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The last years of Geoffrey of Monmouth

Lewis Thorpe †

Texte intégral

1From a muddled entry in the Brut y Tywysogion it has been assumed that Geoffrey of Monmouth died in 1155. His death is recorded nowhere else. In the article which follows I propose to examine anew the few fragments of information which we possess concerning his last years.

  • 1 Acton Griscom maintained that Ms. Camb. Univ. Libr. 1706 was completed in April 1136: see "The dat (...)
  • 2 Orderic Vitalis quoted extensively from it in the Historia Ecc les ias t ica, Book XII, ch. 47. It (...)
  • 3 For Robert's profession and the endorsement see Michael Richter, Canterbury Professions, The Cante (...)
  • 4 Basil Clarke, Life of Merlin, Geoffrey of Monmouth, Vita Merlini, Univ. of Wales Press, Cardiff, 1 (...)

2The Historia Regum Britanniae came out in April-May 11361. From the start the Prophetiae Merlini were probably incorporated in the Historia2, as what we now call Book VII, chapters 3-4. The Vita Merlini, Geoffrey's only other book, was dedicated to Robert de Chesney, Bishop of Lincoln, in which function he had replaced Alexander on 19 December 11483. The most recent editor dates it as "between 1148 and 1155", that is after Robert de Chesney's profession and before Geoffrey's death as recorded in the Brut y Tywysogion, and concludes that "one likely time within that period is the latter half of 1150"4.

  • 5 N° 6 in H.E. Salter's list, "Geoffrey of Monmouth and Oxford", The English Historical Review, Vol. (...)

3The fifth of the six genuine charters5 witnessed by Geoffrey, a grant of land in Knolle to Godstow Abbey by

4Richard Labaanc de Clere, is in the Godstow Cartulary. The list of witnesses begins:

  • 6 Public Record Office, Exch., K.R., Misc. Books, n° 20. f° 20. This list was published by H.E. Salt (...)

Testes sunt Gaufridus episcopus sancti Asaph et Walterus Oxenefordie archediaconus, Rob. prior sancte Frideswide, magister Rogerus de Sagio, Radulphus de Monemuta, Radulphus filius Borwaldi, Ansketillus presbiter de Wotton, Simon de sancto Asaph, Willel-mus capellanus, &c6.

  • 7 In the Biddlesden Cartulary, Brit. Mus., Harl. 4714, f° 2r, there is a copy of a confirmation of a (...)

5This charter is not dated. Walter, Archdeacon of Oxford, apparently died in 1151 or early in 11527. Geoffrey was consecrated as Bishop of Saint Asaph on 24 February 1152. If the Godstow charter was witnessed before then, he can only have been "electus". There are apparently examples of "episcope electi" signing as "episcopi" before their consecration, but they are few.

  • 8 H.E. Salter, The Thame Cartulary, Oxfordshire Record Society, 2 vols, 1947-48, of which see Vol. I (...)

6The last of the six genuine charters witnessed by Goeffrey, a confirmation issed by Robert de Chesney of an earlier charter by Hugh the Constable, is copied in the Thame Cartulary8. The witnesses of the confirmation are listed as follows:

Testibus, magistro Gaufrido electo sancti Asaph, Hugo Lerecestrie archidiacono, Roberto Oxon' archidiacono, Roberto Cadom', Ricardo Dameri, Radulfo Monemumensi, canonicis.

7As we have seen, Robert Foliot's two signatures as Archdeacon of Oxford in the Biddlesden Cartulary prove that he had replaced Walter in that function either by 12 May 1511, or at least during the Roman Calendar year 25 March 1151 to 24 March 1152. Leaving the "die festo sancti Remigii" on one side, if the first confirmation on f°2r of the Biddlesden Cartulary were issued between 24 February 1152 and 24 March 1152, that would explain why Geoffrey signed as Bishop. The confirmation in the Thame Cartulary is not dated. Geoffrey signed as Bishop. The confirmation in the Thame Cartulary is not dated. Geoffrey signed as the Elect of Saint Asaph and Robert Foliot as Archdeacon of Oxford, which means that the Thame confirmation was issued between the death of Walter and Geoffrey's consecration on 24 February 1152: in short, the Thame confirmation may well come before and not after the first Biddlesden confirmation.

