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Excavations at Sissi III

 | 
Jan Driessen
, 
Charlotte Langohr
, 
Quentin Letesson
, 
et al.

5. The excavation of the open area north of Building E in Zone 5

Maud Devolder

Note de l’auteur

Postdoctoral Researcher of the F.R.S.-FNRS (AEGIS-UCLouvain) and Belgian Member of the French School at Athens. Also participated in the excavations: G. Metaxarakis (Vrakhasi), C. Oliveira (Kenyon College), M. Meneux (Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne), A. Meulemeester (UCLouvain) and H. Bouillon (UCLouvain).

Texte intégral

1. Introduction

1After Building E had been explored thoroughly in four successive campaigns between 2007 and 2010 (Sissi I: 139-156; Sissi II: 143-162), in 2011 we focused on the open area north of it. This open area was first identified in 2008, when a concentration of sherds, animal bones, shells and ash was found topping what later appeared to be pit FE081, in what was then dubbed space 5.10 (Sissi I: 153; Sissi II: 154-155). The protruding bedrock and the nature of the excavated deposits suggested that one was dealing with an open area. Further exploration in this area allowed the identification of the south façade of Building CD, and unveiled the large open area between it and Building E (fig. 5.1 and 5.2).

Fig. 5.1. THE OPEN AREA BETWEEN BUILDINGS E AND CD WITH 2011 TESTS INDICATED (A. CHALKIDI, V. GOULIOPOULOU AND M. NASI)

2Preliminary study of the material excavated allowed identifying various deposits. These included deposits resulting from single or short-term events (such as pits FE081 and FE087) as well as ongoing processes of dumping. Amongst other purposes, the exploration of the open area was meant to clarify the phasing of the occupation in this part of the hill between the two buildings, E and CD. Indeed it has now become clear that Building E was already destroyed by a violent fire in LM IIIA2 or early LM IIIB as deposits in rooms 5.11, 5.12 and 5.13 indicate (Sissi II: 189-192), while Building CD seems only destroyed in an advanced stage of the LM IIIB period (Sissi I: 169-173; Sissi II: 181). This year’s excavation intended to understand the nature and phasing of the occupation of the open area during the distinct phases of use of the two buildings framing it to the north and south. We were also interested in uncovering traces of the early occupation on the top of the hill. In 2010 a stack of conical cups, probably deposited in a single event in LM IA (preliminary date), had been discovered along the western terrace wall in the open area between Buildings E and CD (Sissi II: 158-159, 198-199). Such discovery, together with sporadic early finds in Zones 3 and 4 (Sissi I: 140-142; Sissi II: 85-86, 145) and elsewhere in Zone 5, encouraged deeper exploration of the area. Rapidly, occupation levels and architectural remains dated to the MM II but also EM III/MM I periods were discovered. The work accomplished in 2011 will be described following an artificial and preliminary subdivision of the area excavated (fig. 5.1), based on the nature and date of the deposits. We will first concentrate on newly excavated data of the LM III occupation of the open area, and then we will focus on the MM II and EM III/MM I remains beneath the LM III occupation.

Fig. 5.2. AERIAL VIEW OF THE OPEN AREA BETWEEN BUILDINGS E AND CD, TOWARDS SOUTH-WEST (C. GASTON)

2. LM III occupation

3The large (ca. 5.69 x 4.32 m) space immediately north of spaces 5.12, 5.14, 5.8 and 5.9 of Building E and bordered by low walls (E22, E23, E24, E27), protruding bedrock and rough alignments of stones (FE107, FE110) is labelled 5.10. Excavations in this space revealed the presence of a pit (FE081), mostly filled with fine pottery, ash, bone and shell, very likely deposited there in a single event in LM IIIA2 or early in LM IIIB (Sissi I: 153; Sissi II: 155). The early date of the LM III material discovered around the pit on the occupation level of space 5.10 was also noted, but more study is needed to attribute it to a more precise phase of the LM IIIA period, and to identify perhaps the presence of later, LM IIIB material. In 2011, the layer under the LM III occupation level of space 5.10 was explored (09/05/1823/FE082), which allowed for the discovery of the earlier use of the space down to another floor level partly covered with pebbles (fig. 5.3). This yielded a homogenous MM II ceramic deposit, despite some earlier residual material and some later, mostly LM III, intrusions (fig. 5.4). The generally eroded state of the sherds was noted which leads to the suggestion that even then space 5.10 may already have been an open space. Amongst the finds are stone pestles and other stone tools 11-05-1976-OB001 and OB002, 11-05-1990-OB002 to OB005, 11-05-3821-OB002 and OB003 and 11-05-3822-OB002 to OB003, obsidian blades 11-05-1995-OB002 and OB003 and 11-05-3822-OB001, an obsidian flake 11-05-1976-OB003, terracotta loom-weight 11-05-1990-OB001 and several better preserved vases 11-05-1971-OB001, 11-05-1981-OB001 (a beehive), 11-05-1995-OB001 and 11-05-3821-OB001. The protruding bedrock was here used as a floor in several parts of the excavated space. Moreover, a possible early wall on the west side (FE100) and an alignment of stones set on the bedrock in the south-west corner (FE108) appeared (fig. 5.1, 5.2 & 5.3).

