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Excavations at Sissi

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Jan Driessen

9. A Preliminary Report on the Late Minoan Pottery

Charlotte Langohr

Texte intégral

  • 1 F.R.S-FNRS / UCL-FSR.

1Note portant sur l’auteur1

  • 2 I warmly thank my friends and colleagues involved in the Apotheke work during the 2008 campaign, F (...)
  • 3 The scale in each figure is relevant for every sherd or pot illustrated.

2This chapter constitutes a preliminary account of some of the Late Minoan pottery found on the Bouffo during the first two excavation campaigns2. Consequently, the funerary area (zone 1), used throughout a long period before the Neopalatial period, is not covered by the present report. This said, Late Minoan ceramics comprise most of the pottery hitherto found on the Kephali, with a majority of excavated contexts outside the cemetery, in zones 2 to 63. As yet, the stratigraphic units and the respective pottery have not been fully studied so all observations given here are preliminary. This explains why remarks on ceramic fabrics are kept to a minimum and are limited to some general observations made during the course of a rapid strewing of the ceramic material during the excavation campaigns. This account simply presents some preliminary comments on the shapes and the decoration of the Late Minoan pottery, with some suggestions for initial dating based on a few comparanda with some known Minoan assemblages. In anticipation of a full ceramic analysis, the recognition of typological and chronological pottery groups diagnostic for Sissi is still in its infancy. This first assessment of Late Minoan ceramics found on the Kephali is an attempt to provisionally place this already very promising settlement in its broader chronological and regional contexts. I first consider the Neopalatial pottery and then the Final Palatial and Post-palatial pottery.

1. The Neopalatial Pottery

1.1. Zone 2

  • 4 For the excavations in Zone 2, see F. Carpentier, above, chapter 5.

3In the current stage of excavations, Zone 2 – the northwest middle terrace – is certainly the most promising area of the settlement for defining pottery consumption of the inhabitants of the Kephali during the Neopalatial period. A first glance at the assemblages from the annexes of the ‘Davaras Building’ suggests that the settlement suffered a disruption during the Late Minoan IB phase. Its nature still needs to be clarified but it preserved some remarkably well-fired pottery in space 2.1. The sherd material found in the ‘Davaras Building’ proper is not discussed here as its excavated contexts were relatively poor in ceramics, both where quantity and preservation are concerned4. In contrast, the compartmentalized structure added to the east of the latter provided good deposits, particularly the cellar situated south (2.1).

  • 5 For a reconstruction of the stratigraphy in this room, see F. Carpentier, above, chapter 5.

4The large quantity of pottery collected from this partly subterranean space 2.1 comprises several interesting deposits, in which subtle distinctions can be identified5. A small floor deposit found in the northwest corner of the room was sealed by considerable tumble, hence crushing the pottery below. A coarse vat was standing in situ on the bedrock, while an oval-mouthed amphora, some drinking and other closed vessels were scattered around in fragments, probably fallen during the destruction event (fig. 9.1).

Fig. 9.1. ROOM 2.1. N-W CORNER FLOOR DEPOSIT. COARSE VAT (08-02-0258-OB003), CONICAL CUPS (COMPLETE [08-020258-OB004] OR BROKEN [# 0258]), CLOSED VESSEL (# 0257) (C. PAPANIKOLOPOULOS, C. LANGOHR)

  • 6 The extremely high-quality of a good proportion of the pottery composing this assemblage, includin (...)

5An interesting issue will be the definition of the chronological and taphonomical links between this seemingly primary deposit in the northwest corner of space 2.1 and the thick layers comprising an important and probably coherent assemblage of pottery collected in the rest of the same room before reaching the floor. Within the room was found a lot of well-fired, fine pottery consisting mainly of freshly broken but incomplete vessels (fig. 9.2). We assume that they represent redeposited destruction debris dumped here from a nearby area6.

Fig. 9.2. ROOM 2.1. LOWER, VERY LOOSELY COMPACTED LAYER. DIFFERENT FINE DECORATED DRINKING VESSELS (# 0242, 0245, 0270) AND A FRAGMENT OF A FINE DECORATED OVAL-MOUTHED AMPHORA (08-02-0242-OB002) (C. PAPANIKOLOPOULOS)

  • 7 The S-shaped profile cup, with a high centre of gravity and a raised base is well-known at LM IB M (...)
  • 8 See fig. 9.2 and a clear example on fig. 9.3b, third line, second fragment from the left.
  • 9 The expected publication of the excavations lead at the abords nord-est of the Palace of Malia by (...)
  • 10 For examples at Gournia and Prophetes Elias, they referred respectively to Boyd Hawes 1908: 30, pl (...)

6An interesting discovery among the ceramic material found in room 2.1 is an S-profile handled cup (fig. 9.2, 9.3a). Once comprehensively defined, this recurrent diagnostic shape will constitute without doubt a good chronological marker within the development of the site in general and, together with the other associated and more common Neopalatial drinking shapes, will be useful to illustrate consumption practices of the Sissi population during the Neopalatial period in particular. Often made in a well-fired, fine fabric it shows a special surface treatment: the cup was dipped upside down in the paint which habitually drips on the external and internal walls (fig. 9.3a). The oblique fixing of the strap handle is almost as characteristic as the repetitive ogival profile of the body. The S-profile shape and the dipped decoration technique are not unknown at other Minoan sites7. Significantly more exceptional is their common combination and the systematic presence of a handle as evidenced at Sissi. One also notes that in some cases, once the cup has been dipped, several horizontal painted lines are added from the base to the upper part of the body, in white or dark brown8. This drinking shape is tentatively and provisionally interpreted as locally inspired. We imagine its production at or in the region of Sissi. This assumption is based on the fact that dipped painted S-profile cups are particularly well represented within at least this horizon of the Neopalatial occupation of zone 2. Moreover, this type of cup seems at present not to have been commonly consumed at the nearby palatial site of Malia, nor in other Minoan sites. This hypothesis nevertheless needs confirmation in the future since the forthcoming publication of Quartier Nu at Malia will include a few complete handled S-profile cups treated in the dipped decoration technique coming from Neopalatial contexts (A. Farnoux and J. Driessen, pers. com.). It should not be forgotten that a proper Neopalatial ceramic sequence has still not been clearly defined at Malia, apart from O. Pelon’s work in Quartier Epsilon (Pelon 1970)9. In this connection, a particular category of cups identified by the excavators at Malia should be considered, the tasses galbées (esp. Pelon 1970: 80-81, 83-84, 150-151, 156; van Effenterre 1980: 530-532, fig. 762-769; A. Van de Moortel, pers. com). Under this label, a set of MM IIIA-LM IB handled cups are classified of which the profile develops along an axis of variation extending between a concave-convex cup on a raised narrow base to the common rounded cup with a flaring lower part. Some small-sized (H.: 6-8 cm), mostly monochrome examples are not entirely different from the specific profile of the Sissi cups (Deshayes & Dessenne 1959: 42, pl. VIII: 3, n° e and f [n° f is dipped painted and shows drips of red paint from the rim]; Pelon 1970: pl. XXVIII: 6 (a-b); van Effenterre 1980: fig. 762, 765). However, variations in shape for the tasse galbée do not seem to be paralleled by a proper chronological phasing and tangible developments (van Effenterre 1980: 532). Finally, at Mochlos, a few handled exemplars of the common LM IB ogival cup are mentioned by T. Brogan and K. Barnard, who also identified a few similar specimens in other contemporary Eastern Cretan contexts, as at Gournia and Prophetes Elias-Praissos (Barnard & Brogan 2003: 43, fig. 5 and pl. 7 [IB.197, IB. 198])10. In sum, the linkage of this seemingly local shape with the broader Neopalatial pattern is not straightforward. This prevents for the moment a clear assessment of its place within the larger Neopalatial chronological horizon.

