABS), 9

Association of European Textile Collectivities (ACTE), 189

asylum applicants, 19, 34, 36-39

At the Boundary. See På Gränsen/Rajalla (At the Boundary)

Automated Entry-Exit Control System, 198

Automated Targeting System, 243

Autonomous Cities, 85

B

Barcelona process, 84, 89

Barents Euro-Arctic Region (BEAR), 127, 129, 134

Barents Sea region, 122, 123, 124 f5.1, 126

Barnett, Roger, 50

bazaar. See Łódź, Poland

BEAR. See Barents Euro-Arctic Region (BEAR)

Berlin Wall, 316

Bicameral Commission, 327

Bill 1157, 64

Bill C-74 (Modernization of Investigative Techniques), 302

Bill C-74 (Modernization of Investigative Techniques Act), 283

Bill C-17 (Public Safety Act), 300-302

Bill C-55 (Public Safety Act), 300-301

Bill C-42 (Public Security Act), 300

Bill HR4437, 48, 64

biological identification method, 38

biometric identifiers, 197, 198, 210

biometric passport technology, 282

Bonner, T.J., 209, 252, 267, 324

Borane, Mayor Ray, 52

Border
agents, changing behaviours, 232
assaults, 86-87
crossing, 240, 273-74
crossing, arrests of undocumented, 252, 252 t8.4
crossing, deaths of undocumented, 253, 253 t8.5
expenditures on personnel, 235, 236 t8.2
patrols, DHS, 45
police force (EU), 11, 32
residents, 233, 236
security and human rights, 47-48
security expenditures, 236 t8.1
security factors, 271
security policy, self-defeating, 44
surveillance, self-defeating, 42
towns, 41, 99f2.1, 99 f2.1
towns, fortification of, 11

border, militarized, 345

Border Action Network, 50

Border Crossing Card. See laser-visa cards

border crossings points, 320-21

Border Patrol, 231, 251, 314

Border Protection, Antiterrorism, and Illegal Immigration Control Act, 314

Border Region in Transition (BRIT), 9

Border Security Conference, 237

Border Trade Alliance (BTA), 102-103

borderland
Arctic borders, 135, 137, 142
communities, 6, 7
culture, 248-49
culture of, 3, 6
defined, 135
environments, complex, 351
global market forces, 5
political clout, 8, 9, 353
power, geographic balance of, 2

BorderLinks, 44, 47

Borders
agenda of states, national, 3
barriers to trade, 5
buffer zones, 3
cities, 7-8
communities, role of, 6
community interests, 351
cooperation across, 353
cross-border regions, 5
culture, 6, 7, 9, 353
economic regions, 5
geographic frontiers, natural, 2
globalization, 5, 6, 8
human activities, 1
as human creations, 2
human ties, 1, 354
individual interests, 351, 353, 354
institutional constructs, 3
institutions spanning, 8
international, 6, 7, 8
irrelevance of, vii market forces, 5, 6, 7, 9, 353
policies, criminalization, 8
policing, 8
political difficulties, lessen, 2
porous, 2, 8, 9, 351-52, 355, 356 f12.2
security challenges, 8
security policies, 6-9, 352, 356
smart, 353
social processes, 1, 2, 3
sovereign, 2, 7
state, 7
structural nature of, 4
tensions, balanced economic, 2

Brandt Commission, 117

BRIT. See Border Region in Transition (BRIT)

British Royal Air Force (Nimrod), 32-33

Brunet-Jailly, E.
Arctic borders, 156-58
border model, 9, 10 f1, 355 f12.1
EU’s eastern border, 169
Mexico-US border, 113, 272
Mexico’s southern border, 346
southern Mexican borderland, 315
Texas-Mexico borderland, 226-27
Van Schendel-Abraham model vs., 98

Buenos Aires National Wildlife Refuge, 54, 55

C

C. D. Howe Institute, 283-84

C-BEST. See Center for Border Economic Studies (C-BEST)

C-TPAT. See Customs Trade Partnership against Terrorism (C-TPAT)

CAFF (Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna)Agreement, 146

CAFTA. See Central America Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA)

Campbell, Prime Minister Kim, 279

Canada
Anti-Terrorism Act, 297-300
Arctic, foreign policy on, 146-48
Arctic Council, 145
Bill C-74 (Modernization of Investigative Techniques), 302
Bill C-17 (Public Safety Act), 300-302
Bill C-55 (Public Safety Act), 300-301
Bill C-42 (Public Security Act), 300
CAFF agreement, 146
Canadian Security Intelligence Service (CSIS), 301, 304
core security interests, 282
economic policy frames, 4
Emergencies Act, 288
environmental threats, 146-47
foreign policy on Arctic borders, 146-48
military alliance with United States in Arctic, 146
northern habitants, 146-47
privacy rights, 301
racial profiling, 302-303
Radwanski, George, 301, 303-304
Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples, 145
US relations, 278-83
War Measures Act, 288

Canada and the Circumpolar World: The Northern Dimension of Canada’s Foreign Policy, 119

Canada Project at the Center for Security and International Studies, 281

Canada-US border Arctic borders, 146, 153
Bill C-74, 283
biometric passport technology, 282
border cooperation, 272
border security, 13
C. D. Howe Institute, 283-84
Canadian core security interests, 282
Canadian relations with US, 278-83
CANPASS-Air, 285-86
Cross-Cultural Roundtable, 282
FAST (low risk traffic), 285, 286
human rights vs. security, 288-90
Integrated Threat Assessment Centre, 282
iris-recognition technology, 286
legislative and policy convergence, 13
linking, 8
Minutemen Civil Defense, 277
National Security Advisory Council, 282
NEXUS (low risk travellers), 285, 286
PASS card system, 280
PNWER Border Issues Working Group, 277
security priorities, 261 t9.1-9.2
Smart Border/30 Point Action Plan, 285
Smart Border Agreement, 13, 269, 285
smuggling, drug, 277
Summit of the Pacific Northwest Economic Region (PNWER), 277
TOPOFF 2, 285
transborder cooperation, 263
US foreign policy, unilateralism of, 280
vehicle crossings, 262

Canada-Mexico relationship, 262-63

Canadian Security Intelligence

Service (CSIS), 301, 304

Canaintex. See Mexican National Chamber of the Textile Industry (Canaintex)

Canary Islands, 32, 35

CANPASS-Air, 285-86

CAP. See Common Agricultural Policy (CAP)

Caribbean Basin (Cuenca del

Caribe) Initiative, 323

caribou herds, Central Arctic and Porcupine, 131

Cartel del Golfo (Golf Cartel), 330, 331

Carter, President Jimmy, 301

casas de huéspedes (guest houses), 52

CCCC. See Cochise County

Concerned Citizens (CCCC)