  • 9 See Michael Richter, op. cit., item 93, p. 46, where the profession of David FxtzGerald, the uncle (...)

8There is no record of the death or resignation of Gilbert, Geoffrey's immediate predecessor as Bishop of St Asaph9.

9Geoffrey was ordained priest at Westminster on 16 February 1152 and consecrated as Bishop of St Asaph at Lambeth eight days later by Archbishop Theobald. His profession was endorsed as follows:

  • 10 The earliest surviving papal bulls addressed to Theobald with the title of legate are dated 22 Dec (...)
  • 11 Michael Richter, op. cit., item 95, p. 47. Dr Richter adds the heading: Geoffrey of Monmouth, elec (...)

Anno ab incarnatione domini nostri Ihesu Christi McLl° Theobaldus Cantuariensis archeipiscopus et totius Britannie primas atque apostolice sedis legatus10 VII Kalendas Martii sacravit Galfridura electum ecclesie Sancti Asaph in episcopum apud Lamhetham, accepta prius ab eo secundum consuetudinem scripta de subiectione et obedientia sibi exhibenda professione, presentibus et comministrantibus sibi suffraganeis suis, Willelmo Norwicensi episcopo et Waltero Roffensi. Ordinavit autem ad presbiterum undem precedenti sabbato, id est XV Kalendas Martii apud Wesmonasterium de Lund. "11.

10Robert de Torigni, who had a special interest in Geoffrey in that he had possessed a copy of the HRB since 1139 or before, recorded the consecration sub anno 1151 or 1152:

  • 12 Chronica, in Chronicles of the reigns of Stephen, Henry II and Richard I, Rolls Series, 4 vols, 18 (...)

Gaufridus Artur, qui transtulerat historiam de regibus Britonum de Britannico in Latinum, fit episcopus Sancti Asaphi in Norgualis.12

11Gervase of Canterbury did the same sub anno 1150:

  • 13 Chronica, ed. cit., Vol. I, p. 142. 1150 is an error for 1151 = our 1152. As the editor points out (...)

Septimo Kalendas Martii sacravit Theobaldus Cantuariensis archiepiscopus apud Lamhethe Galfridum electum Sancti Asaph, astantibus et cooperantibus Willelmo Norwicensi et Walterio Rofensi.13

12The Waverley Annals included the event sub anno 1152:

  • 14 Annales Monastici, ed. H.R. Luard, Rolls Séries, 5 vols, 1864-69, vol. II, Annales deaverleia, p. (...)

Gaufridus Arturus qui transtulit historiam de regibus Britonum de Britannico in Latinum, fit episcopus Sancti Asaph in Norwales.14

13Mattew Paris recorded it sub anno 1151:

  • 15 Matthaei Parisiensis, monachi Sancti Albani, Historia Anglorum, ed. Sir Frederic Madden, Rolls Ser (...)

Anno etiam sub eodem Gaudridus Arthurus factus est episcopus Sancti Asaf in Norwallia, qui Historiam Britonum de lingua Britannica transtulit in Latinam.15

  • 16 See Sir John Lloyd, A history of Wales, 3 rd edn, 1939, vol. II, pp. 494-5.
  • 17 Itinerarium Kambriae, II. 10.

14It is most unlikely that Geoffrey ever saw his cathedral. These were turbulent times in North Wales. In 1149 Owain Gwynedd had occupied the cantref of Iâl, and soon afterwards he took Rhuddlan Castle and the cantref of Tegeingl. In the same year he beat Madog ap Maredudd, Prince of Powys, at the Battle of Coleshill. In 1153 Ranulf II, Earl of Chester, died, leaving an heir only six years old16. Even if he had the inclination, which is most improbable, this was clearly no moment for a bishop, newly appointed by Canterbury, to be riding off to set up house on the banks of the River Clwyd, in what Gerald of Wales was to call the "pauperculam sedis Laneliensis ecclesiam"17.