  • 11 It is evident that Van de Moortel’s typology could work “less well outside the Mesara” (Van de Moo (...)

7Other types of cup profiles exist in the same space 2.1 assemblage, linking the deposit in general with other contemporary Minoan traditions, such as conical cups and rounded-profile cups (fig. 9.3b). Where detailed chronological attributions and local developments of these different drinking shapes are concerned, precisions cannot yet be provided. However, where the conical cups are concerned, we noticed a good proportion of compact specimens with a convex profile or straight flaring walls (fig. 9.3c). Such morphological characteristics may be compared to type C in Van de Moortel’s conical cup typology for the Advanced and Final LM IA and LM IB phases at Kommos (Van de Moortel 1997: 57-59, 65-66, 71-72, fig. 8-10)11. According to her, the LM IA Final examples should have straight sides and straight rounded rims. In LM IB, their fabric is said to become very fine and soft, their bases better raised and their proportions somewhat more uniform (Van de Moortel 1997: 66). Since we are as yet unable to identify such recurrent features in the material of zone 2, it is too early to use the conical cups as chronological markers.

Fig. 9.3. SPACE 2.1. A. THREE EXAMPLES OF S-PROFILE CUPS WITH DIPPED DECORATION (08-02-0242-OB004, 08-02-0242-OB005, 08-02-0245-OB0003). B. SELECTION OF SHERD MATERIAL OF FINE CUPS OF DIFFERENT SHAPES AND SURFACE TREATMENTS (# 0242, 0245). C. THREE COMPLETE PROFILES OF CONICAL CUPS (08-02-0258-OB004, 08-02-0240-OB002, 08-02-0242-OB003) (PHOTO: C. PAPANIKOLOPOULOS, DRAWING: H. JORIS)

  • 12 See, for example, a specimen from a LM IB destruction deposit in House Zeta Beta at Malia (Deshaye (...)
  • 13 The fabric of a complete, tall ovoid stirrup jar from a Knossian LM IA stratified context – whose (...)

8This said, a Late Minoan IB date for the last use of the cellar 2.1 and its destruction may be suggested on the basis of the discovery of the false neck of a finely decorated three-handled stirrup jar found in the middle of the room, beneath a big stone, fallen on the bedrock floor (fig. 9.4). Finely decorated three-handled stirrup jars are mainly represented in LM IB deposits12 but, especially at Knossos, they are said to occur already in LM IA contexts (Mountjoy 2003: 63, fig. 4.5 [62], 68-69, fig. 4.8 [85-88]) and the form continues to be found in LM II levels (Warren 1983: fig. 5, fig. 18). However, and although we know nothing about the profile and the decoration of the Sissi example which could help to date it, a LM IB date is proposed for two reasons. First, the fabric refinement and small dimensions (the top disk of the false neck has a D.: 4 cm) of this example do not agree with the more commonly coarser and taller ovoid storage examples of LM IA (Mountjoy 2003: 68, 89)13. Secondly, not a single LM II stylistic feature has been preliminarily recognized in the space 2.1 deposit. Following this reasoning, the finely decorated amphora illustrated in figure 9.2 is here also tentatively assigned a LM IB date. A relatively good comparison where fabric refinement, shape and size are concerned has been found at Mochlos (Barnard & Brogan 2003: 71, fig. 31, pl. 18 [IB.381]).

Fig. 9.4. SPACE 2.1. FALSE NECK OF A FINELY DECORATED, THREE-HANDLED STIRRUP JAR (# 0276) (C. PAPANIKOLOPOULOS)

  • 14 For Palaikastro, see MacGillivray 2007: 153, fig. 5.5. For the paralleled and slightly distinct de (...)

9In space 2.2, situated to the north at ground floor level, a few complete vessels were found, smashed on the paved floor. Among these is a kind of pulled-rim bowl in a very fine but over-fired fabric (fig. 9.5). It is to date the only example on the site. It has not yet been restored. Pulled-rim bowls are well known in East Crete, particularly at the site of Palaikastro where they occur from LM II onwards and where this shape has definite local and regional LM IB antecedents, mainly in the ogival cup14. The Sissi example shows two small horizontal handles. The ceramic material found in the compartments abutting the east wall of the ‘Davaras Building’ seems to be entirely Neopalatial. The contemporaneity of the space 2.2 deposit with the secondary destruction deposit in space 2.1 is not excluded. However, the definition of this distinctive shape – the pulled-rim bowl – in the chronological local sequence still needs to be specified.

Fig. 9.5. SPACE 2.2. PULLED-RIM BOWL (08-02-0281-OB002) (C. PAPANIKOLOPOULOS)

1.2. Zone 4

10The only other excavated zone on the Bouffo where Neopalatial pottery has thus far been identified is zone 4.

  • 15 See Q. Letesson, above, chapter 6.2.

11It consists essentially of sherd material but a small deposit was found in some kind of drain at the intersection of walls D1 and D1815. This comprised an S-profile cup and a beaked jug. Both are much worn but they seem monochrome, possibly with dipped decoration, as far as the cup is concerned (fig. 9.6). The S-profile cup and beaked jug are not self-evidently diagnostic of the Neopalatial period. In addition, the S-profile cup slightly differs from the numerous morphologically comparable LM I examples found in zone 2 and described above, by its bigger dimensions, its coarser and less well fired fabric and, possibly, its surface treatment. Finally, the stratigraphy of this part of zone 4 is very complex and disturbed so the Neopalatial date is provisional. But since none of the (preliminarily identified) Final Palatial or numerous and secure Post-palatial levels excavated at Sissi have provided any evidence for whole or fragmented S-profile cups of the types attested in zones 2 and 4, this attribution is a good possibility.