Fig. 5.3. PEBBLE FLOOR IN THE WESTERN PART OF SPACE 5.10 AND WESTERN WALL FE100 (M. DEVOLDER)

Fig. 5.4. MM II CERAMIC DEPOSIT IN THE NORTH-EAST CORNER OF SPACE 5.10 (M. DEVOLDER)

  • 1 At least 45 stone tools, not including grindstones, were identified in the northern part of pit FE0 (...)

4FE087 is a large pit in the north-east corner of the open area, south of space 4.18. Two parts can be distinguished. The southern part contained a white-yellowish powder, first interpreted as ash, but of which a sample still has to be analysed. The sherds associated are dated LM IIIA2 and their appearance suggests a single-event deposition (Sissi II: 155-156). The northern part of the pit was covered with a heap of large to medium-sized stones, which continued appearing within the pit mixed with ceramics, stone tools, pumice and architectural fragments (Sissi II: 156-157). Again the ceramics suggest a single event deposition, this time during LM IIIB. Mainly because of the presence in the pit of sandstone architectural elements, notably absent from Building E, but also because of the advanced LM IIIB date of the deposit in this part of the pit, a connection with Building CD had already been suggested. The large amount of pumice discovered in FE087 corroborates this connection, as this material was also found in large quantities in several rooms of Building CD (Sissi I: 127-128). Also, a sandstone window jamb discovered amongst the stones heaped in and on the pit has its exact parallel in room 3.6 of the same building (Gaignerot, this volume). It then seems that the content of the pit is connected to the main edifice on the top of the hill, most probably to a cleaning operation linked with an architectural renovation after a destruction. The large number of stone tools discovered in the northern half of the pit also points to such interpretation (Tsoraki, this volume)1. As noted by C. Tsoraki, the size, weight and wear patterns of the pounders or hammers unearthed from this pit may be indicative of their use for percussion in situations requiring heavy impact force, such as construction activities.

Fig. 5.5. PIT FE087. NOTE THE SANDSTONE JAMB IN THE MIDDLE RIGHT (ARROW) OF THE PHOTOGRAPH (M. DEVOLDER)

5At the bottom of both the southern and northern half of the pit, most of the sherds are MM II, though EM II, EM III and MM I material was also present. Some walls remains were also found (fig. 5.5 and 5.8). These may be part of earlier structures covered up when Building CD was constructed and dated by the EM III/MM IA deposit found further north (see below). In any case, these early walls were constructed immediately on top of the bedrock.

6A long and relatively large space was explored along the southern façade of Building CD (wall D52) and north of spaces 5.16 and 5.10 (marked A on fig. 5.1). The discovery along this façade of a LM IIIA1/2 deposit of fine drinking vessels may be remembered (Sissi II: 158, 193-195). Except for this deposit which was easily isolated during excavation, the LM III (from LM IIIA1 down to LM IIIB) occupation of the area is illustrated by sporadic, heterogeneous and mixed contexts, most probably the result of continuous dumping of material in the area. Earlier occupation remains were, however, identified in many instances and range from EM II to Neopalatial with sherds found mixed with later material or remains of early structures and occupation levels.

7Immediately north of space 5.16, in the south-east corner of the large open area (marked B on fig. 5.1), excavation proceeded through a layer of yellow compact soil in which mainly MM II-III material (preliminary date) with some intrusive LM III was noted. This went down to an occupation level which yielded several stone pounders (11-05-1934-OB001, OB003 and OB004, 11-05-1937-OB001 and 11-05-1938-OB001), a terracotta object (11-05-1934-OB002) similar to 10-05-1872-OB001 (Sissi II: 158 and fig. 6.24) – perhaps also part of some model –, a conical cup (11-05-1934-OB005), a terracotta loom-weight (11-05-1937-OB003), a stone pivot hole (11-05-1937-OB002), a fragment of a terracotta hearth (11-05-1937-OB004) and an obsidian blade (11-05-1938-OB002).