  • 18 Foedera, Conventiones, Literae, etc., by T. Rymer and R. Sanderson, London, 1704-32, 20 vols, of w (...)
  • 19 For a brief but blissful moment I thought that the "Gaufr. Mon. " who appears seventeen times in t (...)

15On 6 November 1153, Geoffrey was one of the bishops who witnessed the Treaty of Westminster between Stephen and Henry Fitz Empress, the future Henry II18. This was his last recorded act. From then on there is no evidence whatsoever of his activities19.

16One would imagine that the appointment of his successor would establish the fact of Geoffrey's death, or at least of his resignation, and perhaps give some approximate indication of the date. Unfortunately this succession is now a matter for debate. From Henry Wharton onwards it has always been assumed that Richard came next after Geoffrey. Richard made profession to Archbishop Theobald:

  • 20 Michael Richter, op. cit., item 98, p. 49. Cp. n.10 above. It is interesting to observe that Archb (...)

Ego frater Ricardus,, ecclesie sancti Avasi elec-tus et a te, pater reverende, Cantuariensis ecclesie archiepiscope, Teobalde, in episcopum conse-crandus, tibi et successoribus tuis canonice substituendis canonicam obedientiara me observatu-rum promitto.20

17The profession is undated, and Michael Richter, following long tradition, inserts the heading: Richard, elect of St Asaph (1154). Among the points made in the undated letter from the chapter of St David's to Pope Eugenius III which Gerald of Wales quotes in the De invectionibus is the com-plaint that Theobald had taken it upon himself to consecrate Maurice, Bishop of Bangor, Uchtred, Bishop of Llandaff, and Richard, Bishop of St Asaph, whereas, in that St David's was claiming independence from Canterbury, that function, or so the chapter pretended, should have been performed by Bishop Bernard, who would thus have become metropo1itan overnight:

  • 21 Giraldi Cambrensis opera, Rolls Series, 8 vols, 1861-91, ed. J.S. Brewer, J.F. Dimock and G.F. War (...)

Ricardus vero in Lanelvensi ecclesia electus a ministris ecclesiae caeteroque clero, cum literis regis e comitis terrae, metropolitano nostro Bernardo ad consecrandum est destinatus. Sed ejus nimirum consecrationis termino per captionem regis Stephani necessario dilato, Cantuariensis eum, sicut et caeteros, praesumptorie promovit.21

  • 22 "The episcopate of Richard, Bishop of St Asaph: a problem of twelfth-century chronology", in Journ (...)

18Stephen's captivity lasted from 2 February to 1 November 1141. In a récent article D.M. Smith has suggested that the profession quoted above may well have been made in 1141, and that Bishop Richard may therefore have preceded Gilbert instead of having followed Geoffrey22. However that may be, it is clearly useless to argue that Richard professed in 1154 because Geoffrey was thought to have died in that year, and then to go on to say that Geoffrey died in 1154 because it was in that year that Richard professed.

  • 23 See Brut y Tywysogion, Peniarth Ms. 20, ed. by Thomas Jones, Univ. of Wales Press, Cardiff, 1941, (...)
  • 24 I say "often" and "in all probability", but there can be no doubt. Thomas Jones established that t (...)
  • 25 A few lines above the entry of the death of Geoffrey in the Brut y Tywysogion Stephen's death is r (...)
  • 26 See Sir John Lloyd, op. cit., Vol. II, p. 475, n°3. Unfortunately the only authority which he quot (...)
  • 27 See J.E. Lloyd, op. cit., Vol. II, p. 546, n.52. He quotes three authorities: the Brut y Tywysogio (...)