Fig. 9.6. SPACE 4.1. VASE DEPOSIT IN THE ‘DRAIN’ AT THE INTERSECTION OF WALLS D1 AND D18 (07-04-0622-OB001 AND 07-04-0625-OB001) (C. PAPANIKOLOPOULOS)

12Moreover, close to the northwest angle of the summit, in the still only partially excavated room 4.9, the only comparable examples for the remarkably well-fired LM I pottery of zone 2 were found. This includes a couple of extremely fine sherds from drinking vessels decorated in the Tortoise-shell ripple style (fig. 9.7) which suggest that, already from the MM IIIB and/or LM IA period onwards, good quality ceramics were consumed at Sissi.

Fig. 9.7. ROOM 4.9. TORTOISE-SHELL RIPPLE STYLE SHERD (C. PAPANIKOLOPOULOS)

2. The Final Palatial and Post-palatial Pottery

13The excavations on the summit of the hill have yielded great quantities of LM III pottery, both as sherds and complete pots. The closeness of the surface layers is probably the reason why many deposits were affected. Still, several extraordinary well-preserved destruction deposits have also been brought to light, especially in zones 3 and 5. These come from the last floor levels, a few centimeters below the modern surface. The post-LM IB ceramic sequence promises to be very interesting, both where the local scale and the regional perspective are concerned. The main deposits belong to a LM IIIB destructive event, occurring possibly in an advanced stage of this phase but it is still too early to make definite statements about the precise moment. In any case, this destruction was followed by a very long abandonment of this centuries-old site. On a regional scale, it will be significant to relate the Sissi settlement to the LM IIIA2-B occupation of Quartier Nu at Malia, on the one hand (Driessen & Farnoux 1994), and with the LM (IIIB)-IIIC upland sites (Anavlochos, Selena and Papoura Mountains), on the other hand (Nowicki 2000: 147-173). In addition, although not yet well documented, the hill was also occupied during the LM IIIA phase and apparently from its beginning if not from LM II onwards.

2.1. Zone 316

  • 16 See the account by F. Gaignerot-Driessen, above, chapter 6.1.

14All the rooms excavated to date in zone 3 suffered from a violent destruction leading to their abandonment. Indeed, every single room was found full of archaeological material left in place, complete, but heavily broken. The most plausible hypothesis at present is that this reflects a single event. Some stylistic observations and comparisons can already be made and a preliminary chronological framework proposed.

  • 17 Several pithoi were found in the LM IIIA1-IIIB cemetery at Mochlos Limenaria. Some of these show a (...)
  • 18 This/These production workshop(s) is/are most probably located in the Gournia/Kalo Chorio area.

15In the excavated part of room 3.1, large and coarse containers were associated with fine drinking and pouring vessels. The only pithos mended up and restored to date is interesting in many respects. Firstly, the fabric is unique as far as we can tell (fig. 9.8). The bright reddish-orange paste has obvious whitish and shiny small inclusions which give a gritty feel to the vessel’s surface. Secondly, the morphological and decorative characteristics of this almost one-meter high pithos allow some comparisons with LM III East Cretan examples17. The most relevant form to which this pithos can be related is form 8 in Christakis’ typology, mostly reported from LM IIIB-C contexts, and the LM III variant of forms 85-88 (respectively Christakis 2005: 7, fig. 3 and 16, 33, fig. 19). According to Christakis, these last examples were mainly produced in East-central and East Crete, especially in the Gulf of Mirabello (Christakis 2005: 16). A petrographical analysis by E. Nodarou highlighted that the production of amphorae and pithoid jars in the distinctive “Mirabello fabric” is carried on during the LM IIIA-B period18. Her limited analysis allows the recognition of exports towards the sites of Chrysokamino and Petras, but hitherto not to Mochlos (Nodarou 2007).

Fig. 9.8. ROOM 3.1. PITHOS (07-03-0419-OB001) AND CLOSE-UP (C. PAPANIKOLOPOULOS)

  • 19 At Khania, B. Hallager remarked that deep bowls with a straight or slightly marked rim are well kn (...)
  • 20 For example, monochrome deep bowls have been found in Building 1 at Palaikastro, in a LM IIIB cont (...)
  • 21 A. Farnoux and J. Driessen, pers. com.

16A complete profile of a deep bowl with high straight walls and a slightly marked rim suggests a LM IIIB date (fig. 9.9)19. However, the monochrome surface treatment is more at home in the transitional LH IIIB/LH IIIC period and even especially at the beginning of LH IIIC on the Mainland (Vitale 2006: 180-181, fig. 3:4, 193, table 2; Mountjoy 1999: 37), while the situation has not been resolved for Crete20. At Malia, in Quartier Nu, the deep bowl is virtually absent from the LM IIIA2-IIIB deposits21. Since the occupation of the latter site is said to have ended around the middle or early in the second half of the LM IIIB period (Driessen & Farnoux 1994: 63), Sissi may have outlived its neighbour.

Fig. 9.9. ROOM 3.1. MONOCHROME DARK DEEP BOWL (07-03-0419-OB008) (PHOTO: C. PAPANIKOLOPOULOS; DRAWING: H. JORIS))

  • 22 Several sherds of one or more storage piriform stirrup jars made in a pale buff fabric and decorat (...)
  • 23 For the description of the paste colour of the ceramic products of the “ Khania workshop”, see Tze (...)

17This said, a terminus ante quem in LM IIIB for this deposit is suggested by some other vases. The presence of at least one fragmentary transport/storage piriform stirrup jar with octopus decoration fits better in a pre-LM IIIC context22. Besides, a finely decorated stirrup jar with a relatively squat profile found near the threshold of room 3.1 is characteristic for LM IIIB (fig. 9.10). It is made in a buff fabric and the decoration on its shoulder consists of Minoan flowers and concentric arches. The colour of the paste is not especially whitish which suggests it is not Chaniote, contrary to another complete example also found in zone 3 (see below)23.

Fig. 9.10. FINE DECORATED SQUAT STIRRUP JAR (07-03-0429-OB001) FOUND NEAR ENTRANCE TO ROOM 3.1 (C. LANGOHR)

  • 24 Pithoi in a pale buff fabric are also attested in Quartier Nu at Malia (A. Farnoux, J. Driessen, p (...)
  • 25 S. Jusseret (pers. com.); local informants also mention the use of clay for pottery from a quarry (...)

18A final interesting but fragmentary vessel found in this room – not yet restored – is an open container resembling a bathtub (07-03-0419-OB005). It has a very pale buff fabric and is decorated in dark paint with octopus and floral motifs. The same very pale buff clay was used for other large containers (jars, pithoi) stored in the same space. A coherent program of petrographic analysis is planned in the future. Macroscopic observations on fabrics will help to define specific issues and questions, such as the potential presence of a potter workshop at Sissi or nearby24. Indeed, very pale buff clay pockets have been identified in the direct environment of the settlement, less than 500 m away25.