8Against the western terrace wall bordering this side of the top of the hill, several walls indicate the presence of early structures (marked C on fig. 5.1). A roughly south-west/north-east running wall FE092, made of small to medium-sized rubble stones set on earth and bedrock is hidden by the terrace wall which was built against and partly collapsed on top of it. Perpendicular to this wall ran three badly preserved walls made of small-sized rubble stones (FE101, FE093 and FE111). These three walls are set on the bedrock and the space between them was excavated independently as southern and northern compartments. It is not unlikely that this structure continued to the north under Building CD, but a narrow band of LM III occupation along wall D52 was left unexplored.

Fig. 5.6. WESTERN PART OF THE OPEN AREA, WITH EARLY STRUCTURES AGAINST THE WESTERN TERRACE WALL, INDICATED BY ARROW (C. GASTON)

9Once the topsoil was removed, only little soil covered the bedrock in the southern compartment, bordered by walls FE101, FE092 and FE093. Most of the pottery seems EM IIB with some LM IA and LM IB sherds. This and the joins among the fragments probably indicate the redeposition of an EM IIB deposit during the Neopalatial period. No Protopalatial material was noted, however, during the preliminary study of the pottery. The presence of a large number of shells was noticed and an obsidian flake (11-05-1959-OB001) and a three-holed terracotta object (11-05-1959-OB002) were found. The northern compartment was delimited by walls FE093, FE092 and FE111. Again Neopalatial sherds were found mixed with earlier material, especially EM III, MM I and MM II. A possible occupation level was identified against the back wall FE092 above an irregularity in the bedrock. Beneath this, the material is homogeneous MM II down to the bedrock which is here slightly lower. An incised sherd (11-05-1989-OB001), six obsidian blades fragments (11-05-1993-OB001, 11-05-1996-OB001, 11-05-3800-OB001, OB002, OB004 and OB005) and three lithic tools (11-05-1993-OB002, 11-05-1996-OB002 and 11-05-3800-OB003) were collected. Although it is difficult to assess the precise date of these structures, the disturbance created by the construction of the terrace wall, very likely in the Neopalatial period, and material dated from LM I present in the mixed contexts, offers a terminus ante quem. It is impossible however, without further study, to date these better.

3. Earlier occupation

10The central part of the area examined north of Building E and along the southern façade of Building CD is marked by the presence of the outcropping bedrock (fig. 5.1 and 5.2). It was explored down to the latest occupation levels when these were present, and when not, down to bedrock and sometimes into some of the cavities which appeared sporadically. The eastern side of this central area mostly preserved mixed deposits with sherds ranging between EM II to LM III. Near the two compartments previously described, however, and especially where the bedrock showed irregularities, patches of soil contained homogeneous or only slightly mixed deposits of EM II and MM II material. Further east, north of the north-east part of space 5.10, the area was explored down to bedrock, with again mixed material but especially MM II sherds. Amongst the finds made in the central northern part of Zone 5 are several obsidian blades (11-05-1940-OB001, 11-05-1956-OB001, 11-05-1958-OB001, 11-05-1983-OB004-OB006), two obsidian flakes (11-05-1973-OB002 and 11-05-1983-OB001), a stone blade (11-05-1973-OB001), an unidentified stone object (11-05-1983-OB007), a stone lid (11-05-1983-OB003), several stone tools (11-05-1956-OB002 to OB005 and OB007 to OB013 and 11-05-1983-OB002), two terracotta loom-weights (11-05-1956-OB006, 11-05-1973-OB003), and a terracotta cup (11-05-1983-OB005).