19In effect we possess one record of Geoffrey's death. Against the date 1154 the Peniarth Ms.20 version of the Brut y Tywysogion has the entry: "Yny vlwydyn honno ybu warw Geffrei esgob Llandaf"23. Either the name or the place is wrong, and it must be the place, for Nicholas ap Cwrgant was Bishop of Llandaff from 1148 to 1163. Unless we reject the entry altogether, which is to push scepticism too far, we must accept Llandaff as an error for Llanelwy. The year 1154 normal-ly ran from Lady Day, 25 March 1154, to 24 March 1155. Accor-ding to Thomas Jones, the editor and translator of the Brut y Tywysogion, the compilers' year often started on 25 December, so that 1154 in ail probability ran from 25 December 1153 to 24 December 115424. Thomas Jones further established that from the death of Henry I on 1 December 1135 until the year 1169 the compilers were one year early in their reckoning, so that 1154 now means25 December 1154 to 24 December 1155. In the entry for 1154 in the Brut y Tywysogion, thus corrected the report of the death of Geoffrey is preceded and followed by that of Maredudd ap Gruffudd ap Rhys and that of Roger, Earl of Hereford. Both Maredudd26 and Roger27 seem to have died in our year 1155.

  • 28 Quoted by Sir John Lloyd, "Geoffrey cf Monmouth", in The English Historical Review, Vol. LVII (194 (...)
  • 29 DNB, VII, pp. IOI2-I4. In the same way they were accepted by H.E. Salter, art, cit. in my n.5, p. (...)

20The Red Book of Hergest version of the Brut y Tywysogion embroiders the report of the death of Geoffrey, so-called Bishop of Llandaff, by running it together with that of the death of Roger, Earl of Hereford, to produce the garbled statement: "Y ulwydyn honno ybu uarw Geffrei escob Llan Daf ar offeren iarll Henford"28. This confusion was to be further confounded in the early nineteenth century by the forger Edward Williams, alias Iolo Morganwg, in his Gwentian Brut of Brut Aberpergwm, where he really warmed to his theme, making Geoffrey a one-time Arctudeacon of Llandaff and the foster-son of Uchtryd, Bishop of Llandaff, and then describing how "he died in his house at Llandaff before he entered on his functions, and was buried in his church there" in 1152! The error of the Brut y Tywysogion of Peniarth Ms.20, as elaborated by the miscopying of the Red Book of Hergest and then by the unscrupulous forgery by Edward Williams, has done great harm. These accounts were accepted without question by H.R. Tedder and they found their way into the life of Geoffrey in the Dictionary of National Biography29.

21I list my findings. There is nothing new in them. All that I have done is to underline a few basic facts and to clear away much confused thinking.

221148: Geoffrey published the Vita Merlini.

23Before 24 February 1152: As the Elect of St Asaph he witnessed Robert de Chesney's confirmation.

2424 February 1152: He was consecrated as Bishop of St Asaph at Lambeth by Archbishop Theobald.

25After 24 February 1152: As Bishop of. St Asaph he witnessed Richard Labaanc's grant of land.

266 November 1153: As Bishop of St Asaph he witnessed the Treaty of Westminster.

27Between 25 December 1154 and 24 December 1155: He died.

  • 30 Quoted by H.E. Salter, art, cit., in my n.5, p. 383.

28There is no evidence of Geoffrey's age at his death. His name appears for the first time as one of the witnesses to the charter of Oseney Abbey, c. 112930. The Historia Regura Britanniae came out in 1136. One assumes that he must have been about as old as the century.

Notes

1 Acton Griscom maintained that Ms. Camb. Univ. Libr. 1706 was completed in April 1136: see "The date and composition of Geoffrey of Monmouth's Historia: new manuscript evidence", in Speculum, I (1926), pp. 129-56. In "Geoffroy de Monmouth: les faits et les dates de sa biographie", in Romania, LUI (1 927), pp. 1-42, and especially pp. 16-17, Edmond Faral accepted "avril ou mai 1136" for Ms. Trin. Coll., Camb. 1125.

