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Rethinking Canadian Aid

 | 
Stephen Brown
, 
Molly den Heyer
, 
David R. Black

Index

Texte intégral

Notes: Page numbers in italic indicate a chart or table. The lowercase letter “n” following a page number indicates that the information is in the given note. For a list of abbreviations, see ix–xii.

3D (defence, diplomacy, development) approach to aid, 3, 144, 146, 154

9/11
effect on foreign policies, 3, 134, 153
effect on fragile state policies, 134, 230, 242
effect on security-development continuum, 153–154, 155

abortion
Conservative position on, 188
and NGO funding, 188
reduced attention under Conservatives, 203

accountability
coexisting definitions, 73
as measure of aid effectiveness, 69–70
tension between international and domestic, 71, 74

Accra High-Level Forum, 270

Afghanistan
Canadian aid to, 130, 151, 154, 229
CIDA’s response criticized, 235
Dahla Lam project, 266, 291n13
as “failed and fragile state”, 128, 135
lack of post-conflict assessment, 231
as largest aid recipient of recent years, 86, 87, 154
as model for fragile state aid, 241–242, 252
Western military operations, 3, 143, 151, 154

Africa
Canadian aid to, 90–91, 125, 128, 129, 130, 131, 138, 139n2, 147–148, 149, 150, 265
Canadian mining interests, 288
intergenerational relationships and development, 212–213
resource development, 182
Sub-Saharan countries, 86, 95n3
U.S. aid to, 127

Africa Peace Forum, Kenya, 233

age, gender, and diversity
mainstreaming (AGDM) (United Nations), 211, 215, 220, 222

age (of target population) see also children and youth
and development policy globally, 211, 215–216, 220–221
and development policy in Canada, 211, 216–220
importance in development process, 212–213
mainstreaming in policy, 220–221
policy recommendations, 221–222
social vs. chronological, 213–215

aid see also Canadian aid
as alternative to force, 144, 145, 148–150
as complement to military action, 144, 145, 150–155
as concept, 2
defined, 180
dollars diverted for political, strategic or economic reasons, 86–88
emergency relief vs. development assistance, 37–39
providers of, 2
relation to non-aid policies on development, 2, 30–31, 52, 60
as strategy to prevent conflict, 144–145, 146–148
transparency of, 183

aid debate see also Canadian aid
characteristics needed going forward, 29–31
effectiveness questions, 27–28
ethical intentions, 21–22
ethical need to consider positive and negative obligations, 52, 55, 57–58, 59–60, 61–62
framed and limited by HI, 18–21, 27–28, 54–55
influenced by NPM, 180
Ottawa-centric, 26–27
as part of policy eddy, 67, 78
and supposed HI/international realist dichotomy, 37–39
tension between national interest and altruism, 35–36, 127

aid effectiveness
coexisting definitions, 73–74
in conjunction with other issue areas, 30–31, 55
and development partnerships going forward, 300–301
failures covered up, 91
in fragile states, 241–242, 246–248, 251
and geographic or sectoral focus, 264–265
and hidden power, 72–75
impact-focused, 84
and invisible power, 75–77
principles and framework, 69–71
as rationale for aid policy shifts, 183, 186, 187, 260, 263–264
results-focused, 83–84, 85–86, 88–90, 91, 200
time and timing issues, 92–93
and visible power, 69–71

aid fatigue, 163

aid policies see also Canadian aid
analyzing for ethical reasons, 54
Canadian goals, 3
competing motivations, 127
eddy of debates about, 67, 78
ethical intention corrupted by self-interest, 21–22
influenced by hidden and invisible power, 72, 77
as part of broader foreign policy, 51–52, 56, 60–61, 71, 260, 262
role of political elites, 26
and Western assumptions of Southern incompetence, 76

aid providers see donor countries

aid recipients see recipient countries

aid volunteers
altruistic and self-interested goals, 41
as measure of public support for aid, 162

L’aide canadianne au développement : bilan, défies et perspectives (Audet, Desrosiers, and Roussel), 5

Allison, Dean, 266

Alternatives, 183, 186, 187, 267

altruism see also ethics
and short-term relief, 37, 38
tension with national interest, 20, 35–36, 103, 127, 288

Americas
Canadian aid to, 111–112, 125, 128–131, 138, 139n2, 182, 265
free trade with, 129–130, 136, 263, 265

Americas Strategy, 125, 129, 137

Andean Regional Initiative for
Promoting Effective Corporate Social Responsibility, 133, 261, 266, 289n2

Asia: Canadian aid to, 129, 130, 131, 139n2, 146

Australia
aid allocation network, 108
as aid donor, 86, 95n3
aid focus on results, 83
children in development policy, 211

Austria: aid allocation network, 108

Axworthy, Lloyd, 152

Baird, John, 183, 184, 252

Bangladesh
aid effectiveness, 247–248, 251
Canadian aid projections, 252–253
Canadian aid to, 245–246, 246
conflict sensitivity and aid, 248, 249–250, 251, 252
and fragility-stability spectrum, 242, 243, 254
trade and aid, 250–251, 250

banking in developing countries, 136

Barrick Gold (company), 131, 132, 279, 286

Belgium: aid allocation network, 108

Benin: Canadian aid to, 253, 272n3

Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, 298

Bolivia
Canadian aid to, 128, 139n2
Canadian mining interests, 133, 289n2

Boosting Economic Growth (SCFAID), 266

Bosnia: Canadian military
participation, 152

Brazil
as aid provider, 2, 298, 304
as emerging economy, 79

Breakwater Resources (company), 136

BRICs (Brazil, Russia, India, China), 79

Britain see United Kingdom

Brown, Susan, 233

Building the Canadian Advantage (DFTAD), 260–261, 281

bureaucrats see political class

Burkina Faso
Canadian aid to, 253
Canadian mining interests, 261, 265, 266, 278–281