Fig. 5.7. AERIAL VIEW OF THE NORTH-CENTRAL AREA OF ZONE 5 (C. GASTON)

11Further west, between the protruding bedrock to the west and pit FE087 to the east, several walls of a single, early structure were found, indicated by a series of parallel and perpendicular walls (marked D on fig. 5.1, fig. 5.7 and 5.8). These were largely disturbed by erosion, the cutting of pit FE087 to the east and the construction of Building CD to the north. Walls FE152, FE116, FE118 and FE122 all seem to belong to this same structure. Wall FE120 partly covered wall FE118. It indicates remodelling of the building after an earlier phase dated by an EM III/MM IA deposit against wall FE118 and partly sealed by FE120 (fig. 5.9) (Driessen, this volume, fig. 1.3). The red rammed earth floor associated with these walls not only gave EM III/MM IA material, but also large amounts of MM II sherds. It cannot be excluded that the structure remained in use continuously during these periods. The objects discovered associated with the layer on the red floor are eight obsidian blades (11-05-1999-OB003 and OB004, 11-05-3805-OB002, 11-05-3806-OB001, OB002, OB004 and OB005 and 11-05-3816-OB001), an obsidian flake (11-05-3816-OB002), terracotta loom-weights (11-05-1999-OB001 and OB002 and 11-05-3812-OB001), a terracotta weight (11-05-3805-OB001), a possible bone tool and several lithic tools (11-05-3806-OB003, OB006, OB008 and OB009 and 11-05-3812-OB002). The walls discovered at the bottom of pit FE087 were already mentioned (fig. 5.5, 5.7 and 5.8). It is not excluded that these were associated with the red floor structure, as the north-south wall FE147 within the pit seems to extend wall FE122 towards the south. The cutting of the pit and the heap of stones associated to it, however, disturbed this early occupation and more study is needed to understand the phasing of the early occupation on the top of the hill.

Fig. 5.8. PLAN OF EARLY WALLS ASSOCIATED WITH RED FLOOR LEVEL AND AT THE BOTTOM OF PIT FE087 IN THE NORTHERN PART OF ZONE 5 (A. CHALKIDI, V. GOULIOPOULOU AND M. NASI)

Fig. 5.9. EM III-MM I DEPOSIT ON RED EARTH FLOOR AGAINST WALL FE118 (M. DEVOLDER)

12In the north-easternmost part of the early structure, along the southern façade of Building CD (wall D52), a foundation trench was identified. Its exploration indicated that this façade very likely dated to the Neopalatial period (fig. 5.10).

Fig. 5.10. NEOPALATIAL FOUNDATION TRENCH OF FAÇADE WALL D52 INTO EARLY RED FLOOR (M. DEVOLDER)

13Space 5.16 is a small space situated between wall E27 (east), the western terrace wall and wall E26 (south) immediately north of space 5.13 (fig. 5.1, 5.2 and 5.11). Some low walls appeared bordering it to the north (FE097 and FE105) but they correspond to an early phase of the space, before the Neopalatial redeposition of earlier material in order to create the most recent occupation level in the area. After the topsoil had been taken away in 2009 down to the top of a layer in which large amounts of ceramics appeared, the zone was newly excavated in 2010 and again in 2011. Since wall E28 distinguished two halves in its southern part, the sherd concentration was explored separately in a western and eastern part of space 5.16. Especially in the northern part of the area, where the heap of conical cups stacked against the western terrace wall mentioned earlier was discovered, a very large number of sherds were noted (Sissi II: 158-159, 198-199). In 2011, exploration in the northern part of space 5.16 went down to bedrock under the occupation level associated with this LM IA deposit (+ 21.07 m). The excavation and preliminary study of the material unearthed indicated the presence of mainly Neopalatial (LM IA) sherds, although Protopalatial (mostly MM II) sherds became more numerous while getting closer to the bedrock and rammed earth forming the lower occupation level reached in the space at + 20.65-20.84 m. It is not excluded that space 5.16 contained Protopalatial material re-deposited during the Neopalatial period. The objects associated with this layer are several terracotta vases (cup 11-05-1936-OB009, jug 11-05-1944-OB001, cup 11-05-1950-OB001, and lamp and support 11-05-1950-OB004 and OB005), a sherd with an incision in the shape of a double-axe (11-05-1936-OB008), a stone bead or button (11-05-1954-OB001), a fragment of a terracotta drain (11-05-1968-OB001), four terracotta loom-weights (11-05-1936-OB001, 11-05-1944-OB002, 11-05-1968-OB003 and perhaps 11-05-1939-OB001), three obsidian blade fragments (11-05-1936-OB006, 11-05-1968-OB002 and 11-05-1953-OB001), five obsidian flakes (11-05-1936-OB004 and OB005, 11-05-1978-OB001 and 11-05-1954-OB002 and OB003), one possible stone weight (11-05-1936-OB003) and five stone tools (11-05-1936-OB002 and OB007, 11-05-1950-OB002 and OB003 and 11-05-1939-OB003).