2 Orderic Vitalis quoted extensively from it in the Historia Ecc les ias t ica, Book XII, ch. 47. It can be shown that Book XII, ch. 48, cannot have been finished before the last months of 1137. The timing is close and it has used to argue that the Prophetiae Merlini may have been circu-lated as an "independent tract": see E.K. Chambers, Arthur of Britain, London, 1927, pp. 26-27. I consider this unlikely. See my article "Orderic Vitalis and the Prophetiae Merlini of Geoffrey of Monmouth" to be published in Bulletin Bibliographique de la Société Internationale Arthurienne, Vol. XXIX (1977).

3 For Robert's profession and the endorsement see Michael Richter, Canterbury Professions, The Canterbury and York-Society, Vol. LXII (1973), item 92, pp. 45-46. Dr. Richter read the first draft of this article and I am grateful to him for his advice.

4 Basil Clarke, Life of Merlin, Geoffrey of Monmouth, Vita Merlini, Univ. of Wales Press, Cardiff, 1973, pp. 40-42.

5 N° 6 in H.E. Salter's list, "Geoffrey of Monmouth and Oxford", The English Historical Review, Vol. XXXIV (1919), pp. 382-5, as in 1919 Salter had not yet realized that N° 2 was a forgery.

6 Public Record Office, Exch., K.R., Misc. Books, n° 20. f° 20. This list was published by H.E. Salter, loc. cit. in n.5, p. 384. My own transcription differs from his in a number of details.

7 In the Biddlesden Cartulary, Brit. Mus., Harl. 4714, f° 2r, there is a copy of a confirmation of an earlier charter by Richard (= Robert), Bishop of Lincoln, which confirmation is witnessed, among others, by "Roberto Oxenefordensi", and this can only be Robert Foliot, Walter's successor as Archdeacon of Oxford. The date of the confirmation is 1151, "die festo sancti Remigii apud Sanctum Albanum". As Biddlesden was not founded until 1147, the "Ricardus dei gratia Lincolniae episcopus" who granted the original charter must assuredly be Robert de Chesney. H.E. Salter, loc. cit.in n.5, p. 384, main-tains that "die festo sancti Remigii" means 12 May. Presu-mably this is Remy de Fécamp, first Bishop of Lincoln. He was not canonized, but both Gerald of Wales, Vita Sancti Remigii, passim, and Mattew Paris, Chronica Majora, Rolls Séries, Vol. V, pp. 419 and 490, call him Saint Remigius. Lower down on the same page, and running over to f° 2v, is a copy of a confirmation of another earlier charter by Robert, Bishop of Lincoln, which confirmation is also witnessed, among others, by "Roberto Oxeneforden-si". The date this time is 1151, with no further detail. Whatever is meant by "die festo sancti Remigii", thèse two confirmation must at least prove that Archdeacon Walter died between 25 March 1151 and 24 March 1152.
At some unspecified moment in 1151, Wigod, Prior of Oseney, set off for Rome to try to have rescinded Walter's transfer of Saint George's church in Oxford to Saint Frideswide's: see Annales monasterii de Oseneia in Annales Monastici, Rolls Séries, 5 vols, 1864-69, ed. H.R. Luard, Vol. IV, p. 27. In his written reply to Wigod, dated 6 February (1152), Pope Eugenius III refer-red to "Xalterus, archidiaconus quondam Oxenefordie et ecclesie prefate canonicus": Cartulary of Oseney Abbey, ed. H.E. Salter, Oxford Historical Society, 6 vols, 1929-36, of which see Vol. II, p. 261.