CDP. See Comité de Defensa Popular (Popular Defense Commiittee (CDP))

Center for Border Economic Studies (C-BEST), 215

Center for Comparative Immigration Studies, 252

Center for Recuperation and Rehabilitation from Drug and Alcohol Addictions (CRREDA), 53

Central America Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA), 321, 322

Central American
day-labourers, 335-36, 336 t11.3
detentions in Mexico, 337-38, 338 t11.4
migrants to Mexico, 335-39, 336 t11.3, 346
migrants to US, 313, 324, 346

Central American Bank for Economic Integration, 318

Central American Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA), 311-12

Central Arctic caribou herd, 131

Centro de Investigación y Seguridad Nacional (Investigation and National Security Centre (CISEN)), 326, 328-29

Ceuta, 11, 34

CFDA. See French Coordination for the Right of Asylum (CFDA)

Channel of Otranto, 33

Chapultepec Agreements, 334

Charter of the United Nations, 22

Chelyabinsk, nuclear reprocessing plants, 126

Cheney, Vice President Dick, 301

Chiapas state, 319, 330, 331-32, 335-36, 336 t11.3, 338

Chinese Market. See Józsefvárosi V Market (Chinese Market)

Chrétien, Prime Minister Jean, 279, 285

Christian Peacemaker Teams, 53

CISEN. See Centro de Investigación y Seguridad Nacional (Investigation and National Security Centre (CISEN))

CIVIPOL, 26

Clinton, President Bill, 321 CMEA. See Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (CMEA)

Coalition for Secure and TradeEfficient Borders, 266, 267

Cochise County Concerned Citizens (CCCC), 50

Cochise County vigalantes, 49-54

coffee prices, 336

Cold War legacy, 117, 122, 138, 154

Comité de Defensa Popular (Popular Defense Committee (CDP)), 108

Common Agricultural Policy (CAP), 80

Common Consular Instruction, 22

Community Shield. See Escudo

Comunitario (Community Shield)

Conservation of Arctic Fauna and Flora (CAFF), 128

Consolidated National Inspectional Anti-Terrorism Contraband Enforcement Team, 251

Control of Secret Courts, 296

conveyance companies, 11, 19, 26-27

Cornelius, Wayne, 252

Coronado National Memorial, 56

Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (CMEA), 179

Council on Foreign Relations, 269

coyote law, 61-62

criminal networks, 96, 346

Cross-Cultural Roundtable, 282

CRREDA. See Center for Recuperation and Rehabilitation from Drug and Alcohol Addictions (CRREDA)

CSIS. See Canadian Security Intelligence Service (CSIS)

Cuenca del Caribe. See Caribbean Basin (Cuenca del Caribe) Initiative

Customs and Border Protection, 235, 243, 251

Customs Trade Partnership against Terrorism (C-TPAT), 234, 241-43 Cyprus, 33

D

DEA. See Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA)

Dean, Lisa, 295

Debt Restructuring Department, 180

Declaration of Barcelona, 21-22, 30

Declaration of the Lacandon Jungle, 343

Defence of the Realm Act (UK), 288

Democratic Popular Revolutionary Party. See Partido Democrático Popular Revolucionario (Democratic Popular Revolutionary Party)

Department of Homeland Security (DHS)
agencies, consolidation of existing, 294-95
American Civil Liberties Union, 286
annual funding, 296
anti-drug border security, 251
Anti-Terrorism Act, 286
Arab-looking men, 253-54
Arizona Department of Commerce, 238
Automated Targeting System, 243
border agents, changing behaviours, 232
border crossing, 240, 273-74
border-crossing, arrests of undocumented, 252, 252 t8.4
border-crossing, deaths of undocumented, 253, 253 t8.5
Border Patrol, 231, 251
BorderSecurity Conference, 237
border security factors, 271
borderland culture, 248-49
Center for Comparative Immigration Studies, 252
Consolidated National Inspectional Anti-Terrorism Contraband Enforcement Team, 251
consumer price increases, 244, 245
container security, 242
Control of Secret Courts, 296
cost and cost-effectiveness of, 13
cost burden on trucking firms, 242-43
Customs and Border Protection, 235, 243, 251
Customs Trade Partnership against Terrorism (C-TPAT), 234, 241-43
decision-making, centralized, 255
Domestic Security Enhancement Act, 296
drayage system, 244
drug cartels, 241
Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA), 249-50
drugs, illegal, 254, 255
El Paso, Texas, 237-38
employee identification, 242
expenditures on border security, 23618.1
expenditures on personnel, 235, 236 t8.2
family reunification, 248
Field Operations, 250-51
guest-worker program, national, 252
Homeland Security Act, 234, 294-95
House Un-American Activities Committee, 288, 290
humanrightsus. security, 289-90
illegal drugs, 249-51, 250 t8.3
immigrants,illegalMexican, 266
immigration, illegal, 251-53, 254
immigration costs, changes in, 245-48
initiatives of, 267-68
inspection policies, 241
Laredo port, 239
laser-visa cards, 248
Manifest Review Unit, 251
maquiladora industry, 237
Mexican-born residents, 247
Mexican exports, 239
Mexican imports, 239
Mexican maquiladoras, securing supply chain, 234
NAFTA-wide security perimeter, 270
National Border Patrol Council, 252
national security, redefining, 232
National Targeting Center, 234-35, 243
Nogales, San Diego, 238-39
North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), 237
Office of Air and Marine Operations, 251
Office of Drug Control Policy, 251
Office of Information Technology, 250-51
Office of the Undersecretary for Border and Transportation Security, 234
PASS card system, 280
Passenger Analytical Unit, 251
Passenger Enforcement Rover Team, 251
passports for Americans, 246-47
photo identification, 242
physical access controls, 242
Public Safety Act, 286-87
residents, border, 236
residents, burden onborder, 233
risk assessments, electronic, 243
Schneider, Inc., 243-44
Smart Border/30 Point Action Plan, 269, 271, 285
smuggling, human, 253, 255
state and local governments, 272
telephone calls, database of, 297
Terrorism Information and Prevention System (TIPS), 295
Texas Workforce Commission, 237
Texas-Mexico borderland, 211
torture, use of, 297
Transport Canada, 243
trilateral initiatives, 268-71
trucking business, 240-45
United States Visitor and Immigrant Status Indicator Technology (US VISIT) program., 235
University of Arizona and Arizona State University study, 238
University of Arizona Economic and Business Research Center, 238
University of Texas-Pan American Study, 237
US and Foreign Commerce Service, 238-39
US Border Patrol, 235
US civil liberties groups, 295
US Department of State, 239, 240
US Patriot Act, 234, 286, 288, 290-94, 296
US-Mexico border, 231, 237
visitor monitoring, 242