Fig. 5.11. MM II MATERIAL IN THE NORTH-EAST CORNER OF SPACE 5.16 (M. DEVOLDER)

Fig. 5.12. NORTHERN PART OF SPACE 5.16 AFTER EXCAVATION (L. MANOUSOGIANNAKI)

14The south-east corner of space 5.16 was excavated independently from its northern part, in connection with space 5.15 of which exploration had started in 2010. Then we noticed a large quantity of plaster fragments and these now also appeared while exploring the south-east corner of space 5.16. Excavation revealed the north-east corner of a plastered room including space 5.15 and the south-east corner of space 5.16, dubbed space 5.18, bordered by wall FE098 to the north and E22 to the east (fig. 5.1 and 5.12). The latter wall remained visible during the late, LM III, occupation of the area while the first was hidden beneath the later occupation. The layer on the plaster floor comprised fallen stones, charcoal and plaster fragments, which suggest a destruction. This came down to a fine plastered floor of which the plaster also ran up walls FE098 and E22. Several MM II cups (11-05-1969-OB002, 11-05-1977-OB001, OB002, OB003 and OB004) were found crushed partly into the floor (fig. 5.13), together with an oval-mouthed amphora (11-05-1972-OB001). Other objects associated with the lower part of the destruction layer are three stone pounders (11-05-1951-OB001, 11-05-1969-OB003 and OB005), an obsidian blade (11-05-196-OB001) and a large stone lid (11-05-1969-OB004).

Fig. 5.13. CUPS 11-05-1977-OB002 TO OB004 FALLEN ON PLASTERED FLOOR OF SPACE 5.18. NOTE THE PLASTER COATING FALLEN FROM WALL E22 UPSIDE-DOWN ON THE FLOOR (M. DEVOLDER)

15Only part of space 5.18 was preserved, as its south-western corner had been cut off when space 5.13 (fig. 5.14) was made, implying an intricate architectural stratigraphy on this part of the hill. Indeed, the plastered floor was found running within the corner formed by walls E25 and E26 in the north-eastern corner of space 5.13. Both walls were backed by medium to large-sized boulders which encroached upon the destruction layer in the plastered room. Those boulders were aimed at setting firmly the north wall of space 5.13 at a marked change in level of the terracing. This also suggests space 5.13 was the northernmost built space of Building E during the LM III period.

Fig. 5.14. PLASTERED SPACE 5.18 (L. MANOUSOGIANNAKI)

16While exploring the south-western part of space 5.16, we found that the north-western limit of space 5.18 was partly hidden under later wall E28. A sounding was opened here since a squarish space had appeared beneath the topsoil, bordered by late walls E26, E28, a lower wall FE099 and the western terrace wall. The north-eastern part of a room bordered to the north by a wall formed by cut bedrock (FE132) and to the east by a wall of rubble FE131 (itself the western limit of space 5.18) was found (fig. 5.1 and 5.15). This was dubbed space 5.19. It comprised a homogeneous destruction deposit, probably of MM II date. Again the floor and walls of the excavated room were coated with plaster, here painted blue and red. The deposit comprised very red soil, as if it was burnt or consisted of burnt decomposed mudbrick, and only few stones were found, mostly of very small size. At the bottom of the sounding, down to floor level at + 20.05-20.07 m, three vases (11-05-3865-OB001, OB002 and OB003) but no other objects were found, caught in the destruction layer beneath wall E26 and the main terrace wall (fig. 5.15 and 5.16). Again wall E26 was backed with stones encroaching upon the MM destruction layer. Interestingly the floor level in space 5.13 to the south was at the very same altitude (i.e. + 20.02 m). Since this also presents itself as cut bedrock covered with a coated layer of tarazza, it is very likely that space 5.19 initially extended further south, before part of its surface was taken for the construction of space 5.13. More to the west, the main terrace wall seems to have been set immediately on top of the MM floor of space 5.19. The cut bedrock is very evident here. Where it formed the floor (+ 20.02 m), it was coated with tarazza, itself coated with finer plaster, exactly as is the case in space 5.13. Part of the MM destruction layer was still visible beneath the stones of the lower course of the terrace wall (fig. 5.17). Such discovery is very relevant as far as the dating of the terrace wall west of the open area is concerned. Indeed, as far as preliminary study of the material indicates, it must be later than MM II, but could have happened as early as MM III, during the Neopalatial period. As mentioned, the discovery in 2010 of a heap of presumable LM IA conical cups partly covered with stones fallen from this terrace wall offers a terminus ante quem (Sissi II: 158-159, 198-199).