19It is likely that this pottery deposit was almost directly on a Neopalatial level, as four complete conical cups found just below the floor of the destruction layer suggest (fig. 9.11). Indeed, the profile, more convex than the generally outward walls of the LM III conical cups, suggests a Neopalatial dating (see above). More evidence is needed, however, to reconstruct the LM I phase of the building.

Fig. 9.11. ROOM 3.1. FOUR COMPLETE CONICAL CUPS FROM BENEATH THE FLOOR (07-03-0427-OB001 TO 004) (A. RYMENAMS, H. JORIS)

  • 26 I warmly thank A. Farnoux, E. Hatzaki, C. Macdonald, K. Nowicki and S. Wallace for their valuable (...)
  • 27 A fragmentary piece from Kastelli Pediada shows a similar decorative motif and syntax for which G. (...)
  • 28 E. Hatzaki, pers. com., August 2008.

20Room 3.3 also provided a rich destruction deposit with vases smashed in situ. Besides several large storage vessels, and notably a huge tripod cooking pot in a particularly coarse fabric with important traces of burning (08-03-0451-OB004), there were several unusual and finely decorated vases. The most impressive piece is evidently an almost complete bell krater (fig. 9.12a). Most scholars who have seen this vase agree with a late LM IIIB date26. The clumsy decoration is made of simple abstract motives organized in panels (fig. 9.13). Good comparanda are relatively difficult to find27. It is interesting to note that its base was completely removed, most probably before firing, since the removal after the firing would certainly have damaged and broken the rest of the vase. Other examples are known: E. Hatzaki has remarked this practice at Knossos and also suggests its removal before firing28. On the Mainland, at Mycenae, this practice has been observed for deep bowls (Koehl 2006: ill. 5). The reason for this removal is unclear for the moment. Close by was a large shallow bowl with an atypical shape for which no close comparison has at present been found (fig. 9.12b).

Fig. 9.12. ROOM 3.3. A. DECORATED BELL KRATER (07-03-0430-OB006); B. LARGE SHALLOW BOWL (08-03-0451-OB003) (C. PAPANIKOLOPOULOS)

Fig. 9.13. PANELLED DECORATION ON THE BELL KRATER (07-03-0430-OB006) FROM ROOM 3.3 (A. RYMENAMS)

  • 29 A similar whole specimen has been found in zone 4, room 4.9 (08-04-0718-OB008).
  • 30 A. Farnoux, J. Driessen, pers. com.

21The same floor deposit included an unusual vessel, with a concave profile and a pierced bottom, a high-walled lid topped with a curved handle29 and at least one fragmented shallow bowl with two horizontal handles (fig. 9.14). All are in a buff fabric. Each of these vases has a parallel in neighbouring Quartier Nu at Malia30. Again, a full study of the LM IIIB deposits will allow us to define if and how these two settlements relate.

Fig. 9.14. ROOM 3.3. CONCAVE PROFILE AND PIERCED BOTTOM VESSEL (08-03-0460-0B001), DECORATED LID (08-03-0459OB001), AND UPPER PART OF A SHALLOW BOWL (08-03-0451-OB007), ALL FROM ROOM 3.3 (C. PAPANIKOLOPOULOS)

22The space between rooms 3.3 and 3.4 also preserved some interesting and complete vases, notably one complete high-stemmed kylix (08-03-0491-OB001) and a finely decorated stirrup jar (fig. 9.15). The latter is made in a whitish fabric. Its profile is very similar to the stirrup jar mentioned above, found near the threshold of room 3.1. The decoration applied on the shoulder is different, however, and quite extraordinary. It consists of a linear and dotted pattern, perhaps with some marine inspiration, not unlike that seen on a stirrup jar found in the Dikastiria cemetery at Khania (fig. 9.16). The import of a “Khania workshop” product at Sissi is a distinct possibility.

Fig. 9.15. SPACE BETWEEN ROOMS 3.3 AND 3.4. FINELY DECORATED SQUAT STIRRUP JAR (08-03-0482-OB001). PROBABLE IMPORT FROM THE “KHANIA WORKSHOP” (C. PAPANIKOLOPOULOS; C. LANGOHR [REDRAWN])

Fig. 9.16. LM IIIB DECORATED STIRRUP JAR FROM THE DIKASTIRIA CEMETERY AT KHANIA (TZEDAKIS 1969: FIG. 29)

2.2. Zone 5

23The excavated deposits in zone 5 are less well preserved than those in the building on the summit. Most of the material comes from the tumble that is underlying the surface layers and it is not always easy to distinguish the fills from the destruction deposits. The removal of some of this tumble has nonetheless provided us with a good sample of diagnostic sherds of the pottery consumed on the Kephali during the LM III period including cups, miniature stirrup jars, kylikes and champagne cups (fig. 9.17).

Fig. 9.17. ZONE 5. SELECTION OF DIAGNOSTIC LM III SHERDS FROM SUPERFICIAL TUMBLE LAYERS MIXED WITH DESTRUCTION DEPOSITS (FROM SPACES 5.2, 5.3., 5.6, 5.7, 5.8) (C. PAPANIKOLOPOULOS)

24Near the northeast border of zone 5, the surface layer was very thin and immediately overlay an archaeological deposit consisting of a dense packing of sherds. Preliminary analysis suggests that this layer is the result of leveling or even a rubbish area. It is of interest that these top levels, especially those of spaces 5.8 to 5.10, comprised the only but verygood examples of LM IIIA1 ceramics hitherto found on the site(fig. 9.18).

Fig. 9.18. SHERDS OF LM IIIA1 FINELY DECORATED ROUNDED CUPS (# 0903, 0907) FROM SPACE 5.10 (C. PAPANIKOLOPOULOS)

  • 31 See M. Devolder, above, chapter 7.
  • 32 A. Farnoux, J. Driessen, pers. com.

25The best Post-palatial deposit in Building E comes from space 5.1331. Below a thick tumble, the first pieces of a well-preserved primary destruction deposit were collected. Besides several fragments of a larnax, the second example after that from zone 3, a broken but almost complete poppy capsule rhyton was excavated (fig. 9.19), an unusual shape (Koehl 2006: 126). Two examples are known from the LM IIIA1-B Mochlos Limenaria cemetery (Nicgorski 1999: 537-541, pl. CX), where they are dated to LM IIIA2 (Smith 2002: 453), and two other chance founds were made at Maroulas, in central-west Crete (Mavriyannaki 1973: 85-88, n° 1-2). A last unpublished and fragmentary example comes from an LM IIIA2 context in Quartier Nu at Malia32.