Derechos Humanos (human rights NGO), 47

detection technologies, 34-35, 36, 39

Dever, County Sheriff Larry, 64

DEW line, 146, 148

DHS. See Department of Homeland Security (DHS)

Dobson, Wendy, 283-84

Domestic Security Enhancement Act, 296

Douglas (town), 51, 52-53

Douglas-Agua Prieta (faith-based NGO), 47

drayage system, 244

Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA), 249-50

drug trafficking
Arizona-Sonora borderlands, 42
Canada-US border, 277
Central America, 313
Columbian gangs, 333
drug cartels, 241, 345
EU external border, 31, 36
Homeland Security, 254, 255
Mexico-Guatemala-Belize border, 326, 330-31, 332, 333, 346
Mexico-US border, 264

E

e-PINE. See Enhanced Partnership in Northern Europe (e-PINE)

East Sea (Syrian ship), 28

Ejército Popular Revolucionario (Popular Revolutionary Army), 328

Ejército Revolucionario del Pueblo Insurgente (Insurgent People’s Revolutionary Army), 328

Ejército Villista Revolucionario del Pueblo (People’s Villistan Revolutionary Army), 328-29

Ejército Zapatista de Liberación Nacional (Zapatista Army of National Liberation (EZLN)), 311, 324, 343-45

El Paso, Texas, 101-102, 109-110, 237-38

El Paso-Juarez border, 44

El Salvador, 326, 334, 340

Electric Networking System for Latin America. See Sistema de Interconexión Eléctrica para América Central (Electric Networking System for Latin America)

Electronic Frontier Foundation, 290-91, 296

ELISE Declaration, 24-25

Emergencies Act, 288

Emergency Preparedness and Response (EPPR), 128

Emerson, Robert, 232

Enhanced Partnership in Northern Europe (e-PINE), 149-50, 152

Enterprise Monitoring Department, 180

environmental threats, 146-47

EPPR. See Emergency Preparedness and Response (EPPR)

Escudo Comunitario (Community Shield), 342

Estonian-Russian border, 141

EU-Ceuta and Melilla borders, 86
Autonomous Cities, 85
Barcelona process, 84, 89
border assaults, 86-87
borders, Morocco doesn’t recognize, 83, 86
Common Agricultural Policy (CAP), 80
cross-border flow, illicit, 83
economic gap, Spain and Morocco, 83
enclaves’ perimeters, militarization of, 80
Euro-Mediterranean Free Trade Area, 80, 89
free-port status, 83
Gated Community model, 88
geopolitical background, 75-76
geopolitical controversy, 81
Granada, Kingdom of, 76
high-tech control mechanisms, 85-86
historical evolution of, 76-80
illegal migration, strict control over, 88
Integrated System of External Surveillance (SIVE), 86
Isla Perejil dispute, 86
Ley de Extranjería (immigration law), 81
Maghrebian territories, 76
map, 77 f3.1
migrant riots, 85
migrants, desirable vs. undesirable, 82, 87, 88
migrants, illegal entry of, 85, 87
militarized fencing of enclaves, 85, 87
military garrsions (presidios), 78
Morocco, underdevelopment of, 83
Muslim issue, 81
region of Nador, 82
region of Tétouan, 82
Schengenization, 80, 81-82
smuggling, 83, 84
sociospatial bordering, 89
Spanish-French Protectorate of Morocco, 79
Statute of Autonomy, 80
Straits of Gibraltar, migrant route, 82
tax regime, special, 83
trade, liberalization of, 80
Treaty of Tétouan (1860), 78-79
visa for Moroccan citizens, 82
xenophobic protests, 85

EU (European Union)
Inter-Region (INTERREG), 140
Northern Dimension (EUND) strategy, 119, 139-44, 147, 152
Poland and Hungary: Assistance for Restructuring their Economies (PHARE), 140
Technical Aid to the Commonwealth of Independent States (TACIS), 140

EU external border. See also Schengen visa
Albanian exiles, 29, 30, 33
Andalusian coast, 35
ARGO program, 33-34
asylum applicants, control of, 19, 34, 37-39
asylum procedures, 36
border-police force, 11, 32
border towns, fortification of, 11
camps for foreigners, 36-39
Canary Islands, 32, 35
Ceuta, foreign nationals from, 11, 34
Channel of Otranto, 33
collaboration of neighbouring states, 19
conveyance companies, 11, 19, 26-27
Cyprus, 33
detection technologies, 34-35, 36, 39
drug trafficking, 31, 36
Euro-Mediterranean Partnership (MEDA) Program, 30-31
European Maritime Force (Euromarfor), 33
French Coordination for the Right of Asylum (CFDA), 31
High Level Asylum and Immigration Group, 30
human trafficking, 28, 29, 30
identification, biological methods of, 38
illegal immigrants, desperate strategies, 36
illegal transit through third countries, 29
immigration as criminal offence, 38
immigration flow, control of, 11, 19, 27
information networks, interstate, 19
joint operations of member states, 33-34
Kurds, illegal immigrants, 28
Libya given control technology, 37
Malta, 33
maritime control, 26, 28-29, 32
maritime police, French, 29
MEDA-CEPOL (European College of Police) program, 30-31
Mediterranean, illegal migrant flow, 31
Melilla, foreign nationals from, 34
money laundering, 31
Moroccan foreign nationals, 35
Moroccan Royal Gendarmerie, 34
multinationals, use of externalization, 38
operations by member-states, joint, 32-33
police activity in countries of departure, 27-29
regional protecion areas, 36
Regulation (EC) 377/2004, 27
Schengen Agreement, 12
security policies, illegal aliens, 11
Senegal, foreign nationals of, 25
Spanish Guardia Civil, 34-36
Strait of Gibraltar, 32, 34, 35
Strategic Committee on Immigration, Frontiers and Asylum (SCIFA), 31
transit centres in Libya, 37
Tunisian foreign nationals, 25
visa policy, 11, 19

EUND. See Northern Dimension

(EUND) strategy

EUND’s trans-Atlantic agenda, 147-48

Euregio Karelia, 143

Euro-Mediterranean Free Trade Area, 80, 89

Euro-Mediterranean Partnership (MEDA) Program, 30-31

Euromarfor. See European Maritime Force (Euromarfor)

European College of Police (MEDACEPOL), 30-31

European Council of Seville (2002), 27

European Maritime Force (Euromarfor), 33

EU-Russian
border, 142
dialogue, 140-41
Summit (2005), 141

EZLN. See Ejército Zapatista de Liberación Nacional (Zapatista Army of National Liberation (EZLN))

