Version classiqueVersion mobile
OpenEdition Books

Minoan Realities

 | 
Diamantis Panagiotopoulos
, 
Ute Günkel-Maschek

Image and Architecture: Reflections of Mural Iconography in Seal Images and Other Art Forms of Minoan Crete*

Fritz Blakolmer

Texte intégral

  • * I am very grateful to the organizers of this conference for their invitation and hospitality. I al (...)
  • 1 Several questions raised in this article are also discussed in Blakolmer 2010.

1The following considerations are based on the assumption that a certain hierarchy of art genres existed in the ‘realm of images’ during the Aegean Bronze Age. Although distinct art forms – and their respective artists – in palatial Crete as well as on the Mycenaean Mainland interacted with each other, this does not mean that artistic interrelations were devoid of any rules. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to investigate to what extent and exactly how images on Aegean seals and objects of relief art can be helpful in reconstructing mural paintings1.

2Although it has been argued by scholars that seal stones hardly ever copied the iconography of mural paintings, since this would suggest the isolation of a scene from its context on larger wall paintings, this is exactly what we come across in numerous seal images belonging to different narrative cycles. In spite of their small scale, a considerable number of seals and signet rings from LM I Crete present extracts from larger register scenes and frieze-like compositions, as I will try to demonstrate by a few examples. Moreover, it seems reasonable to postulate a distinct art form as delivering the original models of highly narrative relief images, and it will be argued that this art form was the large-scale stucco reliefs concentrated at the palace of Knossos.

  • 2 Pini 1996, 1092; 2000, 243.
  • 3 See a seal stone from Elis, today in Berlin (CMS XI, no. 27) and a sealing from Pylos: CMS I Suppl (...)
  • 4 Davis 1977; Laffineur 1977.
  • 5 Warren 1969; Kaiser 1976; Bevan 2007; Logue 2007.
  • 6 Poursat 1977a; 2008, 113–22, 230–48; Foster 1979; 1982.
  • 7 Immerwahr 1990; Boulotis 1995; Morgan 2005a.
  • 8 Kaiser 1976, 257–309; Blakolmer 2001; 2006.

3It has been suggested by I. Pini that the amount of Aegean glyptic images currently known to us possibly comprises not more than 5–10 percent of the corpus originally existing2. Given the fact that, to date, only one preserved seal impression possibly can be connected with a seal that has survived3, the proportional amount of preserved Aegean seals, signet rings and seal impressions may well be even smaller. However, we have to bear in mind that in all other Minoan and Mycenaean art genres, our actual state of knowledge seems to be even more negligible. This applies for example to Aegean relief vessels made of gold and silver4 as well as to stone relief vessels5 and to vessels, boxes and other objects made of or decorated with ivory, terracotta, faience or wood6. Painted wall-plaster belongs to the most easily damaged material of architectural decoration and as a consequence, our knowledge of this art form is mainly restricted to small fragments7. However, in many cases, single pieces of small-scale wall paintings are more informative than fragments of large-scale representations, since even a small piece of an extensive miniature frieze can contain a multitude of figures and other pictorial elements. Thus, the most ‘problematic’ art form is large-scale wall paintings and especially the monumental images from stucco reliefs8. A large amount of Minoan relief frescoes consists only of single parts of larger-than-life sized human or animal figures and in many cases their iconography remains unidentifiable. Therefore, when dealing with Aegean Bronze Age iconography we depend to a great extent on comparisons between different artistic media. Especially in the case of large-scale fresco paintings on the flat wall or of relief plaster, a closer look at seal images and further art forms turns out to be extremely useful.

1. Reflections of Wall Decoration in Other Art Forms

  • 9 See Evans 1921a, 254–55; 1921b, esp. 684–95. Cf. further Hood 1978, 219; Younger 1995, 340–41; Bla (...)
  • 10 CMS II. 3, no. 113; II. 8, nos. 127, 276–278; III, no. 500; V Suppl. 3, no. 331; Sakellarakis and (...)
  • 11 CMS II. 8, no. 127; V Suppl. 3, no. 331.
  • 12 Rodenwaldt 1912, 34–40, pl. V; Immerwahr 1990, 203 (Ti no. 10), pl. XIX; Shaw and Laxton 2002, 99– (...)
  • 13 Danielidou 1998, 230–37, pls. 38–40; Krattenmaker 1999; Shaw and Laxton 2002.