Burma see Myanmar

Busan High Level Forum, 268, 298

Canada see also economy, Canadian
aid focus on results, 88–90
comparisons with other donors, 101–102
foreign policies in relation to aid policies, 3
as international do-gooder in saviour–victim narratives, 76–77
as peacekeeper, 147, 148
recognizes Lobo as Honduran president, 137
risk avoidance, 90–91
role in aid effectiveness framework, 70–71
role in world, 2–3
tied aid, 87, 269

Canada Committed to Protecting and Promoting Religious Freedom, 183

Canada Corps, 232

Canada Making a Difference in the World (CIDA), 70

Canadian aid see also aid debate; aid policies
allocation patterns, 102–103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108–109, 110–111
as complement to military action, 150–155
complexity of motivations, 134–136 criteria, 111–113, 114
criteria compared with other countries, 113, 114, 115–116
effectiveness, 4, 27, 30–31
future of, 2
goals, 2–3
limitations, 17
malaise, 17–18
need to rethink, 1–2, 3–4, 297, 306–307
principles of, 116–117
in security-development policy, 148–150
and strategic culture, 144–145
as strategy to prevent conflict, 146–148

Canadian Council for International Co-operation (CCIC), 19, 184, 242

Canadian Forces see military operations

Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA) see also Department of Foreign Affairs, Trade and Development
aid effectiveness policies, 70–71
budget cuts, 20, 304
bureaucracy, 89–90, 94
child and maternal health projects, 55
created, 149
CSR extractive projects, 133
defensiveness and risk aversion, 25, 27, 72, 74, 91
and domestic self-interest, 54
fragile states policies, 135, 155, 227, 230–236, 245–246
gender equality commitment by mid-level staff, 196, 197–198, 201–204
gender equality lapses, 198–200, 206
HI orientation, 20, 25
merger with DFAIT, 1, 4, 20, 26, 35, 46, 128, 183, 259, 304
private sector funding, 279–280, 2878
private sector funding risks and benefits, 284–286
problems throughout history, 1
projects in Peru, 132–133
relationship with federal agencies, 25–26
relationship with NGOs, 3, 24
results-focused, 88–89
security and stability as priorities, 155
slowness, 93
in Tanzania, 74–75
Canadian International Institute for Extractive Industries and Development, 261, 267, 271–272n2, 288

Canadian Journal of Development Studies, 4–5

Candente Copper Corp (company), 131

CARE Canada, 290n2

Caribbean: Canadian aid to, 128–130, 150

Carment, David, 238n4

CECI, 290n2

Centre for Conflict Resolution, Uganda, 233

Centre for Global Development (CGD), 56, 60, 61

charity
HI perceived as, 37, 46
as old, short-term-assistance model, 91, 195, 204–205, 207

child and maternal health projects
funding for, 188
Honduras, 136
and migration policies, 55
Muskoka Initiative, 195, 203–204, 205, 206n2
and saviour–victim narrative, 76

Child and Youth Strategy, 211, 222

Child Rights Consortium, 222

children and youth see also age (of target population)
and child labour, 212, 266
CIDA-funded projects under Conservatives, 203, 278
Honduras projects, 136
population in least-developed countries, 212
and poverty, 212
as priority in development policy, 211, 220
as soldiers, 201
sponsorship-based development programs, 40, 42

China
as aid provider, 2, 298, 304
as aid recipient, 86–87
Canadian aid to, 146
Communist victory in, 146
as emerging economy, 79, 85
intergenerational relationships, 212

Chrétien government
aid to African countries, 125
aid to Americas, 128
budget cuts to CIDA, 25
conflict prevention strategy, 152
trend away from commercial self-interest in aid, 277

civil society organizations (CSOs)
as custodians of HI, 19
and gender equality issues, 198–199
need to reconnect Canadians with developing world, 29–30
partnerships with, 298, 302
program-based approaches, 79n1
relationship with DFATD, 267–268, 270

Cold War
and aid to oppose Communism, 146–147, 149, 150
and aid to prevent conflict, 86, 144–145, 146, 155, 156
ends, 151

Colombia
Canadian aid to, 87, 129, 130, 265
Canadian mining interests, 133, 289, 289n2
free trade with Canada, 129, 130, 265

Colombo Plan, 146

commercialization of aid see also trade and aid levels, 250–251
lack of international norms, 244–245
projections for, 253
renewed under Harper, 277–278, 280

Commitment to Development Index, 60, 61

Commonwealth: aid commitments to, 146, 147, 150

Communism see Cold War

“Conflict and Peace Analysis and Response Manual”, 232

conflict of interest: and aid support to extractive industry, 288–289

Conflict, Peace and Development Cooperation Network, 232

Conflict Sensitivity Approach see Peace and Conflict Impact Assessment (PCIA)

conflict (war and civil strife) see also specific conflicts
aid as means to prevent, 144–145, 146–148, 152, 248–250
as basis for “fragile” status, 243
CIDA’s post-conflict assessment tools, 231–234
as criterion for aid, 112, 114, 115
prevention as OECD goal, 244