F

faith-based NGO
Ambos Nogales-Tucson, 47
Douglas-Agua Prieta, 47
Humane Borders, 47

Farabundo Marti Front, 334

FAST (low risk traffic), 285, 286

Federal lands and Indian reservations, 67 f2.2

Federal Preventative Police. See Policia Federal Preventiva (Federal Preventative Police)

Finland, 37, 128, 145

Finnish-Russian border, 141, 144

Foote, Jack, 50

Forma Migratoria para Visitantes Agrícolas (Migratory Form for Agricultural Visitors), 320

Fox, President Vicente, 269, 270, 279, 312, 317, 330

Framework Agreement for the Reactivation of the Negotiation Process, 334

Framework Agreement on Democratization in the Search for Peace by Political Means, 334

France, 29

Free Trade Area of the Americas (FTAA), 311-12, 321

French Coordination for the Right of Asylum (CFDA), 31

French Marine Nationale (Atlantic), 32

Frontera de Cristo (Healing Our Borders), 47, 53

FTAA. See Free Trade Area of the Americas (FTAA)

Fuerza de Tarea (Task Force), 330

Fuerzas Armadas Revolucionarias del Pueblo (People’s Revolutionary Armed Forces), 329

G

gang violence, 44. See also youth gangs

GANSEF. See Grupo de Alto Nivel sobre Seguridad Fronteriza (High-Level Group on Border Security (GANSEF))

Gated Community model, 88

Geneva Convention on Refugees, 37

Giddensian structuration theory, 188

Golf Cartel. See Cartel del Golfo

(Golf Cartel)

Goodwill Industries, 101, 109

Gorbachev, Mikhail, 122, 124, 128, 138, 146, 154

governance, internationalized, 133

Granada, Kingdom of, 76

Granatstein, J. L., 284-85

Greece, 32

Greenland, 147

Gregoire, Governor Christine 277

Grupo Beta (migrant assistance), 54

Grupo de Alto Nivel sobre Seguridad Fronteriza (High-Level Group on Border Security (GANSEF)), 329
Guatemala, 320, 320 t11.1, 332, 334

Guatemalan National Revolutionary Unity. See Unidad Revolucionaria Nacional Guatemalteca (Guatemalan National Revolutionary Unity)

Guatemalan Servicio de Análisis e Información Antinarcóticos (Antidrug Analysis and Information Service (SAIA)), 333

guest houses. See casas de huéspedes (guest houses)

guest-worker program, 43, 44, 49, 252

Gwich’in people, 131

H

Hall, Governor Jane, 50

Haparanda-Tornio borderland, 142-43, 144

Harper, Prime Minister Stephen, 278, 279

Healing Our Borders. See Frontera de Cristo (Healing Our Borders)

High Arctic, 146

High Level Asylum and Immigration Group, 30

High-Level Group on Border Security. See Grupo de Alto Nivel sobre Seguridad Fronteriza (HighLevel Group on Border Security (GANSEF))

Homeland Security Act, 234, 294-95

Homeland Security Appropriations Act, 313-14

Homeland Security (DHS). See Department of Homeland Security (DHS)

Honduras, 326, 338-39

House Un-American Activities Committee, 288, 290

human rights. See also International Helsinki Federation for Human Rights; torture; United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights in Mexico; Universal Declaration of Human Rights border security and, 47-48
NGO, Derechos Humanos, 47 security vs., 47-48, 288-90, 289-90

human trafficking, 28-30, 42-44, 59-61

Humane Borders (faith-based NGO), 47, 53, 54

Hungarian open-air bazaars, 174-75

Hungry Bear Café, 51

I

1-94 Visa, 210, 223 t7.21, 224 t7.24

illegal drugs, 249-51, 250 t8.3

IMM. See Instituto Nacional de Migración (National Migration Institute (INM)) immigration
costs, 245-48
as criminal offence, 38
illegal, 25, 28, 251-53, 254, 266-67
illegal, controlling, 11, 19, 24-25, 27, 313-14, 322
illegal transit through third countries, 29
migrants, desperate strategies of, 36
migrants, expedited removal, 314
migrants, undocumented, 59-64
officers at airports, 20

Independent Task Force on the Future of North America, 269

indigenous peoples, 12, 118, 132

Initiative for the Americas, 334

Instituto Nacional de Migración (National Migration Institute (EMM)), 324, 337

Insurgent People’s Revolutionary Army. See Ejército Revolucionario del Pueblo Insurgente (Insurgent People’s Revolutionary Army)

Integrated System of Exterior Vigilance. See Sistema Integrado de Vigilancia Exterior (Integrated System of Exterior Vigilance (SIVE))

Integrated System of External Surveillance (SIVE), 86

Integrated Threat Assessment Centre, 282

Inter-American Committee against Terrorism, 329

Inter-American Development Bank, 318, 321

Inter-Region (INTERREG), 140

International Civil Liberties Monitoring Group, 303

International Helsinki Federation for Human Rights, 304-305

INTERREG. See Inter-Region

(INTERREG)

Inuit Circumpolar Conference, 151, 152

Inuit Tapisariat, 151, 152

Iraq, 30

iris-recognition technology, 286

Isla Perejil dispute, 86

Ismalej, Manuel de Jesús Xitumul, 332

Italy, 32, 33

J

Józsefvárosi V Market (Chinese Market), 175

Juarez traders, 102, 109

K

Karjalat katsovat toisiaan, 144

Komi Republic (Russia), 143

Kuhmo Summer Academy, 144

Kurds, 28

L

Lakselv, reindeer herding area, 125

Land Claims and Self-government Agreement, 133

Lapland province (Finland), 143

Laredo (port), 201, 207, 216, 222-24, 223 t7.21, 224 t7.24, 239

laser-visa cards, 102, 103, 109, 210, 248

Law 2005-371 (France), 29

Lebanon, 28

Ley de Extranjería (immigration law), 81

Ley de Seguridad Nacional (National Security Act), 326-33, 326-333

Libya, 37

Łódź, Poland
Aliens Law, 177
Asian traders, 175
Association of European Textile Collectivities (ACTE), 189
bazaar, definition, 170-71
bazaar (open-air market), 165, 169-76
bazaar taxes, 183 f6.5, 192
bazaarundercapitalism, 171-75
bazaar under socialist regimes, 171
bazaars, business volume, 174
bazaars, customers at, 184-87
bazaars, illegality of, 172
bazaars, structural changes, 172-73
border traders, 173
coalition-building capacity, 168
Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (CMEA), 179
cross-border interactions, 173
cross-border sellers and buyers, 192
Debt Restructuring Department, 180