Fig. 5.15. SPACE 5.19, DURING EXCAVATION (M. DEVOLDER)

Fig. 5.16. MM II VASES BENEATH WALL E26 (LEFT) AND WESTERN TERRACE WALL (TOP) IN SPACE 5.19 (M. DEVOLDER)

Fig. 5.17. TERRACE WALL BUILT ON MM DESTRUCTION LAYER AND PLASTER FLOOR IN SPACE 5.19, FROM WEST (M. DEVOLDER)

17While exploring the area west of the western terrace wall, some traces of LM IIIA2/B occupation were found, in the shape of fallen stones, a terracotta beehive (11-05-3846-OB001), obsidian flakes (11-05-3847-OB002 and OB003) and stone tools (11-05-3827-OB001 to OB006, 11-05-3831-OB001 and OB002, 11-05-3846-OB002, 11-05-3847-OB001, OB004 to OB006 and 11-05-3853-OB001 to OB004) (fig. 5.18). This area was only partly explored, but a pebble floor was reached towards the north, indicating an occupation level. Future exploration in this area down the terrace wall to the west might shed more light on the occupation against the slope of the hill.

Fig. 5.18. AREA WEST OF THE WESTERN TERRACE WALL WITH BEEHIVE IN UPPER RIGHT (M. DEVOLDER)

18A restricted area was also explored to the east of space 5.10 and to the southeast of spaces 5.8 and 5.9. Excavation went mostly down to bedrock, which showed many hollows, some of which were filled with soil and sherds (fig. 5.1 and 5.19). The layer beneath the topsoil contained material mixed in date, from EM I down to LM III. Lower down, however, approaching the bedrock, LM intrusions stopped appearing and most sherds dated to EM I-MM III, with a majority of EM II-MM II. Some deposits could be more easily isolated, such as a MM II/MM III fill immediately south of pit FE087 (fig. 5.19). Two cavities in the bedrock south of this fill respectively yielded MM II (east) and EM II-EM III (west) material. This recalls the traces of early occupation in the bedrock hollows found in the southern part of Zone 5 during the first excavation campaign in 2007 (Sissi I: 140-142). From the mixed to purer early layers above the bedrock come a terracotta loom-weight (10-05-1857-OB001) and a stone tool (10-05-1861-OB001). From the MM II/MM III fill south of pit FE087 are ten stone tools (11-05-1984-OB001 and 11-05-1988-OB003 to OB011), a terracotta loom-weight (11-05-1984-OB003), a terracotta cup (11-05-1988-OB001), two fragments of terracotta slabs (11-05-1984-OB002 and 11-05-1988-OB012) and a fragment of a steatite object (?) (11-05-1988-OB002). From the cavities in the bedrock come 13 stone tools (11-05-3808-OB001, 11-05-3811-OB001 to OB007, 11-05-3813-OB001 to OB003 and 11-05-3814-OB001).

Fig. 5.19. EM IIB/III-MM I FILL IN BEDROCK SOUTH OF PIT FE087, DURING EXCAVATION (M. DEVOLDER)

19South of these cavities, east of spaces 5.8 and 5.9, excavation also went down to bedrock (fig. 5.1 and 5.20). Though some Neopalatial material was noted in the upper layer and southern part of the area (especially near the north-eastern corner of space 5.8), the material is almost exclusively EM IIB/EM III and MM I and the homogeneity of the deposit may be noted. Again, cavities in the bedrock were explored. An obsidian blade (11-05-3820-OB001), a terracotta object (a pestle?) (11-05-3820-OB002), a conical cup (10-05-1870-OB001) and a fragmentary terracotta jug (11-05-3849-OB001) were found associated with mixed, notably Neopalatial, material. Associated with the earlier, EM IIB/EM III-MM I, deposit were 11 stone tools (11-05-3823-OB001, 11-05-3826-OB001, 11-05-3848-OB001 to OB006, 11-05-3854-OB001, 11-05-3830-OB001 and 11-05-3835-OB001), two obsidian blades (11-05-3823-OB001 and OB002), an obsidian flake (11-05-3833-OB002), a terracotta loom-weight (11-05-3824-OB001), a possible stone lid (11-05-3830-OB002) and a fine bird-shaped steatite pendant (11-05-3833-OB001) (fig. 5.21).