Fig. 9.19. POPPY CAPSULE RHYTON (08-05-0952-OB003) FROM SPACE 5.13. DIFFERENT SCALES (MAX. D.: 14 CM) (C. LANGOHR)

26Taking into account the presence of more LM IIIA1 and IIIA2 pottery (including the poppy capsule rhyton, champagne cups, shallow bowls, short-stem kylikes, plain pyxides, ladles) as well as LM IIIB vases in zone 5, it cannot be excluded at this point that this area was continuously occupied during LM III. This needs to be tested in the future, however.

2.3. Zone 6

27Even more than zone 5, zone 6 was very exposed to erosion which explains the bad conservation of the ceramic material. Analysis of its assemblages is still needed to define whether the material found was re-deposited material or whether primary deposits were destroyed by erosion. For instance, several joining sherds of a finely decorated stirrup jar were found directly to the south of wall F1 and make up an almost complete profile, but the breaks of the sherds are seriously eroded (fig. 9.20).

Fig. 9.20. ZONE 6. MINIATURE DECORATED STIRRUP JAR (08-06-2002-OB002) (C. LANGOHR)

  • 33 I warmly thank C. Knappett for allowing me to read his unpublished study.
  • 34 See, J. Driessen, chapter 1, on the topographically strategic position of the site.

28A final observation for closing this preliminary analysis of Late Minoan ceramics at Sissi concerns the presence of coarse transport/storage octopus stirrup jars in the LM III buildings. Several isolated sherds were found in a superficial disturbed context in zone 6 (08-06-2002-OB001), while good primary destruction deposits in rooms 3.1 and 4.9 sealed some well-preserved even if incomplete examples (fig. 9.21). These containers belong to the last phase of occupation in this area. As noted above, the production and consumption of octopus stirrup jars are usually seen against the background of a LM IIIA2-IIIB Post-palatial economy (Haskell 2005). All Sissi examples examined until now are made in the same pale buff fabric and are decorated with a red to dark brown paint. At Malia, in Quartier Nu, some similar transport stirrup jars are inscribed with Linear B while a petrographic analysis conducted on some examples (both inscribed and not inscribed) suggested a South-central Crete provenance, from the region between the Eastern Mesara and the village of Myrtos33. With this in mind and taking into account the apparent importance of Sissi during the LM IIIB period, the continuation of excavations and study could put this coastal settlement as an important node in the regional exchange network34.

Fig. 9.21. OCTOPUS STORAGE/TRANSPORT STIRRUP JARS. A. FROM ROOM 4.9 (08-04-0718-OB002, 08-04-0718-OB009). B. FROM ROOM 3.1 (07-03-0414-OB002, 07-03-0429-OB002, # 0403) (C. PAPANIKOLOPOULOS)

Bibliographie

3. References

▪ Barnard & Brogan 2003 = K.A. Barnard & T.M. Brogan (eds), Mochlos IB. Period III. Neopalatial Settlement on the Coast: The Artisans’ Quarter and the Farmhouse at Chalinomouri. The Neopalatial Pottery, Philadelphia, 2003.

▪ Borgna 2007 = E. Borgna, LM IIIC Pottery at Phaistos : An Attempt to Integrate Typological Analysis with Stratigraphic Investigation, in S. Deger-Jalkotzy & M. Zavadil (eds), LH IIIC Chronology and Synchronisms II. LH IIIC Middle, Vienna, 2007, 55-72.

▪ Boyd Hawes 1908 = H. Boyd Hawes et alii, Gournia, Vassiliki and Others Prehistoric Sites on the Isthmus of Hierapetra, Philadelphia, 1908.

▪ Brogan, Smith & Soles 2002 = T.M. Brogan, R.A.K. Smith & J.S. Soles, Mycenaeans at Mochlos? Exploring Culture and Identity in the LM IB to LM IIIA1 Transition, Aegean Archaeology 6 (2002), 89-118.

▪ D’Agata 2007 = A.L. D’Agata, Evolutionary Paradigms and Late Minoan III. On a Definition of LM IIIC Middle, in S. Deger-Jalkotzy & M. Zavadil (eds), LH IIIC Chronology and Synchronisms II. LH IIIC Middle, Vienna, 2007, 89-118.

▪ Darcque & Van de Moortel 2006 = P. Darcque & A. Van de Moortel, Late Minoan I architectural phases and ceramic chronology at Malia, Πεπραγμένα του 9ου Διεθνούς Κρητολογικού Συνεδρίου, Elounda 2001, vol. A1, Heraklion, 2006, 177-188.

▪ Deshayes & Dessenne 1959 = J. Deshayes & A. Dessenne, Mallia. Maisons (II) (Études crétoises, XI), Paris, 1959.

▪ Driessen & Farnoux 1994 = J. Driessen & A. Farnoux, Mycenaeans at Malia ?, Aegean Archaeology 1 (1994), 54-64.

▪ Evans 1928 = A.J. Evans, The Palace of Minos. A Comparative Account of the Successive Stages of the Early Cretan Civilization as Illustrated by the Discoveries at Knossos, vol. II,1, London, 1928.

▪ Hallager & Hallager 2003 = E. Hallager & B.P. Hallager, The Greek-Swedish Excavations at the Agia Aikaterini Square. Kastelli, Khania. 1970-1987 and 2001. The Late Minoan IIIB2 Settlement, vol. III, Stockholm, 2003.

▪ Haskell 2005 = H.W. Haskell, Region to Region Export of Transport Stirrup Jars from LM IIIA2/B Crete, in A.L. D’Agata & J. Moody (eds), Ariadne’s Threads. Connections between Crete and the Greek Mainland in Late Minoan III (LM IIIA2 to LM IIIC). Proceedings of the International Workshop held at the Scuola Archeologica Italiana, Athens, 5-6 avril 2003 (Tripodes, 3), Athens, 2005, 205-221.

▪ Hatzaki 2007a = E. Hatzaki, Chapter 3. Well 576: The Pottery Deposits and Ceramic Sequence. Part 2, in J.A. MacGillivray, L.H. Sackett & J.M. Driessen (eds), Palaikastro: Two Late Minoan Wells (The British School at Athens Supplementary Volume, 43), Athens, 2007, 15-94.

▪ Hatzaki 2007b = E. Hatzaki, Chapter 5. Neopalatial (MM IIIB-LM IB): KS 178, Gypsadhes Well (Upper Deposit) and SEX North House Groups, in N. Momigliano (ed.), Knossos pottery Handbook Volume I: Neolithic and Minoan (The British School at Athens Studies, 14), London, 2007, 151-196.

▪ Knappett & Cunningham 2003 = C. Knappett & T.F. Cunningham, Three Neopalatial Deposits from Palaikastro, East Crete, BSA 98 (2003), 107-187.

▪ Koehl 2006 = R.B. Koehl, Aegean Bronze Age Rhyta, Philadelphia, 2006.