8 H.E. Salter, The Thame Cartulary, Oxfordshire Record Society, 2 vols, 1947-48, of which see Vol. I, item 48, p. 45. See also H.E. Salter, "Geoffrey of Monmouth and Oxford", loc. cit., p. 384, where Salter transcribes the list of witnesses differently: "mag. Gaufridus elecdus sancti Asaphi, Hugo Leicestrie archidiaconus, Rob. Oxenefordie archidiaconus, Rob. de Cadomo, Rie. Dameri, Rad. de Monemuta canonici"! The Thame Cartulary is in the possession of the Marquess of Bath.

9 See Michael Richter, op. cit., item 93, p. 46, where the profession of David FxtzGerald, the uncle of Gerald of Wales, as Bishop of St David's, on 19 December 1148, is endorsed with a statement of Gilbert's consecration at Lambeth by Archbishop Theobald in 1143. See also Gervase of Canterbury, Opéra Historica, Rolls Series, 2 vols, 1879-80, ed. by W. Stubbs, vol. I, p. 126, Chronica, sub anno 1143.

10 The earliest surviving papal bulls addressed to Theobald with the title of legate are dated 22 December 1150: see A. Saltman, Theobald, Archbishop of Canterbury, London, 1956, p. 31. Of Geoffrey's profession, Dr Saltman writes: "The form of his profession of obedience is perhaps not without significance, in view of Theobald's earlier conflict with St David's. The title of legate was omitted as if to emphasise the subjection of the see to Theobald in his normal capacity" (p. 120). This is clearly not true.

11 Michael Richter, op. cit., item 95, p. 47. Dr Richter adds the heading: Geoffrey of Monmouth, elect of St Asaph (24 February 1151). The Roman calendar, of course, ran from Lady Day, i.e. 25 March to 24 March, so that what was 24 February 1151 for the twelfth-century Church is 24 February 1152 for us.

12 Chronica, in Chronicles of the reigns of Stephen, Henry II and Richard I, Rolls Series, 4 vols, 1884-89, ed. R. Howlett, of which see Vol. IV, p. 168. Ms. M = -Avranches, Ms. 159, has this entry sub anno 1151; and Ms. H = Brit. Mus., Ms. Harl. 651, has it sub anno. For the Roman calendar it should be 1151 and for us it is 1152. The editor writes: " …the confusion which prevails in abbot Robert's chronicle is no doubt largely due to his unfortunate way of leaving his notes to be copied by his subordinates, and his date-rubrics to be inserted by the most erratic of his scriptorium staff" (p. xxii).

13 Chronica, ed. cit., Vol. I, p. 142. 1150 is an error for 1151 = our 1152. As the editor points out, "the year 1152 was leap year, and in it the 24 th fell on Sunday" (p. 142, n.2).

14 Annales Monastici, ed. H.R. Luard, Rolls Séries, 5 vols, 1864-69, vol. II, Annales deaverleia, p. 234.

15 Matthaei Parisiensis, monachi Sancti Albani, Historia Anglorum, ed. Sir Frederic Madden, Rolls Series, 3 vols, 1866-69, of which see Vol. I, p. 292.

16 See Sir John Lloyd, A history of Wales, 3 rd edn, 1939, vol. II, pp. 494-5.

17 Itinerarium Kambriae, II. 10.

18 Foedera, Conventiones, Literae, etc., by T. Rymer and R. Sanderson, London, 1704-32, 20 vols, of which see Vol. I, p. 14. Geoffrey appears as "Galfrido de S. Asaph episcopo".

19 For a brief but blissful moment I thought that the "Gaufr. Mon. " who appears seventeen times in the Pipe Rolls 8 Henry II to II Henry II might still be our Geoffrey; but this intriguing person is already there twenty-three times in 2 Henry II and 4 Henry II, six of them as "Gaufr. Monacho" and once in full as "Gaufrido Monacho".

20 Michael Richter, op. cit., item 98, p. 49. Cp. n.10 above. It is interesting to observe that Archbishop Theobald is not using his legatine autority. Is this not a further argument, not conclusive, for moving Richard's profession back to before December 1150?