Fig. 5.20. VIEW OF THE ZONE EXCAVATED EAST OF SPACE 5.8 AND 5.9, DOWN TO BEDROCK (L. MANOUSOGIANNAKI)

Fig. 5.21. BIRD-SHAPED STONE PENDANT (11-05-3833-OB001) (CHR. PAPANIKOLOPOULOS)

20To conclude, the five successive campaigns of excavation in Zone 5 have allowed us to explore a significant part of the southern slope of the top of the Kefali. A large, well-built Postpalatial domestic unit, Building E was completely excavated. The exploration beneath some of the spaces of this structure and of the northern open area which was probably used by the inhabitants of both Buildings E and CD also allowed us to explore earlier levels which have given us a glimpse on the diachronic occupation of the Kefali, from EM II (if not earlier) through the Prepalatial, Protopalatial, Neopalatial and Postpalatial periods. Good architectural evidence for the EM III/MM IA and for the MM II periods has now been identified which provide interesting comparative and contextual habitation material for the cemetery on the northern fringe of the hill (Zones 1 and 9) where these two periods are the best represented (Schoep, Schmitt, Crevecœur and Déderix, this volume). Furthermore, Neopalatial material suggests an important construction program on the top of the hill during this period, albeit largely hidden by the Postpalatial complex.

Bibliographie

4. References

Sissi I = J. Driessen, I. Schoep, F. Carpentier, I. Crevecœur, M. Devolder, F. Gaignerot-Driessen, H. Fiasse, P. Hacigüzeller, S. Jusseret, C. Langohr, Q. Letesson & A. Schmitt, Excavations at Sissi. Preliminary Report on the 2007-2008 Campaigns (Aegis 1), Presses Universitaires de Louvain (2009).

Sissi II = J. Driessen, I. Schoep, F. Carpentier, I. Crevecœur, M. Devolder, F. Gaignerot-Driessen, P. Hacigüzeller, V. Isaakidou, S. Jusseret, C. Langohr, Q. Letesson & A. Schmitt, Excavations at Sissi, II. Preliminary Report on the 2009-2010 Campaigns (Aegis 4), Presses Universitaires de Louvain (2011).

Notes

1 At least 45 stone tools, not including grindstones, were identified in the northern part of pit FE087: 10-05-1927-OB002, OB003, OB005, OB006, OB009, OB013, OB014, OB016, OB017, OB019, OB020, OB023, OB024, OB025 and OB027, 10-05-1929-OB003, OB004, OB006, OB009, OB011, OB013, OB014, OB017, OB019, OB022, OB023, OB024, OB025, OB026, OB027, OB0028, OB030, OB034, OB035, OB036 and OB037, 10-05-1932-OB002 and OB006, 11-05-3863-OB001, OB002, OB003 and OB006, 11-05-3864-OB001, OB002 and OB003. Note differences with the catalogue numbers provided in Sissi II: 157, n. 14, which is due to the revision by C. Tsoraki of the material excavated before 2011.