eastern markets, dependence on, 183
Enterprise Monitoring Department, 180
enterprises, industry and service, 183, 184 f6.6
EU integration, 190-91
expenditures, expected, 186
Giddensian structuration theory, 188
map of main roads, 166 f6.1
meso level with spatial dimension, 168
micro-macro dialectics, 168
PTAK bazaar, 189
regime theory, 168
regional history, 178-81
Rzgow and Tuszyn, map of, 166f 6.2
Rzgów bazaar, 167, 170 f6.3, 181-87, 191-92
scalar approach, 188
Schengen Agreement, 12, 174, 175, 176-78, 191
Schengenization of Polish border, 169
socialism, legacy of, 190
stalls, number of, 182 f6.4
structuration, societal and geographical, 188
structuration theory, 167
suitcase traders, 173, 193
Tenth Anniversary Stadium, 165
textile product outlets, 167
tourist vouchers, 182
Tuszyn bazaar, 167, 170 f6.3, 181-87, 189-90, 191-92
visa, before and after, 187
visa, local response to, 188-90
visiting frequencies, 186 f6.8
voivodship, 188, 189, 190

Lugar, Senator Richard, 268-69

M

Mace, Gordon, 280

Maghrebian territories, 76

Mali, 25

Malta, 33

Manifest Review Unit, 251

Manley, Deputy Prime Minister John, 285

maquiladora industry
Honduras, 339
Mexico-Guatemala-Belize border, 319
Mexico’s, 201
Mexico-US border, 99
NAFTA, 237

Maricopa County Attorney’s office, 46

Marijuana plantations, 333

Maritime
boundaries, 136
boundaries, Arctic, 136
control, 26, 28-29, 32
police, French, 29

Martin, Prime Minister Paul, 269, 279, 282, 285

Masculinity and Politics, 332

McLellan, Deputy Prime Minister Anne, 277, 282, 302

MEDA. See Euro-Mediterranean Partnership (MEDA)

MEDA-CEPOL. See European College of Police (MEDA-CEPOL) Melilla, 34

Méndez, Antonio Cadena, 331

Mexican Centro de Estudios Migratorios, 337

Mexican National Chamber of the Textile Industry (Canaintex), 103-104

Mexico
cross-border shoppers, 201, 208 t7.8, 215, 216, 219-20, 220, 220 t7.18, 221 t7.19
exports, 201, 206t7.6, 239
imports, 201, 239
maquiladoras, 234
US exports to, 201, 207 t7.7, 219

Mexico Seguro (Secure Mexico) program, 331

Mexico-US border
borderland clout, cultural and political, 12
clothing, illegal flow of used, 11-12

Mexico-Guatemala-Belize border Action Plan for Cooperation on Border Security, 322
Acuerdo de Paz Firme y Duradera (Firm and Durable Peace Agreement), 334
Agencia Federal de Investigaciones (Federal Agency of Investigations (AFI)), 331
Arizona Border Control Initiative, 316
armed groups, 328-29
Bicameral Commission, 327
border, militarized, 345
border crossings points, 320-21
Border patrol, 314
Border Protection, Antiterrorism, and Illegal Immigration Control Act, 314
buffer zone, uncontrollable, 14
CAFTA, 321, 322
Cartel del Golfo (Golf Cartel), 330, 331
Central America daylabourers, 335-36, 336 t11.3
Central America migrants, 335-36
Central American detentions in Mexico, 337-38, 338 t11.4
Central American Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA), 311-12
Central American migrants to Mexico, 335-39, 336 t11.3, 346
Central American migrants to US, 313, 324, 346
Centro de Investigación y Seguridad Nacional (Investigation and National Security Centre (CISEN)), 326, 328-29
Chapultepec Agreements, 334
Chiapas state, 319, 330, 331-32, 335-36, 336 t11.3, 338
coffee prices, crisis in international, 336
Columbian drug gangs, 333
criminal networks, 346
cross-border movement, illegal and legal, 318
Declaration of the Lacandon Jungle, 343
drug cartels, 345
drug gangs, Columbian, 333
drug trafficking, 313, 326, 330-31, 332, 333, 346
Ejército Popular Revolucionario (Popular Revolutionary Army), 328
Ejército Revolucionario del Pueblo Insurgente (Insurgent People’s Revolutionary Army), 328
Ejército Villista Revolucionario del Pueblo (People’s Villistan Revolutionary Army), 328-29
Ejército Zapatista de Liberación Nacional (Zapatista Army of National Liberation (EZLN)), 311, 324, 343-45
Escudo Comunitario (Community Shield), 342
Farabundo Marti Front, 334
Federal Preventative Police, 342
Forma Migratoria para Visitantes Agrícolas (Migratory Form for Agricultural Visitors), 320
Fourth Summit of the Americas, 312
Framework Agreement for the Reactivation of the Negotiation Process, 334
Framework Agreement on Democratization in the Search for Peace by Political Means, 334
Free Trade Area of the Americas (FTAA), 311-12, 321
Fuerza de Tarea (Task Force), 330
Fuerzas Armadas Revolucionarias del Pueblo (People’s Revolutionary Armed Forces), 329
Grupo de Alto Nivel sobre Seguridad Fronteriza (HighLevel Group on Border Security (GANSEF)), 329
Guatemalan border crossings, 320, 320 t11.1
Guatemalan Servicio de Análisis e Información Antinarcóticos (Anti-drug Analysis and Information Service (SAIA)), 333
Guatemala’s borders, 332
guerrillas and militarization, 343-45
Homeland Security Appropriations Act, 313-14
Honduras migrants, 338-39
immigrants, controlling illegal, 313-14, 322
immigrants, expedited removal of, 314
Initiative for the Americas, 334
Instituto Nacional de Migración (National Migration Institute (INM)), 324, 337
Inter-American Committee against Terrorism, 329
Ley de Seguridad Nacional (National Security Act), 326-33
maquiladora industry in Honduras, 339
maquiladoras, textile, 319
marijuana and poppy plantations, 333
Masculinity and Politics, 332
Mexican Centro de Estudios Migratorios, 337
Mexican states, 319
México Seguro (Secure Mexico) program, 331
Mexico’s south border, remodelling, 315-19
multinational companies, 319
NAFTA and elimination of jobs, 335
National Security Act (Mexico), 326-33
National Security Council (Mexico), 326
NorthAmericanCommand, 324
Oficina del Alto Comisionado de las Naciones Unidas para los Derechos Humanos en México (Office of the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights in Mexico), 344
Operation Costa, 342
Organization of American States, 329
organized crime, 330, 332
Partido Democrático Popular Revolucionario (Democratic Popular Revolutionary Party), 328
Plan Puebla Panamá (energy integration), 312, 317
politicalcooperation, lack of, 334
poverty and social exclusion, 315, 346
Quintana Roo state, 319-20
Quitacargas groups, 333
Secretaría de la Defensa Nacional (National Defence Secretariat (SEDENA)), 329
Secure Fence Act, 314
Sistema de Interconexión Eléctrica para América Central (Electric Networking System for Latín America), 312-13
smart border agreements, 324, 325 t11.2
smuggling of guns and people, 330, 332, 346
southern border, loss of control, 332
southern Mexico migrants to US, 313
Third Border Initiative (TBI), 315, 323
Unidad Revolucionaria Nacional Guatemalteca (Guatemalan National Revolutionary Unity), 334
US Initiative for the Americas, 321
youth gangs in Mexico, 339-43
youth gangs (maras), 321, 326, 328-29, 337, 339-43
Zapatista guerrillas, 329
Zetas, 330-31