Conservative policies see Harper government

Consortium of Humanitarian Agencies, Sri Lanka, 233

corporate social responsibility (CSR)
Centre of Excellence project, 132, 260, 263
and CIDA funding, 280–282
projects in Latin America, 126, 131–133
proliferation of initiatives, 133, 263
strategy pillars, 132, 261–262
cosmopolitan political theory in aid and development research, 61, 299
conceptualization of, 57
as global ethic, 58–59
to inform aid policy analysis, 52–53, 56, 299
and policy coherence, 56
rooted in local communities, 59

counter-consensus
conceptualization of, 19
dilemmas of competing interests, 22
efforts toward HI, 20, 24
need to reconnect, 29–30
questionable repository of ethical values, 24–25

Country Development Planning Frameworks (CDPFs), 231

Country Indicators for Foreign Policy (CIFP) project, 229–230, 232, 234, 238n4

Czech Republic: aid allocation network, 108

Decade for Women, 197

decentralization, 94

Dechert, Bob, 282

decision-making
influenced by administrators, 181
influenced by hidden power, 72, 186
not evidence-based, 235–236

democracy: as criterion for aid, 112, 114, 115, 137

Democratic Republic of the Congo
Canadian aid to, 154, 253
Canadian mining interests, 265
human rights issues, 254

Denmark
aid allocation network, 108, 110
aid focus on results, 83

Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade (DFAIT)
dominant class orientation, 25
and extractive industries, 289
and gender equality issues, 207n6
merger with CIDA, 1, 4, 20, 26, 35, 46, 128, 183, 259, 304
peacebuilding division, 233
relationship with CIDA, 25
response to political crises, 231, 238n7
self-interested priorities, 20

Department of Foreign Affairs, Trade and Development (DFATD) see also Canadian International Development Agency
and Afghanistan, 235
aid focus on results, 83, 89
on aid to Americas, 130
creation, 1, 20, 26, 54, 128, 259
and extractive projects, 133, 261, 266, 289
fragile states abandonment, 227–228, 234
and gender equality in programming, 196, 205–206, 206n1
opportunities going forward, 304–305
projects in Peru, 132–133
shaping agenda of, 47
slowness, 93
and subordination of aid to broader foreign policy, 52, 53

Department of National Defence (DND)
relationship with CIDA, 25
role in development assistance, 149

developing countries see recipient countries

development
equated with poverty reduction, 84
failures covered up, 91
learning from, 91–92
men’s role, 197–198
multiple requirements for, 85
timing and results, 92–93
women’s role, 197–198

Development Assistance Committee, (OECD/DAC) see also Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
aid and non-aid development policy analysis, 55–56, 60
aid to fragile states, 228, 232, 237, 238n8, 244, 254
on Canada’s role in Afghanistan, 241
development goals and agreements, 69
list of aid-eligible countries, 86, 125
recommends complementary strategy, 145
and securitization of aid, 244

development assistance policies see also official development assistance (ODA) policy
affected by Western managerial standards, 76
and aid as alternative to use of force, 144, 145, 148–150
aid vs. non-aid, 2, 30–31, 52
aligning with national interests, 35, 37–38, 129–130, 260–261
CGD’s index of non-aid areas, 60, 61
as distinct from humanitarian aid, 154
ethical analysis, 55, 57
as part of aid policy analysis, 52, 55–56
as part of humanitarian response, 39, 40
public support for, 163, 170
recommendations for effectiveness, 93–95
seen as charity, 37, 46, 76

development management
conflict with NPM, 184
defined, 180–181
influence of “efficiency at all costs”, 184, 189
influence of political ideology, 184, 186–188
as paradigm to explain Harper’s aid shift, 179, 184, 185
development partnerships alignment of donors, 69–70
as basis for rethinking Canadian aid, 298–299
with CSOs/NGOs, 302–303
ethical and effectiveness foundations, 299–301
intra-governmental, 304–306
with private sector, 303–304
within international aid regime, 301–302

Development Projects as Policy Experiments (Rondinelli), 91

disaster–development continuum, 40, 42

disasters see emergency relief

Doctors of the World Canada, 188

dominant class
bias of state agencies, 23, 25
biased toward self-interested capitalism, 19
conceptualization of, 19
and limitations of Canadian aid, 17

Dominican Republic: Canadian military operations, 148

donor countries
aid criteria, 113, 114, 115–116, 121, 122, 123, 124
aid effectiveness principles, 69–70
aid networks ‘s, 108–109, 110–111
focus on donor interest instead of recipient interest, 44–45
influence over PRSPs, 74
launch HI to assess policies, 27–28
new class of, 2
program-based approaches, 79n1
reluctance to relinquish control over aid dollars, 71, 73, 79n1
rethinking/restructuring aid architecture, 2–3

drilling see extractive industry in developing countries

East Timor: Canadian military participation, 153

economy, Canadian
aid as promotion tool, 150
deficit’s impact on ODA, 152, 153, 166, 168–169, 171
elements of, 84
neoliberalism, 22
and popular support for foreign aid, 37
as rationale for aid policy shifts, 182

economy, European, 79

economy, global
2008 crisis, 79, 161
aid as promotion tool, 150
and public opinion on aid, 161
statistics vs. reality, 85–86

economy, of developing countries
as criterion for aid, 112, 113, 114, 115, 125, 149
efforts to improve, 182
inaccurately equated with development, 84