Table des illustrations

Légende Fig. 5.1. THE OPEN AREA BETWEEN BUILDINGS E AND CD WITH 2011 TESTS INDICATED (A. CHALKIDI, V. GOULIOPOULOU AND M. NASI)
URL http://books.openedition.org/pucl/docannexe/image/2900/img-1.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 136k
Légende Fig. 5.2. AERIAL VIEW OF THE OPEN AREA BETWEEN BUILDINGS E AND CD, TOWARDS SOUTH-WEST (C. GASTON)
URL http://books.openedition.org/pucl/docannexe/image/2900/img-2.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 240k
Légende Fig. 5.3. PEBBLE FLOOR IN THE WESTERN PART OF SPACE 5.10 AND WESTERN WALL FE100 (M. DEVOLDER)
URL http://books.openedition.org/pucl/docannexe/image/2900/img-3.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 192k
Légende Fig. 5.4. MM II CERAMIC DEPOSIT IN THE NORTH-EAST CORNER OF SPACE 5.10 (M. DEVOLDER)
URL http://books.openedition.org/pucl/docannexe/image/2900/img-4.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 152k
Légende Fig. 5.5. PIT FE087. NOTE THE SANDSTONE JAMB IN THE MIDDLE RIGHT (ARROW) OF THE PHOTOGRAPH (M. DEVOLDER)
URL http://books.openedition.org/pucl/docannexe/image/2900/img-5.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 160k
Légende Fig. 5.6. WESTERN PART OF THE OPEN AREA, WITH EARLY STRUCTURES AGAINST THE WESTERN TERRACE WALL, INDICATED BY ARROW (C. GASTON)
URL http://books.openedition.org/pucl/docannexe/image/2900/img-6.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 184k
Légende Fig. 5.7. AERIAL VIEW OF THE NORTH-CENTRAL AREA OF ZONE 5 (C. GASTON)
URL http://books.openedition.org/pucl/docannexe/image/2900/img-7.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 176k
Légende Fig. 5.8. PLAN OF EARLY WALLS ASSOCIATED WITH RED FLOOR LEVEL AND AT THE BOTTOM OF PIT FE087 IN THE NORTHERN PART OF ZONE 5 (A. CHALKIDI, V. GOULIOPOULOU AND M. NASI)
URL http://books.openedition.org/pucl/docannexe/image/2900/img-8.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 512k
Légende Fig. 5.9. EM III-MM I DEPOSIT ON RED EARTH FLOOR AGAINST WALL FE118 (M. DEVOLDER)
URL http://books.openedition.org/pucl/docannexe/image/2900/img-9.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 196k
Légende Fig. 5.10. NEOPALATIAL FOUNDATION TRENCH OF FAÇADE WALL D52 INTO EARLY RED FLOOR (M. DEVOLDER)
URL http://books.openedition.org/pucl/docannexe/image/2900/img-10.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 152k
Légende Fig. 5.11. MM II MATERIAL IN THE NORTH-EAST CORNER OF SPACE 5.16 (M. DEVOLDER)
URL http://books.openedition.org/pucl/docannexe/image/2900/img-11.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 244k
Légende Fig. 5.12. NORTHERN PART OF SPACE 5.16 AFTER EXCAVATION (L. MANOUSOGIANNAKI)
URL http://books.openedition.org/pucl/docannexe/image/2900/img-12.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 300k
Légende Fig. 5.13. CUPS 11-05-1977-OB002 TO OB004 FALLEN ON PLASTERED FLOOR OF SPACE 5.18. NOTE THE PLASTER COATING FALLEN FROM WALL E22 UPSIDE-DOWN ON THE FLOOR (M. DEVOLDER)
URL http://books.openedition.org/pucl/docannexe/image/2900/img-13.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 212k
Légende Fig. 5.14. PLASTERED SPACE 5.18 (L. MANOUSOGIANNAKI)
URL http://books.openedition.org/pucl/docannexe/image/2900/img-14.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 208k
Légende Fig. 5.15. SPACE 5.19, DURING EXCAVATION (M. DEVOLDER)
URL http://books.openedition.org/pucl/docannexe/image/2900/img-15.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 192k
Légende Fig. 5.16. MM II VASES BENEATH WALL E26 (LEFT) AND WESTERN TERRACE WALL (TOP) IN SPACE 5.19 (M. DEVOLDER)
URL http://books.openedition.org/pucl/docannexe/image/2900/img-16.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 172k
Légende Fig. 5.17. TERRACE WALL BUILT ON MM DESTRUCTION LAYER AND PLASTER FLOOR IN SPACE 5.19, FROM WEST (M. DEVOLDER)
URL http://books.openedition.org/pucl/docannexe/image/2900/img-17.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 128k
Légende Fig. 5.18. AREA WEST OF THE WESTERN TERRACE WALL WITH BEEHIVE IN UPPER RIGHT (M. DEVOLDER)
URL http://books.openedition.org/pucl/docannexe/image/2900/img-18.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 160k
Légende Fig. 5.19. EM IIB/III-MM I FILL IN BEDROCK SOUTH OF PIT FE087, DURING EXCAVATION (M. DEVOLDER)
URL http://books.openedition.org/pucl/docannexe/image/2900/img-19.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 148k
Légende Fig. 5.20. VIEW OF THE ZONE EXCAVATED EAST OF SPACE 5.8 AND 5.9, DOWN TO BEDROCK (L. MANOUSOGIANNAKI)
URL http://books.openedition.org/pucl/docannexe/image/2900/img-20.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 236k
Légende Fig. 5.21. BIRD-SHAPED STONE PENDANT (11-05-3833-OB001) (CHR. PAPANIKOLOPOULOS)
URL http://books.openedition.org/pucl/docannexe/image/2900/img-21.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 52k

Auteur

© Presses universitaires de Louvain, 2012

Conditions d’utilisation : http://www.openedition.org/6540