▪ MacGillivray 2007 = J.A. MacGillivray, The Late Minoan Pottery, in J.A. MacGillivray, L.H. Sackett & J.M. Driessen (eds), Palaikastro: Two Late Minoan Wells (The British School at Athens Supplementary Volume, 43), Athens, 2007, 145-159.

▪ Mavriyannaki 1973 = C. Mavriyannaki, Vasi inconsueti del Tardo Minoico da Rethymno e rapporti con la ceramica cipriota, RDAC (1973), 83-89.

▪ Mountjoy 1999 = P.A. Mountjoy, Regional Mycenaean Decorated Pottery, Rahden, 1999.

▪ Mountjoy 2003 = P.A. Mountjoy, Chapter 4. The Late Minoan Pottery, in P.A. Mountjoy et alii, Knossos. The South House (The British School at Athens Supplementary Volume, 34), Athens, 2003, 51-152.

▪ Muhly 1992 = P. Muhly, Μινωικός λαξευτός ταφόν στον Πόρο Ηρακλείον, Athens, 1992.

▪ Nicgorski 1999 = A. Nicgorski, Polypus and the Poppy. Two Unusual rhyta from the Mycenaean Cemetery at Mochlos, in P.P. Betancourt, V. Karageorghis, R. Laffineur & W.D. Niemeier (eds), Meletemata. Studies in Aegean Archaeology Presented to Malcolm H. Wiener as he enters his 65th Year (Aegaeum, 20), 1999, 537-541.

▪ Nowicki 2000 = K. Nowicki, Defensible Sites in Crete c. 1200-800 BC (LM IIIB/IIIC through Early Geometric) (Aegaeum, 21), Liège-Austin, 2000.

▪ Pelon 1970 = O. Pelon, Fouilles exécutées à Mallia. Explorations des maisons et quartiers d’habitation III, 1963-1966 (Études crétoises, 16), Paris, 1970.

▪ Platon 1997 = L. Platon, The Minoan “Villa” in Eastern Crete. Riza, Akhladia, and Prophetes Elias, Praisos: Two Different Specimens of One Category?, in R. Hägg (ed.), The Function of the Minoan “Villas”. Proceedings of the Eighth International Symposium at the Swedish Institute at Athens, 6-8 June 1992, Stockholm, 1997, 187-202.

▪ Rethemiotakis 1997 = G. Rethemiotakis, LM III Pottery from Kastelli Pediada, in. E. Hallager & B.P. Hallager (eds), Late Minoan III Pottery. Chronology and Terminology, Athens, 1997, 305-326.

▪ Sackett & Popham 1970 = L.H. Sackett & M.R. Popham, Excavations at Palaikastro. VII, BSA 65 (1970), 203-242.

▪ Smith 2002 = R.A.K. Smith, The Tombs of Mochlos and Myrsini: Pottery and Cultural Regionalism in Late Minoan III Crete (UMI Dissertation Services 3077184), Bryn Mawr, 2002.

▪ Soles 2008 = J.S. Soles (ed.), Mochlos IIA. Period IV: The Mycenaean Settlement and Cemetery, the Sites, Philadelphia, 2008.

▪ Tzedakis 1969 = Y. Tzedakis, L’atelier de céramique post-palatial à Kydonia, BCH 93 (1969), 396-418.

▪ Tzedakis & Sacconi 1989 = Y. Tzedakis & A. Sacconi (eds), Scavi a Nerokourou, Kydonias (Incunabula Graeca, 91), Rome, 1989.

▪ Vitale 2006 = S. Vitale, The LH IIIB-LH IIIC Transition on the Mycenaean Mainland. Ceramic Phases and Terminology, Hesperia 75 (2006), 177-204.

▪ Van de Moortel 1997 = A.M.P.A. Van de Moortel, The Transition from the Protopalatial to the Neopalatial Society in South-Central Crete: A Ceramic Perspective, Bryn Mawr, 1997.

▪ Van de Moortel 2001 = A. Van de Moortel, The Area around the Kiln, and the Pottery from the Kiln and the Kiln Dump, in J.W. Shaw, A. Van de Moortel, P.M. Day, & V. Kilikoglou, A LM IA Ceramic Kiln in South-Central Crete: Function and Pottery Production (Hesperia Supplement, 30), Princeton, 2001, 25-110.

▪ Van Effenterre 1980 = H. Van Effenterre, Le palais de Mallia et la cité minoenne, Rome, 1980.

▪ Warren 1983 = P. Warren, Knossos: Stratigraphical Museum Excavations, 1978-1982. Part II, AR 29 (1983), 63-87.

Notes

1 F.R.S-FNRS / UCL-FSR.

2 I warmly thank my friends and colleagues involved in the Apotheke work during the 2008 campaign, F. Liard for the ceramic strewing and preliminary analysis, and A. Aertssen and C. Delmotte for their great logistic qualities. I owe a lot of gratitude to C. Knappett for his continuous guidance and precious criticism not only during the excavation campaign but also after reading previous drafts of this report. The responsibility for any oversights and inadequacies is entirely mine.

3 The scale in each figure is relevant for every sherd or pot illustrated.

4 For the excavations in Zone 2, see F. Carpentier, above, chapter 5.

5 For a reconstruction of the stratigraphy in this room, see F. Carpentier, above, chapter 5.

6 The extremely high-quality of a good proportion of the pottery composing this assemblage, including both fine and coarse fabrics, is obvious when dropping sherds together on a hard surface: the sound is similar to that of porcelain.

7 The S-shaped profile cup, with a high centre of gravity and a raised base is well-known at LM IB Mochlos and Palaikastro where it is called ogival cup and constitutes, at least at the latter, the most popular drinking vessel. They are often treated in the dipped decoration technique, not painted (Barnard & Brogan 2003: 42-45, figg. 4-5, pl. 6; Sackett & Popham 1970: 221-222, fig. 13, n° 5-9, 11-13; MacGillivray 2007: 153, fig. 5.5; Hatzaki 2007a: 80). J.A. MacGillivray has noted that these S-/ogival profile cups – without handle – are relatively rare in Central Crete, but common in LM IB destruction deposits in the Khania region, for example at Nerokourou (Tzedakis & Sacconi 1989: fig. 36). A couple of monochrome examples have also been found in LM I tombs at Poros (Muhly 1992: 40-41, fig. 2, pl. 4, n° 4-6). A remarkable difference with the Sissi cups – which prevents secure dating at this point – is that the Mochlos and Palaikastro ogival cups are usually not provided with a handle, even if some rare examples do exist, as mentioned below. In addition, their respective dimensions do not match either: when base diameters are comparable, the Sissi S-profile cup is clearly smaller and narrower. Where surface treatment is concerned, the dipped decoration technique is likewise not a good chronological marker: very common in Eastern Crete during LM IB, it is also attested in MM III and LM IA contexts at Palaikastro (Knappett & Cunningham 2003: 123-124, fig. 11 [n° 100-102, 104: Dip Rim Bowls], fig. 15 [n° 152-156: Rounded Cups]; the authors also refer to a similar form of decoration on small deep bowls at MM III Knossos).