Ecuador: child poverty, 212

Egypt: Canadian aid to, 149, 152

El Salvador: Canadian aid to, 150

elderly populations, 222

elections: Honduras, 137

emergency relief
as criterion for aid, 112, 114, 115
as distinct from development assistance, 37, 87
through faith-based NGOs, 188
public support for, 38, 41–42
share of global ODA, 87
as tied to development assistance, 39

Engineers Without Borders, 91, 288

environment
and extractive industry, 133, 283, 286, 290n11, 291n15
as non-aid component of development policy, 61

equality between women and men see gender equality

Eritrea: Canadian military participation, 153

ethics see also altruism
in aid debate, 21–22
and aid support to extractive industry, 286–287, 288–289
cosmopolitan, 53, 55, 57, 61
counter-consensus as champion, 24–25
fair trade consumerism, 162
and HI, 17, 55
need to confront, 29
need to include positive and negative aspects, 52, 55, 57–58, 59–60, 61–62
need to revisit, 299–301
subordinated to self-interest, 19, 21–22
underpinning early aid policy, 19, 57

Ethiopia
aid effectiveness, 247–248, 251
as aid recipient, 90
Canadian aid projections, 252–253
Canadian aid to, 153, 229, 245–246, 246
Canadian military participation, 153
and fragility-stability spectrum, 243, 253
and securitization of aid, 248–249, 251
trade and aid, 250–251, 250

Europe
Canadian aid to, 131, 146
monitoring of public support for aid, 164
ODA budgets, 172

Export Development Canada, 289

extractive industry in Canada
CIDA “pilot projects”, 278–279, 286–287
relationship with CIDA, 267, 281–283
relationship with DFATD, 266–267
risks and benefits of working with aid funds, 283–284
supported by aid funds, 278, 279–280, 287–288
value to Canadian economy, 262, 281

extractive industry in developing countries
and Canadian national interest, 87, 132, 134, 136, 260–261, 263, 265, 266
confused rationale for funding, 280–283
CSR strategy, 132, 261–262
economic growth without poverty reduction, 84
mining by Canadian companies, 131–134, 136, 261, 278–279
negative effects, 55, 133, 286, 290n11, 291n15
NGO protests and funding cuts, 190n1, 267
research needs, 288–289

family: intergenerational relationships and development, 212–213, 214

Fantino, Julian
on CIDA funding choices, 183
on domestic self-interest in aid, 54, 63n1
and extractive industry, 182, 271–272n2, 280
Haiti funding freeze, 135
on private sector involvement in aid, 266, 272n5, 285

federal government see also specific governments (e.g., Harper government)
focus on national interest instead of recipient interests, 44–45, 260–261, 265–266
means to poverty reduction, 93–94
partnerships with other governments, 304–306
recommercialization of Canadian aid, 277–278, 284–285, 286–289
results-based management, 200

Finance Department: relationship with CIDA, 25

Finland: aid allocation network, 108

food security
early aid programs, 269
Ethiopia programs, 251
future opportunities, 301
Haiti programs, 134
Honduras programs, 136

For Whose Benefit? (Winegard Report), 36, 38

foreign policies
of Chrétien government, 128, 152
counter-consensus, 19
of Harper government, 125, 259–260, 262–263
of Martin government, 128
of Mulroney government, 150, 152
need for poverty and justice focus, 30
of Pearson government, 148
in relation to aid policies, 3, 51–52, 56, 60–61, 71, 260, 262
and security–development continuum, 144–146
of Trudeau government, 149

Forum on Early Warning and Early Response (FEWER), 233, 238n5

Fowler, Robert, 290n17

fragile states
Afghanistan model, 241–242, 252
aid effectiveness, 241–242, 246–248
Canadian ODA levels and modalities, 228–230, 229, 243, 245–246, 246
CIDA’s commitment to, 135, 155, 227
commercialization and aid, 250–251
conceptual and organizational challenges to policy, 230–234
DFATD’s abandonment of, 227–228
global aid allocation to, 228–229, 238n8
Haiti’s role since 9/11, 134
Harper government policies, 135
and LICs, 242, 247, 251, 253
Martin government policies, 128
political challenges to policy, 234–236
research needs, 237, 254
and risk avoidance, 90
securitization of aid, 242–243, 248–250

France
aid allocation network, 108
as aid donor, 86, 95n3

free trade
with Americas, 129–130, 136, 263, 265
with Israel, 255

French-speaking countries: Canadian aid to, 147–148, 149

Gaza see Palestine

gender-based violence, 201, 203

gender equality see also men; women; women in development (WID)
CIDA lapses, 199–200, 206
as development goal, 38
and DFAIT, 207n6
and DFATD, 196, 205–206, 206n1
“first CIDA” approach to, 196, 197–202, 205
and “gender” vs. “sex”, 214
language return to, 205
language shift away from under Conservatives, 195–196, 201, 204–205
and results-based management, 200
“second CIDA” internal commitment to, 196, 197–198, 201–204
and social age policy assessment, 220–221

generation issues see age (of target population)