Mexico-US border
ant trade (fayuca hormiga), 98
armpit smugglers, 98
border region, economic integration, 113
border security, mismatched, 13
Border Trade Alliance (BTA), 102-103
branded clothing copies, Chinese, 112
Comité de Defensa Popular (Popular Defense Commiittee (CDP)), 108
corruption, Mexican governance, 265
corruption of Mexican customs authorities, 104, 110, 111, 112
drug trafficking, 264
duty-free zone, 99
economy of discards, 99-100
El Paso wholesale dealers, 101-102, 109-110
Goodwill Industries, 101, 109
Grupo Beta (migrant assistance), 54
Homeland Security, cost effectiveness of, 13
immigrants, illegal, 266-67
import license (permiso previo), 105
import trade policies, 113
imported used clothing, illegally, 105-109
Juarez traders, 102, 109
laser visa, 102, 103, 109
law enforcement, municipal government, 107
Ley de Seguridad Nacional (National Security Act), 326-333
maquiladoras (foreign-owned assembly plants), 99
Mexican labour, 259
Mexican National Chamber of the Textile Industry (Canaintex), 103-104
Mid-West Textile Company, 109
NAFTA and used clothing, 96, 104-105
Noamex, Inc, 109
Nogales-Tucson corridor, 103
Otay Mesa port, 266
penalties for illegal importing, 107
Policia Federal Preventiva (Federal Preventative Police), 111, 342
Procuraduría General de la República (Office of the Federal Attorney General), 107
protectionist policies against used clothing, 101
Salvation Army, 101
San Diego-Tijuana region, 263-65, 263-68
San Ysidro port, 266
Secretaria de Comercio y Fomento Industrial (Secretariat of Commerce and Industrial Development (Secofi)), 104
Secretaría de Economía (Ministry of the Economy), 105, 106
security challenges, 271-72
security priorities, 260, 261 t9.1-9.2
SENTRI (dedicated commuter lane program), 267
Smart Border Agreement, 269, 325 t11.2
social charter, negotiated, 260
surtidoras (sorters), 110
textile and garment industry, domestic, 103
transborder cooperation, 263
transborder flow, consumer demand for, 112
transnational criminal activities, 96
trash, recycled, 100
trilateral cooperation, 261 t9.1
United States Visitor and Immigrant Status Indicator Technology (US VISIT) program, 103
used clothing, illegal vs. social legitimacy, 96, 98, 108, 113
used clothing (fayuca), smuggling, 95, 98, 100-101, 111
used clothing from charity, 101
used clothing import volumes, 106-107
Van Schendel-Abraham model, 96-98
vehicle crossings, 262
vending permits, usedclothing, 107-108

Mid-West Textile Company, 109

migrant assistance. See Grupo Beta (migrant assistance)

Migratory Form for Agricultural Visitors. See Forma Migratoria para Visitantes Agrícolas (Migratory Form for Agricultural Visitors)

The Militant, 50

Ministry of the Economy. See Secretaría de Economía (Ministry of the Economy)

Minutemen Civil Defense, 46, 50, 51, 63, 277

Modernization of Investigative Techniques Act (Bill C-74), 283, 302

money-laundering, 31, 52

Le Monica (ship), 28

Moroccan Royal Gendarmerie, 34

Morocco, 27, 30, 34, 35, 79, 82, 83

Mulroney, Prime Minister Brian, 278-79

multinational companies, 38, 319

Murmansk, 122

Muslim issue, 81

N

NAFTA. See North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)

Napolitano, Governor Janet, 60, 65, 332

narcotics trafficking, 41, 56, 57

National Border Patrol Council, 209, 252

National Migration Institute. See Instituto Nacional de Migración (National Migration Institute (INM))

National Park Service, 56-57, 57

National Security Act. See Ley de Seguridad Nacional (National Security Act)

National Security Act (Mexico), 326-33

National Security Advisory Council, 282

National Security Council (Mexico), 326

The National Security Strategy of the United States of America, 280

NationalTargetingCenter, 234-35, 243

NEI. See North Europe Initiative (NEI)

NEXUS (low risk travellers), 285, 286

No More Deaths (No Más Muertes) NGO, 47

Noamex, Inc, 109

Nogales, San Diego, 238-39

Nogales-Tucson corridor, 103

Nordic Passport Union, 176

North America, 144-53

North American Command, 324

North American Development Bank, 260

North American Development Fund, 260

North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)
Arizona-Sonora borderlands, 45
job elimination, 335
maquiladora industry, 237
security perimeter, 270
Texas-Mexico borderland, 199
used clothing, 96, 104-105

North Calotte Council, 14

North Europe Initiative (NEI), 131-32

northern borders. See Arctic borders

Northern Dimension (EUND) strategy, 119, 147

northern Europe, 137-39

Northern Forum, 143

northern habitants, 146-47

Norway’s concerns, 123, 128, 139

nuclear material smuggling, 126

nuclear waste, 123-25, 124 f5.1, 154

Nunavut (Canadian Territory), 134

O

OAS. See Organization of American States (OAS)

Office of Air and Marine Operations, 251

Office of Drug Control Policy, 251

Office of Information Technology, 250-51

Office of the Federal Attorney General. See Procuraduría General de la República (Office of the Federal Attorney General)

Office of the Undersecretary for Border and Transportation Security, 234

Official Journal of the European Communities (C313), 22

Oficina del Alto Comisionado de las Naciones Unidas para los Derechos Humanos en México, 344

oil reserves, 130-31, 150

Operation Costa, 342

Operation Gatekeeper (California), 41

Operation Hawk, 50

Organ Pipe Monument, 56, 57, 58

Organization of American States (OAS), 321, 329

organized crime, 330, 332

Otay Mesa port, 266

P

På Gränsen/Rajalla (At the Boundary), 142

Palme Commission, 117

PAME. See Protection of the Arctic Marine Environment (PAME)