21 Giraldi Cambrensis opera, Rolls Series, 8 vols, 1861-91, ed. J.S. Brewer, J.F. Dimock and G.F. Warner, of which see vol. III, pp. 56-58, De invectionibus, II.6.

22 "The episcopate of Richard, Bishop of St Asaph: a problem of twelfth-century chronology", in Journal of the Hist. Soc, of the Chruch in Wales, XXIV (1974), pp. 9-12. I am grateful to Canon David Walker for brin-ging this article to my notice and for making other va-luable suggestions. In the light of what I say on p. 8, it is unlikely in the extreme that Geoffrey's death and both the election and consecration of his successor could all have taken place between 25 and 31 December 1154. Almost without doubt it is to 1155 or later that we must look for the second and third of these events.

23 See Brut y Tywysogion, Peniarth Ms. 20, ed. by Thomas Jones, Univ. of Wales Press, Cardiff, 1941, p. 101. The entry is translated by Thomas Jones in Brut y Tywysogion or The Chronicle of the Princes, Peniarth Ms. 20 version, Board of Celtic Studies, Univ. of Wales Press, Cardiff, 1952, p. 58, as: "In that year died Geoffrey, bishop of Llandaff". See note on p. 178 for a discussion of the error of Llandaff for Llanelwy.

24 I say "often" and "in all probability", but there can be no doubt. Thomas Jones established that the year running from 25 December to 24 December was true for the entry of Henry I's marriage to Adela on 29 January 1121 (translation, p. lxxi and n.l), and for the murder of Becket on 29 December 1170 (translation, p. lxxi), but not for the death of Archbishop Richard on 16 February 1184, where the compilers were beginning the year on Lady Day(ibid.). In a letter Canon David Walker points out to me that, only a few lines above the entry of the death of Geoffrey in the Brut y Tywysogion, the death of Ranulf II, Earl of Chester, is recorded sub anno 1152 = between 25 December 1151 and 24 December 1152, plus the correction of one year = 16 December 1153.

25 A few lines above the entry of the death of Geoffrey in the Brut y Tywysogion Stephen's death is recorded sub anno 1153 = 25 December 1152 to 24 December 1153, plus the correction of one year = 25 October 1154.

26 See Sir John Lloyd, op. cit., Vol. II, p. 475, n°3. Unfortunately the only authority which he quotes is the Brut y Tywysogion, so that we are again arguing in a circle.

27 See J.E. Lloyd, op. cit., Vol. II, p. 546, n.52. He quotes three authorities: the Brut y Tywysogion; the Tewkesbury Annals in Annales Monastici, ed. cit. in n. 14, of which see Vol. I, p. 48, sub anno 1155: "Obiit Rogerus, cornes Here fordiae…"; and Robert de Torigni, Chronica, ed. cit. in n. I2, p. 185, sub anno 1155: "Mortuo Rogerio filio Milonis de Gloecestria, comité Herefordensi, successif ei Gauterus, frater ejus, in paternam hereditatem tantum…"

28 Quoted by Sir John Lloyd, "Geoffrey cf Monmouth", in The English Historical Review, Vol. LVII (1942), pp. 460-68, and translated as "in that year died Geoffrey bishop of Llandaf at mass earl of Hereford". See also Brut y Tywysogion, Red Book of Hergest Version, critical text and translation with introduction and notes by Thomas Jones, Board of Celtic Studies, Univ. Of Wales, History and Law Séries, N°. XVI, Univ. of Wales Press, Cardiff, 1955, pp. 126-127.

29 DNB, VII, pp. IOI2-I4. In the same way they were accepted by H.E. Salter, art, cit. in my n.5, p. 385. A great part of Edmond Faral's Romania article referred to in my n. I is bedevilled by them.

30 Quoted by H.E. Salter, art, cit., in my n.5, p. 383.

Auteur

Université de Nottingham

© Presses universitaires de Provence, 1979

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