Germany: aid allocation network, 108, 110

Ghana
as aid recipient, 90
Canadian mining interests, 261, 279, 291n14

Global Partnership for Effective Development Co-operation, 268, 298, 302

Global Peace and Security Fund (GPSF), 232

Goldcorp (company), 131, 136

Gratton, Pierre, 280, 281, 282

Greece: aid allocation network, 108

Grenada: Canadian aid to, 150

Guay, Louis, 290n17

Guidelines for Security System Reform and Governance, 244

Guyana: Canadian aid to, 128, 129

Haiti
aid and saviour–victim narrative, 76
Canadian aid case study, 134–135
Canadian aid to, 130, 134, 135, 138, 153, 154, 229, 241
Canadian military participation, 153
earthquake relief, 38, 129
as “failed and fragile state”, 128, 134
freeze on aid to, 252
long-term development assistance, 38
post-conflict assessment, 231

harm
and analysis of foreign and development policies, 55, 299
ethical duty not to cause, 52, 55, 57–58, 62, 244

Harper government
aid countries of focus, 255n1
aid policies rationales, 182–183
aid policies shift, 2, 53, 126, 128, 132, 138, 179–180, 181–184, 259–261, 270–271, 277–278
aid to Americas, 128–131
aid to fragile states, 232
economic goals of aid, 87, 125, 134
growing estrangement with counter-consensus, 24–25
language shift from “gender equality”, 195–196, 201–205
less attached to HI tradition, 23
policy formation without consultation, 26, 270–271

Harper, Stephen
and military intervention in Mali, 253
visits Latin America, 129

HelpAge Canada, 220

Honduras
Canadian aid case study, 136–137
Canadian aid to, 128, 139
free trade with Canada, 129, 136

human rights
in Canadian foreign policy, 150, 262
CIDA emphasis on, 234, 247
and Israeli-Palestinian conflict, 187

human rights violations
aired through mass media, 231
in Democratic Republic of the Congo, 254
in Ethiopia, 249
and extractive industry, 133, 283, 290n11
and failure to act on duty to not cause harm, 58
in Honduras, 137
in Myanmar, 254

human security see also security
in LICs, 242
as part of peacekeeping agenda, 152

Human Security Agenda, 232

humane internationalism (HI)
as basis for foreign aid, 18–19, 21–22, 23
conceptualization of, 17, 18, 55
as criterion for aid, 116
effectiveness failures, 42–45
effectiveness recommendations, 46–47
impossible in practice, 22
methods of gaining public support, 41–42
need to align with realists, 46
questionable value in Canadian political culture, 22–24
seen as charity, 37, 46
sincerity of belief in, 39
supposed dichotomy with realists, 35, 37–39
tension with self-interested capitalism, 20, 35–36, 103, 127, 145

humanitarian relief see emergency relief

Hungary: aid allocation network, 108

IAMGOLD (company), 266, 279, 281–282, 283, 285, 290n10

Iceland: aid allocation network, 108

immigration policies
effect on other issue areas, 55, 61
and Haitians in Quebec, 134

India
as aid provider, 2, 298, 304
Canadian aid to, 146, 147, 148, 149
as emerging economy, 79

Indonesia: Canadian aid to, 149, 150

international aid regime: partnerships, 301–302

International Aid Transparency Initiative, 183

International Centre for Human Rights and Democratic Development, 183, see also Rights & Democracy 179, 183, 187, 267

International Conference on Financing for Development, 266

International Development Research Centre (IDRC), 233

International Network on Conflict and Fragility (INCAF), 228, 232

International Policy Statement (IPS)
contradictions within, 138
discludes child protection as priority, 214
fragile states commitment, 128, 134–135, 230, 232
on purposes of aid, 154

international politics
global issues and cooperation, 79
increasing complexity, 79

international realism
defined, 35–36
as means for understanding aid policy, 54
need to align with HI, 46
supposed dichotomy with HI, 35, 37–39, 103

internationalism, humane see humane internationalism

Iran: Canadian military participation, 151

Iraq
Canadian aid to, 151, 154
Canadian military participation, 151
as “failed and fragile state”, 128
Western military operations, 143, 230

Ireland: aid allocation network, 108

Israel
and aid securitization, 248
Canadian aid to, 255n3
Harper government’s support of, 183, 184, 187

Italy: aid allocation network, 108

Japan: aid allocation network, 108

Jordan: Canadian aid to, 149

KAIROS and Alternatives, 183, 186, 187, 190n1, 267

Kashmir: Canadian military participation, 147, 148

Kenya: Africa Peace Forum, 233

Korea: aid allocation network, 108

Korean War, 146, 147

Kosovo: Canadian military participation, 152, 153

Kuwait: Canadian military participation, 151

La Salle, Benoît, 289

Latin America
Canadian aid to, 87, 125, 128, 130, 131, 265
free trade with Canada, 129–130, 265

Lebanon
Canadian aid to, 149, 151
Canadian military participation, 147, 151

Letwin, Steve, 282

Libya: Canadian aid to, 155

Lobo, Porfirio, 137

low-income countries (LICs), 242, 247, 251, 253

Lundin Foundation, 288, 291n16

Luxembourg: aid allocation network, 108

Make Poverty History (MPH), 168, 169

Mali
aid effectiveness, 247–248, 251
Canadian aid projections, 252–253
Canadian aid review, 252
Canadian aid to, 245–246, 246
and fragility-stability spectrum, 242, 243, 253
and securitization of aid, 248–249, 250, 251–252
trade and aid, 250–251, 250

Martin government
aid countries of focus, 255n1
aid to African countries, 125
aid to Americas, 128
aid to fragile states, 232
complexity of aid motivations, 138
trend away from commercial self-interest in aid, 277