Partido Democrático Popular Revolucionario (Democratic Popular Revolutionary Party), 328

PASS card system, 280

Passenger Analytical Unit, 251

Passenger Enforcement Rover Team, 251

Pearce, Russell, 65

People’s Revolutionary Armed Forces. See Fuerzas Armadas Revolucionarias del Pueblo (People’s Revolutionary Armed Forces)

People’s Villistan Revolutionary Army. See Ejército Villista Revolucionario del Pueblo (People’s Villistan Revolutionary Army)

Perryman Group study, 212-15, 213 t7.9, 213 t7.10-7.11, 214 t7.12-7.14

persistent organic pollutants (POPs), 133

PHARE. See Poland and Hungary: Assistance for Restructuring their Economies (PHARE)

Phoenix, 59-64

Plan Puebla Panamá (energy integration), 312, 317

PNWER Border Issues Working Group, 277

Poindexter, John, 295

Poland, 32

Poland and Hungary: Assistance for Restructuring their Economies (PHARE), 140

police activity in countries of departure, 27-29

Police International Technical Cooperation Service (SCTIP), 28

Policia Federal Preventiva (Federal Preventative Police), 111, 342

pollution, transboundary, 118, 119, 122, 128, 154, 158

poppy plantations, 333

POPs. See persistent organic pollutants (POPs)

Popular Revolutionary Army. See Ejército Popular Revolucionario (Popular Revolutionary Army)

Porcupine caribou herd, 131

Portuguese navy, 32

Powell, Secretary of State Colin, 323, 324

privacy rights, 301

Procuraduría General de la República (Office of the Federal Attorney General), 107

Proposition 200, 46, 63

Protection of the Arctic Marine Environment (PAME), 128

PTAK bazaar, 189

Public Safety Act, 286-87

Public Safety Act (Bill C-17), 300-302

Public Safety Act (Bill C-55), 300-301

Public Security Act (Bill C-42), 300

Putin, Vladimir, 138

Q

Quintana Roo state, 319-20

Quitacargas groups, 333

R

racial profiling, 42, 52, 62, 302-303

Radwanski, George, 301, 303-304

Ranch Rescue, 50

regime theory, 168

regional protecion areas, 36

Regulation (EC) 377/2004, 27

resource reserve, geostrategically, 138

Rice, Condoleezza, 280

Richardson, Governor Bill, 332

Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples, 145

Russia-Finland border, 142

Rzgów bazaar, 167, 170 f6.3, 181-87, 191-92

S

SAIA. See Guatemalan Servicio de Análisis e Información Antinarcóticos (Anti-drug Analysis and Information Service (SAIA))

Salazar, Florencio, 317

Salvation Army, 101

San Diego Association of Governments (SANDAG), 212

San Diego-Tijuana border, 44

San Diego-Tijuana region, 263-65, 263-68

San Ysidro port, 266

SANDAG. See San Diego Association of Governments (SANDAG)

Sands, Christopher, 281

Schengen Agreement, 12, 174-78, 191

Schengen visa
border police, 20
Charter of the United Nations, 22
Common Consular Instruction, 22
consular agents, restrictive practices of, 20, 22
consular network, 25
consular passes, 25
customs agents, 20
Declaration of Barcelona, 21-22
ELISE Declaration meeting, 24-25
EU, protection vs. travel to, 21
EU-Ceuta and Melilla borders, 80, 81-82
fide, bona vs. mala, 25
illegal immigrants, alternatives for, 25
illegal immigration, control of, 24-25
immigration officers at airports, 20
liaison officers, network of, 25, 26, 27, 28, 39
policy harmonization, 21
Polish border, 169
practices, secret arbitrary, 23-24
regulations are contradictory, 21
rules for third-country nationals, 20
tool for migratory control, 20, 21
Universal Declaration of Human Rights, 22, 24
visa, criteria for granting, 22-24

Schneider, Inc., 243-44

SCIFA. See Strategic Committee on Immigration, Frontiers and Asylum (SCIFA)

SCTIP. See Police International Technical Cooperation Service (SCTIP)

SDWG. See Sustainable Development Working Group (SDWG); Working Group on Sustainable Development (SDWG) Secretaria de Comercio y Fomento Industrial (Secretariat of Commerce and Industrial Development (Secofi)), 104

Secretaría de Economía (Ministry of the Economy), 105, 106

Secretaría de la Defensa Nacional (National Defence Secretariat (SEDENA)), 329

Secure Fence Act, 314

Secure Mexico. See México Seguro (Secure Mexico) program

Security
anti-drug, 251
border policy, self-defeating, 44
challenges, 8
circumpolar boundaries, 135
civil, 121
costs, in national park, 58
duties of park rangers, 57
environmental, 12, 119, 120, 122, 127-32
expenditures, 236 t8.1
factors, 271
governance and, 132-35
human, 12, 119, 121, 130, 139, 154, 157
human rights vs., 47-48, 288-90
military, 12, 120-21, 123-27
personal, diminished, 42, 44
policies, 6, 7-9, 352
priorities, 261 t9.1-9.2
regionally-based, 134-35

The Security and Prosperity Partnership of North America (SPP), 269

security policies, illegal aliens, 11

SEDENA. See Secretaría de la Defensa Nacional (National Defence Secretariat (SEDENA))

Sellafield, nuclear reprocessing plants, 126

Senegal, 25

SENTRI (dedicated commuter lane program), 267

Seville summit (2002), 31

Simcox, Chris, 50, 51

Sistema de Interconexión Eléctrica para América Central (Electric Networking System for Latin America), 312-13

Sistema Integrado de Vigilancia Exterior (Integrated System of Exterior Vigilance (SIVE)), 34

Slown, John, 56

Smart Border/30 Point Action Plan, 269, 271, 285

Smart Border Agreement
Canada-US border, 13, 269, 285
Mexico-Guatemala-Belize border, 324, 325 t11.2
Mexico-US border, 269, 325 t11.2
Texas-Mexico borderland, 197-98, 226

Smuggling
drugs, 277
EU-Ceuta and Melilla borders, 83, 84
guns and people, 330, 332, 346
human, 253, 255
nuclear material and weapons, 126
used clothing (fayuca), 95, 98, 100-101, 111