8 See fig. 9.2 and a clear example on fig. 9.3b, third line, second fragment from the left.

9 The expected publication of the excavations lead at the abords nord-est of the Palace of Malia by P. Darcque and A. Van de Moortel may well fill this deficiency (see already Darcque & Van de Moortel 2006: esp. 184-185).

10 For examples at Gournia and Prophetes Elias, they referred respectively to Boyd Hawes 1908: 30, pl. 2, n° 16 and Platon 1997: 199, fig. 27, n° 12360.

11 It is evident that Van de Moortel’s typology could work “less well outside the Mesara” (Van de Moortel 2001: 66, n. 83).

12 See, for example, a specimen from a LM IB destruction deposit in House Zeta Beta at Malia (Deshayes & Dessenne 1959: pl. XIV,4) or some examples from the Artisan’s Quarter and the Chalinomouri farm at Mochlos (Barnard & Brogan 2003: 69, fig. 29-30, pl. 17). Examples from Malia and Mochlos also show a painted cross on top of the false-neck, though double (Deshayes & Dessenne 1959: 55, n.2, pl. XXVIII, B, 5; Barnard & Brogan 2003: fig. 29 [IB.369], fig. 30 [IB.373]). A decorated polychrome three-handled stirrup jar has also been collected in the palace of Malia ; it has been attributed to LM IA (van Effenterre 1980: 538-539, fig. 778, pl. 28) and LM IB (Driessen & Macdonald 1997: 185).

13 The fabric of a complete, tall ovoid stirrup jar from a Knossian LM IA stratified context – whose third handle is furthermore different since placed horizontally on the shoulder opposite the spout – is described as coarse ware (Hatzaki 2007b: 179, fig. 5.18:2), while the diameter of false-neck and spout of specimens from Knossian LM IA stratified and unstratified contexts are between 5.4 and 7.3 cm (Mountjoy 2003, fig. 4.5 [62], fig. 4.8 [87-88]; scale on Mountjoy 2003: fig 4.5 is wrong on the figure but right in the legend, see Evans 1928: fig. 213b). Mountjoy did not give comparanda from other Minoan contexts for the LM IA three-handled stirrups jars from Knossos.

14 For Palaikastro, see MacGillivray 2007: 153, fig. 5.5. For the paralleled and slightly distinct development of this shape on another East Cretan site, Mochlos, see Brogan, Smith & Soles 2002: 105, 107, table 1, fig. 5 (P 1210, P 199), fig. 7 (first line).

15 See Q. Letesson, above, chapter 6.2.

16 See the account by F. Gaignerot-Driessen, above, chapter 6.1.

17 Several pithoi were found in the LM IIIA1-IIIB cemetery at Mochlos Limenaria. Some of these show a comparable profile to the Sissi example. The pithos of tomb 8 is particularly similar where morphology and decoration are concerned (Soles 2008: 142-143, fig. 86, pl. 21A-B). At Palaikastro, the upper part of a fragmentary example from the wells is perhaps also a parallel (Hatzaki 2007a: 37, fig. 3.19 [n° 84; “rather hard bright orange fabric [...] surface has a gritty feel”]).

18 This/These production workshop(s) is/are most probably located in the Gournia/Kalo Chorio area.

19 At Khania, B. Hallager remarked that deep bowls with a straight or slightly marked rim are well known from LM IIIB1, while the examples showing a flaring rim are new in LM IIIB2 (Hallager & Hallager 2003: 205). The deep bowl profile in LM IIIC is more “markedly sinuous with high flaring rims” or has a “conical body with straight walls” or is a “hemispheric bowl with high walls inclined outwards” (Borgna 2007: 61).

20 For example, monochrome deep bowls have been found in Building 1 at Palaikastro, in a LM IIIB context. They differ morphologically with a rounded lip, slightly everted (Tim Cunningham, pers. com.). On the other hand, commenting on the LM IIIC pottery at Phaistos, E. Borgna maintained that “the isolated occurrence of the monochrome deep bowl might be considered as an indicator of a later date as well as an indication of chronological correlations with LH IIIC Middle contexts” (Borgna 2007: 63). Even more precise, A.L. D’Agata argued that “the appearance of monochrome deep bowls [is one of] the characteristics of LM IIIC Late […] which comes immediately after IIIC Early and roughly corresponds to LH IIIC Middle advanced in Mainland terms [...]” (D’Agata 2007: 96).

21 A. Farnoux and J. Driessen, pers. com.

22 Several sherds of one or more storage piriform stirrup jars made in a pale buff fabric and decorated with a dark octopus are represented by 07-03-0414-OB002, 07-03-0429-OB002 and in zembil # 0403.

23 For the description of the paste colour of the ceramic products of the “ Khania workshop”, see Tzedakis 1969: 406, 412 (“couleur particulière blanchâtre tirant un peu vers le jaune”).

24 Pithoi in a pale buff fabric are also attested in Quartier Nu at Malia (A. Farnoux, J. Driessen, pers. com). C. Knappett’s (pers. com.) petrographical program on Quartier Nu did not include the pithoi.

25 S. Jusseret (pers. com.); local informants also mention the use of clay for pottery from a quarry of the Selinari river near the site (J. Driessen).

26 I warmly thank A. Farnoux, E. Hatzaki, C. Macdonald, K. Nowicki and S. Wallace for their valuable comments on this vase.

27 A fragmentary piece from Kastelli Pediada shows a similar decorative motif and syntax for which G. Rethemiotakis suggested a LM IIIC date (Rethemiotakis 1997: 316, fig. 30).