Massé, Marcel, 20, 95

maternal health see child and maternal health projects

Maternal, Newborn and Child Health Initiative (MNCH), 195, 203–204, 205

Mayotte: as aid recipient, 86, 95n3

McCarney, Rosemary, 283

media
Internet and political crises, 230–231
and saviour–victim narrative in relief efforts, 76

men see also gender equality
cultural preferences toward, 212
role in development, 197–198

Middle East
Canadian aid to, 149
Canadian military participation, 147, 148, 151

military operations
in complementary strategy with aid, 144, 145, 150–156
linked to development assistance, 143–144
to protect human security, 152

Millennium Development Goals, United Nations
age-specific targets, 220
Eighth, 298
established, 3, 28
Fifth, 203
focus for 2015, 76
Goal 8, 69

mining see extractive industry in developing countries

Mining Association of Canada, 280, 281

Mongolia: Canadian aid to, 154, 253, 272n3

Monterrey Agreement, 3

mothers see also women
term used in Muskoka Initiative, 206n2
as victims and beneficiaries, 195, 203–204

Mozambique
as aid recipient, 90
Canadian aid to, 152
Canadian military participation, 152

Mulroney government, 150, 152, 269

Muskoka Initiative, 195, 203–204, 205, 206n2

Myanmar
Canadian aid to, 154, 253, 272n3
human rights issues, 254

Namibia: Canadian aid to, 151

National Action Plan on Women, Peace and Security, 203, 207n2

national interest see also self-interest
biased toward capitalism, 19–20, 25
and merger of CIDA with DFAIT, 35, 54
as motive for aid, 54, 129–130, 260–261, 268–269
supersedes recipient interests, 44–45, 260–261, 265–266, 288

National Roundtables on Corporate Social Responsibility and the Canadian Extractive Industry, 263

NATO
intervention in Libya, 155
peace operations, 151, 152, 153, 155

neoliberalism
as foundation of aid architecture, 76, 138
negative effect on social equity support within Canada, 22

Netherlands: aid allocation network, 108, 110

New Deal for Engagement in Fragile States, 237, 238n8, 254

New Public Management (NPM)
effects on ODA, 180–181, 182, 189
as prevailing administration paradigm, 180

New Zealand: aid allocation network, 108

Nicaragua: Canadian aid to, 128

Niger: Fowler and Guay kidnapping, 290n17

non-governmental development organizations (NGDOs)
citizens’ donations to, 162
and public support for aid, 163
state funding of, 24

non-governmental organizations (NGOs)
aid effectiveness recommendations, 94–95
child sponsorship programs, 40–41
combined humanitarian and
developmental goals, 40
funding and political ideology, 187–189
funding cuts, 183, 184
and gender equality issues, 199–200, 202
partnerships with, 302–303
post-conflict assessment, 233
relationship with CIDA, 3, 24, 280, 281
relationship with DFATD, 266–267
religious vs. non-religious, 187, 188, 271n1
work with extractive industry, 279, 281–282, 283, 285–286, 290nn2,10

Norway
aid allocation network, 108, 110
aid criteria, 114, 116, 121
aid focus on results, 83

Nutt, Samantha, 283

Oda, Bev
and aid shift from Africa to Americas, 129
cuts funding to KAIROS, 186
and extractive industry funding, 272n4, 279, 280, 281, 291n13
failed promise to decentralize, 94
and gender equality, 202
on private sector involvement, 266, 285
systematic policy shift, 260

Office of Religious Freedom, 179, 183, 187

Official Development Assistance Accountability Act (2008)
and human rights standards, 262
and legality of CIDA funding to extractive companies, 287
poverty reduction focus, 86, 262, 287
promoting efficacy of, 94–95
purpose, 3–4
as visible power, 69–70, 77

official development assistance (ODA) see also development policies
budget for advisors and technical assistance, 87
Canadian budgets (1950–1960), 147
Canadian budgets (2007–2011), 95–96n4, 153, 154, 171–172, 174n4, 183
countries targeted, 87, 128
defined, 174n3
fickle public opinion toward, 43–44, 167
lack of public understanding, 23, 37, 42–43, 163–164
public administration of, 180–181
shifts and rationale under Harper, 181–184, 182–183
tension between humanitarian and development goals, 40
tension between national interest and altruism, 20, 35–36, 103, 127, 287–288

Open Aid Partnership, 183

Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) see also Development Assistance Committee
on Canada’s dispersal of aid, 264
development goals and agreements, 69, 74
donor country analysis, 103, 107
and public support monitoring internationally, 164–165
restructuring of aid, 3
ownership, by recipient countries
as aid goal, 68
coexisting definitions, 73–74
as measure of aid effectiveness, 69–70

Pakistan
aid effectiveness, 247–248, 251
Canadian aid projections, 252–253
Canadian aid review, 252
Canadian aid to, 146, 147, 148, 229, 245–246, 246
and fragility-stability spectrum, 243, 253
influence on Afghanistan, 235
and securitization of aid, 248–249, 251
trade and aid, 250–251, 250

Palestine
aid effectiveness, 247–248, 251
Canadian aid projections, 252–253
Canadian aid review, 252, 254
Canadian aid to, 245–246, 246, 255n3
and fragility-stability spectrum, 243
and securitization of aid, 248, 250, 251–252
trade and aid, 250–251, 250
work of KAIROS, 183, 186, 187