Somalia, 30

Sonoran wilderness, 54-58

Soviet Union, 137-39

Spain, 32

Spanish Guardia Civil, 34-36

Sri Lanka, 30

Statute of Autonomy, 80

Stockholm Convention, 133

Strait of Gibraltar, 32, 34, 35

Strait of Sicily, 25

Straits of Gibraltar, 82

Strategic Committee on Immigration, Frontiers and Asylum (SCIFA), 31

structuration theory, 167

suitcase traders, 173, 193

Summit of the Americas, 312

Summit of the Pacific Northwest Economic Region (PNWER), 277

surtidoras (sorters), 110

sustainable development, 130, 154

Sustainable Development Working Group (SDWG), 125

Sweden, 145

Syria, 28

T

TACIS. See Technical Aid to the Commonwealth of Independent States (TACIS)

Task Force. See Fuerza de Tarea (Task Force)

Task Force on Sustainable Development, 128

Technical Aid to the Commonwealth of Independent States (TACIS), 140

Tenth Anniversary Stadium (Poland), 165

Terrorism Information and Prevention System (TIPS), 295

terrorists, 253-54

Texas A&M International University Studies, 215-221, 217 t7.1, 218 t7.15b, 219 t7.16-7.17, 220 t7.18, 221 t7.19

Texas Center for Border Economic and Enterprise Development, 215

Texas Workforce Commission, 237

Texas-Mexico borderland
Automated Entry-Exit Control System, 198
biometric identifiers, 197, 198, 210
Bonner, T.J., 209, 252, 267
border-crossing delays, impact of, 221-24, 222t 7.20
border crossings, decline in, 217 t7.15, 218 t7.15b
border pedestrian crossings, 202 t7.1
border rail crossings, 204 t7.4
border retail/wholesale trade and sales, 208 t7.8
border security, economic impact, 227-28
border truck crossings, 204 t7.3
border vehicle crossings, 203 t7.2
border waiting times, 198, 212, 228
bridge revenues, 216
Center for Border Economic Studies (C-BEST), 215
cross-border commerces and trade, 216
cross-border shoppers, 216, 219 t7.17
Department of Homeland Security (DHS), 198, 211
exports of Mexico, value of, 201, 206 t7.6
exports to Mexico, 201, 207 t7.7, 219
I-94 Visa, 210, 223 t7.21, 224 t7.24
infrastructure of southern border, 224-25
International Bank of Commerce, 210-11
International Bank of Commerce of Laredo, 212
Laredo (port), 201, 207, 216, 222-24, 223 t7.21, 224 t7.24
laser-visa (Border Crossing Card), 210
maquiladora industry, Mexico’s, 201
Mexican cross-border shoppers, 201, 208 t7.8, 215, 216, 219-20, 220, 220 t7.18, 221 t7.19
Mexican imports, leading, 201
National Border Patrol Council, 209
North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), 199
Perryman Group study, 212-15, 213 t7.9, 213 t7.10-7.11, 214 t7.12-7.14
policy-making, multi-level government, 225
pre-screening of people and cargo, 197-98
sales tax rebates, 216
sales tax revenue, 211, 216
Sari Diego (California) Association of Governments (SANDAG), 212
smart borders, 197-98, 226
southern border, porous, 207-209
Texas A&M International University Studies, 215-221, 217 t7.1, 218 t7.15b, 219 t7.16-7.17, 220 t7.18, 221 t7.19
Texas Center for Border Economic and Enterprise Development, 215
Texas gross domestic product and exports, 201, 206 t7.5
Texas ports of entry, 201
trade and commerce, importance of, 199-207
unemployment level, 216
University of Texas-Pan American Study, 215, 237
US Border Patrol, 197
US Customs Services, 197
US VISIT exit program, 210, 224
US VISIT Program, 12-13, 209-11, 222-26
US Visitor and Immigrant Status Indicators Technology (US VISIT), 198
US-Mexico Border Governors’ Conference., 211
US-Mexico trade, 199, 200 f7.1

Third Border Initiative (TBI), 315, 323

30 Point Action Plan. See Smart Border/30 Point Action Plan

Thomas, Attorney Andrew, 61-62, 63

TIPS. See Terrorism Information and Prevention System (TIPS)

Tli Cho people, 133

Tohono O’odham Nation Reservation, 54

Toledo, President Alejandro, 279

TOPOFF 2, 285

torture, 297

Towards an Integrated Management of the Member States External Borders of the European Union, 31

Transport Canada, 243

Treaty of Tétouan (1860), 78-79

Tunisia, 25

Tuszyn bazaar, 167, 170 f6.3, 181-87, 189-90, 191-92

U

Ulysses I and II (operations), 32

Unidad Revolucionaria Nacional Guatemalteca (Guatemalan National Revolutionary Unity), 334

United Kingdom, 288

United Nations
Commission on Human Security, 121
Convention on the Law of the Sea, 29
Development Program, 338-39
High Commissioner for Human Rights in Mexico, 344
Human Rights Commission, 297

United States and Foreign Commerce Service, 238-39

United States-Canada border. See Canada-US border

United States-Mexico border. See Mexico-US border

United States-Mexico Border Governors’Conference, 211

United States (US). See also Department of Homeland Security (DHS)
Air Force and Marine Corps gunnery range, 55
Border Patrol, 197, 235
Border Patrol’s Operation Safeguard 99, 49-50
border security frames, 4
Bureau of Land Management, 55
civil liberties groups, 295
Customs Services, 197
Department of State, 239, 240
foreign policy, unilateralism of, 280
imperialism, 279
Initiative for the Americas, 321
Missile Defense Initiative, 279, 281
National Missile Defense (NMD) system, 126
National Strategy for Homeland Security, 267
northern policy, 148-53
Patriot Act, 234, 286, 288, 290-94, 296
VISIT exit program, 210, 224
VISIT Program, 12-13, 209-11, 222-26
Visitor and Immigrant Status Indicators Technology (US VISIT), 103, 198, 235

Universal Declaration of Human Rights, 22, 24

University of Arizona and Arizona State University study, 238

University of Arizona Economic and Business Research Center, 238

University of Texas-Pan American Study, 215, 237

used clothing
from charity, 101
illegal vs. social legitimacy, 96, 98, 108, 113
import volumes, 106-107

V

Vaca, Attorney General Daniel Cabeza de, 331

Van Schendel-Abraham model, 96-98

Vance, Larry, 50

voivodship, 188, 189, 190

w

War Measures Act, 288

Weigand, Thane, 57

Working Group on Sustainable Development (SDWG), 128

World Bank, 321

Y

youth gangs (maras), 321, 326, 328-29, 337, 339-43

Z

Zapatista Army of National Liberation. See Ejército Zapatista de Liberación Nacional (Zapatista Army of National Liberation (EZLN))

Zetas, 330-31

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