28 E. Hatzaki, pers. com., August 2008.

29 A similar whole specimen has been found in zone 4, room 4.9 (08-04-0718-OB008).

30 A. Farnoux, J. Driessen, pers. com.

31 See M. Devolder, above, chapter 7.

32 A. Farnoux, J. Driessen, pers. com.

33 I warmly thank C. Knappett for allowing me to read his unpublished study.

34 See, J. Driessen, chapter 1, on the topographically strategic position of the site.

Table des illustrations

Légende Fig. 9.1. ROOM 2.1. N-W CORNER FLOOR DEPOSIT. COARSE VAT (08-02-0258-OB003), CONICAL CUPS (COMPLETE [08-020258-OB004] OR BROKEN [# 0258]), CLOSED VESSEL (# 0257) (C. PAPANIKOLOPOULOS, C. LANGOHR)
URL http://books.openedition.org/pucl/docannexe/image/466/img-1.jpg
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Légende Fig. 9.2. ROOM 2.1. LOWER, VERY LOOSELY COMPACTED LAYER. DIFFERENT FINE DECORATED DRINKING VESSELS (# 0242, 0245, 0270) AND A FRAGMENT OF A FINE DECORATED OVAL-MOUTHED AMPHORA (08-02-0242-OB002) (C. PAPANIKOLOPOULOS)
URL http://books.openedition.org/pucl/docannexe/image/466/img-2.jpg
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Légende Fig. 9.3. SPACE 2.1. A. THREE EXAMPLES OF S-PROFILE CUPS WITH DIPPED DECORATION (08-02-0242-OB004, 08-02-0242-OB005, 08-02-0245-OB0003). B. SELECTION OF SHERD MATERIAL OF FINE CUPS OF DIFFERENT SHAPES AND SURFACE TREATMENTS (# 0242, 0245). C. THREE COMPLETE PROFILES OF CONICAL CUPS (08-02-0258-OB004, 08-02-0240-OB002, 08-02-0242-OB003) (PHOTO: C. PAPANIKOLOPOULOS, DRAWING: H. JORIS)
URL http://books.openedition.org/pucl/docannexe/image/466/img-3.jpg
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Légende Fig. 9.4. SPACE 2.1. FALSE NECK OF A FINELY DECORATED, THREE-HANDLED STIRRUP JAR (# 0276) (C. PAPANIKOLOPOULOS)
URL http://books.openedition.org/pucl/docannexe/image/466/img-4.jpg
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Légende Fig. 9.5. SPACE 2.2. PULLED-RIM BOWL (08-02-0281-OB002) (C. PAPANIKOLOPOULOS)
URL http://books.openedition.org/pucl/docannexe/image/466/img-5.jpg
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Légende Fig. 9.6. SPACE 4.1. VASE DEPOSIT IN THE ‘DRAIN’ AT THE INTERSECTION OF WALLS D1 AND D18 (07-04-0622-OB001 AND 07-04-0625-OB001) (C. PAPANIKOLOPOULOS)
URL http://books.openedition.org/pucl/docannexe/image/466/img-6.jpg
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Légende Fig. 9.7. ROOM 4.9. TORTOISE-SHELL RIPPLE STYLE SHERD (C. PAPANIKOLOPOULOS)
URL http://books.openedition.org/pucl/docannexe/image/466/img-7.jpg
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Légende Fig. 9.8. ROOM 3.1. PITHOS (07-03-0419-OB001) AND CLOSE-UP (C. PAPANIKOLOPOULOS)
URL http://books.openedition.org/pucl/docannexe/image/466/img-8.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 97k
Légende Fig. 9.9. ROOM 3.1. MONOCHROME DARK DEEP BOWL (07-03-0419-OB008) (PHOTO: C. PAPANIKOLOPOULOS; DRAWING: H. JORIS))
URL http://books.openedition.org/pucl/docannexe/image/466/img-9.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 57k
Légende Fig. 9.10. FINE DECORATED SQUAT STIRRUP JAR (07-03-0429-OB001) FOUND NEAR ENTRANCE TO ROOM 3.1 (C. LANGOHR)
URL http://books.openedition.org/pucl/docannexe/image/466/img-10.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 104k
Légende Fig. 9.11. ROOM 3.1. FOUR COMPLETE CONICAL CUPS FROM BENEATH THE FLOOR (07-03-0427-OB001 TO 004) (A. RYMENAMS, H. JORIS)
URL http://books.openedition.org/pucl/docannexe/image/466/img-11.jpg
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Légende Fig. 9.12. ROOM 3.3. A. DECORATED BELL KRATER (07-03-0430-OB006); B. LARGE SHALLOW BOWL (08-03-0451-OB003) (C. PAPANIKOLOPOULOS)
URL http://books.openedition.org/pucl/docannexe/image/466/img-12.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 145k
Légende Fig. 9.13. PANELLED DECORATION ON THE BELL KRATER (07-03-0430-OB006) FROM ROOM 3.3 (A. RYMENAMS)
URL http://books.openedition.org/pucl/docannexe/image/466/img-13.jpg
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Légende Fig. 9.14. ROOM 3.3. CONCAVE PROFILE AND PIERCED BOTTOM VESSEL (08-03-0460-0B001), DECORATED LID (08-03-0459OB001), AND UPPER PART OF A SHALLOW BOWL (08-03-0451-OB007), ALL FROM ROOM 3.3 (C. PAPANIKOLOPOULOS)
URL http://books.openedition.org/pucl/docannexe/image/466/img-14.jpg
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Légende Fig. 9.15. SPACE BETWEEN ROOMS 3.3 AND 3.4. FINELY DECORATED SQUAT STIRRUP JAR (08-03-0482-OB001). PROBABLE IMPORT FROM THE “KHANIA WORKSHOP” (C. PAPANIKOLOPOULOS; C. LANGOHR [REDRAWN])
URL http://books.openedition.org/pucl/docannexe/image/466/img-15.jpg
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Légende Fig. 9.16. LM IIIB DECORATED STIRRUP JAR FROM THE DIKASTIRIA CEMETERY AT KHANIA (TZEDAKIS 1969: FIG. 29)
URL http://books.openedition.org/pucl/docannexe/image/466/img-16.jpg
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Légende Fig. 9.17. ZONE 5. SELECTION OF DIAGNOSTIC LM III SHERDS FROM SUPERFICIAL TUMBLE LAYERS MIXED WITH DESTRUCTION DEPOSITS (FROM SPACES 5.2, 5.3., 5.6, 5.7, 5.8) (C. PAPANIKOLOPOULOS)
URL http://books.openedition.org/pucl/docannexe/image/466/img-17.jpg
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Légende Fig. 9.18. SHERDS OF LM IIIA1 FINELY DECORATED ROUNDED CUPS (# 0903, 0907) FROM SPACE 5.10 (C. PAPANIKOLOPOULOS)
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Légende Fig. 9.19. POPPY CAPSULE RHYTON (08-05-0952-OB003) FROM SPACE 5.13. DIFFERENT SCALES (MAX. D.: 14 CM) (C. LANGOHR)
URL http://books.openedition.org/pucl/docannexe/image/466/img-19.jpg
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Légende Fig. 9.20. ZONE 6. MINIATURE DECORATED STIRRUP JAR (08-06-2002-OB002) (C. LANGOHR)
URL http://books.openedition.org/pucl/docannexe/image/466/img-20.jpg
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Légende Fig. 9.21. OCTOPUS STORAGE/TRANSPORT STIRRUP JARS. A. FROM ROOM 4.9 (08-04-0718-OB002, 08-04-0718-OB009). B. FROM ROOM 3.1 (07-03-0414-OB002, 07-03-0429-OB002, # 0403) (C. PAPANIKOLOPOULOS)
URL http://books.openedition.org/pucl/docannexe/image/466/img-21.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 84k

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