Panama: free trade with Canada, 129

Paradis, Christian, 288

Paris Declaration on Aid Effectiveness, 3, 71, 244, 263–264, 268, 288, 300

parliamentarians see political class

Pas de démocratie sans droits, 267

Peace and Conflict Impact Assessment (PCIA), 232–234

peacebuilding
and aid to Haiti, 134
through complementary development and security policies, 145, 150, 152–155, 156
and conflict assessments, 232–233
confused with counterinsurgency, 143
through development assistance, 144–145, 147

Pearson Commission on International Development (1969), 86, 87

Pearson, Lester B., 147–148, 166, 169

Peru
Canadian aid to, 87, 129, 130, 133, 139, 265
Canadian mining interests, 132–133, 261, 266–267, 279, 289, 289n2
free trade with Canada, 129, 130, 265

philanthropists: partnerships with, 298, 301–302

Plan Canada, 279, 280, 282, 283, 284, 285, 290n10

Poland: aid allocation network, 109

Policy and Advocacy Group for Emergency Relief (PAGER), 188

policy coherence
as approach to aid analysis, 55–56
implementation for development, 56–57, 60–61

political class
and administration of ODA, 185, 186–189
as decision-makers, 72, 181
need to engage and educate, 30, 47
paperwork-focused, 89–90, 94
support for HI, 23

politicians see political class

Portugal: aid allocation network, 109

Post-Conflict Needs Assessment, 231

poverty
as aid criterion, 128
coexisting with extreme wealth, 79
as source of terrorism, 153
statistics on, 85, 95n2

poverty reduction
aid as means to, 28–29, 86
Canadian commitment to, 152
and CDPFs, 231
effects of aid and non-aid policies, 30–31
equated with development, 84
lack of progress in, 85–86, 93
through local entrepreneurship, 84
as peace prerequisite, 150
recommendations, 93–95
statistics on, 85
tension between HI and national self-interest, 36
tension between humanitarian and development goals, 37, 40

Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers (PRSPs), 74

power
as analytical tool, 68
causing policy drift, 72, 77
hidden forms, 72–75, 78
interconnected types causing policy vacillation, 76, 77
invisible forms, 75–77
as obstacle to aid, 71
visible forms, 69–71
working with for good policy change, 78–79

Pratt, Cranford
analysis of Canadian aid, 19–21
career, 31n1
on counter-consensus as ethical champion, 24
on dominant class in federal departments, 25
on HI’s strength in Canadian culture, 22–23
influence on Canadian aid program and debate, 17, 19, 21, 27, 54–55
international respect for, 31n2

Principles for Good International Engagement in Fragile States and Situations, 244

private sector
increasing involvement in aid, 2, 126, 130, 131–132, 182, 266–268, 278, 287
involvement evaluation, 93
management model, 180
relationship with CIDA, 3
risks and benefits of aid support, 283–286
supported by CIDA funds, 279–280, 281–283

Product Red, 168

public administration of ODA
decision-making, 181
and development management paradigm, 179, 180–181
influence of “efficiency at all costs”, 184, 189
influence of political ideology, 184, 186–188, 284
and NPM paradigm, 180, 182, 184, 186

public education
misguided framework, 41–42
need for strategic approach, 46

public opinion
on aid (1993–2002), 165–167, 165
on aid (1997–2012), 167–171, 168
on aid in poor economic times, 161, 166–167
effect on aid policy, 172–173
on efficacy of aid, 165
on emergency relief, 38
engaging, 46–47
fickleness, 43–44
and HI, 23–24
international monitoring of, 164–165
and modern media, 210–211
on NGO involvement with mining companies, 285–286
no evidence of “aid fatigue”, 163
on policy priorities, 170
shaped by poor understanding of foreign aid, 23, 37, 41–43, 163

public service see public administration

Al-Qaeda, 249

quarrying see extractive industry in developing countries

Quebec
foreign aid, 147–148
Haitian immigration to, 134
potential partnerships, 306

Quiruvilca, Peru, 132

realism, international see international realism

recipient countries
and aid effectiveness principles, 69–70
aid goal of development ownership, 68, 69–70
assessing results of aid and non-aid policies, 2, 28
call for increased predictability, 270–271
of Canadian aid over time, 104, 105, 106, 264–265
diversion of aid dollars, 86–87
program-based approaches, 79n1
questioning postcolonial approach to aid, 79
value of Canadian aid, 27

Red Cross Code of Conduct, 39

refugees
and HI, 39
Palestinian, 248
percentage of ODA budget, 87, 88

religion: and aid support, 179, 183, 187, 188, 271n1

Republic of Congo
as aid recipient, 86
Canadian peacekeeping mission, 148

resource development, 182
and CSR strategy, 262

Responsibilities Agenda, 232

results-based management
and aid effectiveness, 83–84, 85–86, 88–90, 91
and gender equality issues, 200

Rights & Democracy, 179, 183, 187, 267

Rio Tinto Alcan, 279, 286, 289, 291n14

risk avoidance
CIDA’s tendency toward, 25, 72, 74
major consideration in result-focused aid, 90–92

Russia
as aid provider, 2
as emerging economy, 79

Rwanda
Canadian aid to, 153
Canadian military participation, 153

Samy, Yiagadeesen, 238n4

securitization of aid
and aid effectiveness, 241–242, 251
and conflict sensitivity, 248–250, 252
defined, 244
effect on other development policies, 242

security see also human security
and aid as peacekeeping strategy, 144–145, 146–148
as non-aid component of development policy, 61
“soft” and “hard” policies, 143, 149, 150
and subordination of aid objectives, 242

security-development continuum
aid and strategic preferences, 144–146
aid as complement to military action, 150–155
aid as means to prevent conflict, 146–148
aid as substitute for force, 148–150
and fragile states, 253

self-interest see also national interest
displaces altruistic aid motives, 19, 21–22, 35, 40, 54
of individual volunteers, 41
linking to aid policy, 29
tension with HI, 20, 35–36, 103, 127, 145

sexual and reproductive health
funding cuts to NGO projects, 188
reduced attention under Conservatives, 203

Shaping the 21st Century (OECD), 69

Sharp, Mitchell, 21

Slovak Republic: aid allocation network, 109

SNC-Lavalin (company), 266, 291n13

social age
vs. chronological age, 213–214
mainstreaming in development, 220–222

social justice: as goal of aid, 149

Société d’exploitation minière–Afrique de l’Ouest (SEMAFO), 289, 290n17

SOCODEVI, 279, 290n2

Somalia
Canadian aid to, 151
Canadian military participation, 151

South Africa: apartheid, 150

South-East Asia: Canadian aid to, 146

South Korea
as aid provider, 2
Canadian aid to, 147

South–South cooperation, 2, 298, 299

Spain: aid allocation network, 109

Sphere Project: HI, 39

Sri Lanka
Canadian aid to, 146
child poverty, 212
Consortium of Humanitarian Agencies, 233

St-Laurent, Louis, 146

Stabilization and Reconstruction Task Force (START), 227–228, 232

statistics
on aid allocation patterns, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108–109, 110–111
on aid criteria, 111–113, 114, 115–116
on poverty and poverty reduction, 85, 95n2

strategic culture
“liberal internationalism” of Canada, 145–146
shapes aid strategies of nation, 145
as tool to understand aid purposes, 144

Struggling for Effectiveness (Brown), 5

Sudan
Canadian aid review, 252
Canadian aid to, 154, 229
post-conflict assessment, 231

Sweden
aid allocation network, 109, 110
aid criteria, 114, 122
aid focus on results, 83

Switzerland
aid allocation network, 109
as aid donor, 86, 95n3

Tanzania
aid effectiveness discussions, 74–75
development partners group, 79n2

technology transfer, 61

tied aid
1979–2011 totals, 269
no longer formal, 87

Timor-Leste: Canadian aid to, 153

trade
between Canada and Americas, 129–130, 136, 263, 265
as criterion for aid, 112, 114, 115, 146, 268–269
with fragile states, 250–251
as non-aid component of development policy, 61

Treasury Board
relationship with CIDA, 25
reluctance to transfer budget to recipients, 71

Trudeau, Pierre, 149

Turkey
aid allocation network, 109
as aid provider, 298, 304

Uganda: Centre for Conflict Resolution, 233

Ukraine: Canadian aid to, 139n2, 155

United Kingdom
aid allocation network, 109, 110–111
aid criteria, 114, 123
aid focus on results, 83
cross-partisan support for aid program, 26
invasion of Iraq, 151, 154
monitoring of public support for aid, 165
trade and aid, 270

United Nations
age, gender, and diversity mainstreaming, 211, 215, 220, 222
Canadian aid provided through, 148
Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW), 198
Convention on the Rights of the Child, 213
Development Programme, 83, 164
High Commissioner for Refugees, 211, 215
Iran-Iraq Military Observer Group, 151
Iraq-Kuwait Observer Mission, 151
language of international discourse, 201
Millennium Development Goals, 3, 28, 69, 203, 220, 298
Operation in Mozambique, 152
Operation in Somalia, 151
peace operations, 145, 151, 152, 153, 155
Protection Force, 151
Transition Assistance Group, 151
World Conferences on Women, 197, 198

United States
aid allocation network, 109, 110–111
aid criteria, 114, 124, 127
aid focus on results, 83, 89
invasion of Iraq, 151, 154
recognizes Lobo as Honduran president, 137
withdrawal from Indonesia, 149

USSR see also Cold War
withdrawal from Afghanistan, 151

VOICES coalition, 267

volunteers see aid volunteers

war see conflict (war and civil strife) West Bank see Palestine

West New Guinea: Canadian military operations, 148

Western aid donors see donor countries Western Middle Powers and Global Poverty project, 27–28

Winegard Report, 36, 38

women see also gender equality; mothers
abuse programs and NGO funding, 188
abuse programs for, 183
CIDA-funded programs under Conservatives, 202–203
employment programs, 212
role in development, 197–198, 202, 204
violence against, 201

women in development (WID) see also gender equality
CIDA directorate established, 198
early CIDA approach, 195, 197
return to, 205

Working Group on Women’s Rights, 198–199

World Bank
aid focus on results, 83
Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative, 261
monitoring of public support for aid, 165
poverty statistics, 85, 95n2
veto power over PRSPs, 74

World Conferences on Women, 197, 198

World University Service of Canada (WUSC), 279, 283, 285, 286, 290n2, 291n14

World Vision Canada, 132, 279, 281

Yamana (company), 136

Yemen: Canadian military operations, 148

youth see children and youth

Yugoslavia (former)
Canadian aid to, 151, 152, 153
Canadian military participation, 151, 153
end of war, 152

Zelaya, Manuel, 136, 137

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