4When looking for so-called ‘fresco painting features’ in Aegean art genres such as seals and signet rings, it is tempting to interpret horizontal border stripes or ornamental friezes framing figurative scenes as an indication of mural dado zones and similar elements reflecting the decorative scheme of architectonic walls or interior design9. Some possible candidates can be found in glyptic images from Minoan Crete showing a series of figure-of-eight shields10 or Sacred Knot motifs11 above a dado zone with running spirals (figs. 1–2). The first ones can be well compared with ‘shield frescoes’ such as the LH IIIB example from Tiryns framed by spiral friezes at the bottom and top of the wall while a third frieze of running spirals is positioned in the middle of the wall behind the shield motifs12 (fig. 3). A similar combination of figure-of-eight shields and spiral motifs occurs in wall paintings from Knossos, Mycenae, Pylos and Thebes, although they mostly postdate the Neopalatial period of Crete13.

Figs. 1 and 2 Gold ring from Kalyvia (after CMS II. 3, no. 113) and seal image from Knossos (after CMS II. 8, no. 127)

  • 14 Evans 1914, 26–28, figs. 37 a–b, col. pl. IV; 1930, 309–11, fig. 198; 1935, 871, fig. 863; Niemeie (...)
  • 15 Akrivaki 2003.
  • 16 Cf. Evans 1928, 309: “architectonic suggestion”.

5Similar to these wall paintings and seal motifs, one of the polychrome ritual cups from the Tomb of the Double Axes (tomb 5) in the LM II necropolis of Isopata presents a figure-of-eight shield and two helmets on a background decorated with a spiral net design14 (figs. 4 a–b). A series of at least two large-scale helmet motifs is known from a wall painting fragment from Akrotiri on Thera15. Moreover, it is remarkable that the walls of the Isopata vessels possess at their lower part a high socle zone while on their upper part, above a frieze zone, there follows a profiled frame decorated with dentate bands and crowned by a row of red painted circles (figs. 4 a–b). Thus, it is very tempting to interpret the compositional layout of these polychrome ritual vessels as a reproduction of, and reference to, an architectonic wall with a fresco painted zone between an undecorated socle and an upper stucco relief profile crowned by the wooden beam-ends of the ceiling16.

Fig. 3 Shield Fresco from Tiryns (after Rodenwaldt 1912, pl. V)

  • 17 See esp. CMS I, nos. 189, 329 (= Pini 1997, 22, no. 39); II. 8, nos. 172, 498.
  • 18 Ventris 1955; Higgins 1956; Chantraine and Dessenne 1957; Palmer 1957; Hiller 1971; Hurst and Brus (...)

6Some seal images showing two superimposed decoration zones could also reflect mural decorations17. Although the majority of these motifs – such as crouching quadrupeds, octopodes, bulls beside palm-trees and bucrania (figs. 5–6)–find close parallels in Aegean wall paintings, it is a deplorable fact that until now, the existence of such combinations cannot be verified by the wall paintings known to date. A combination of motifs such as these, however, reminds us of the information provided by Linear B texts of the Ta series from Pylos, recording the variegated iconography of appliqué pieces of gold, faience and ivory attached to wooden furniture such as ‘thrones’ and footstools decorated with motifs of a man, a horse, an octopus and a palm-tree, or adorned with helmets, bull’s heads and lions18.

Fig. 4 a–b: Ritual vessels from Isopata (after Evans 1914, col. pl. IV, facing p. 26; 27, figs. 37 a–b)

  • 19 CMS I, nos. 179, 282, 293; II. 6, no. 256; II. 8, no. 475; V, no. 517. See further CMS I, no. 197. (...)
  • 20 CMS I, no. 179.
  • 21 Cameron 1976, 30–31, fig. 1; Laffineur 1990a, 248–49; Palyvou 2000; 2005a; Immerwahr 2000. For bor (...)
  • 22 Wace and Lamb 1921–1923a, 190–92, fig. 191; 1921–1923b, 234–35, fig. 46, pl. XXXV a; Matz 1956, 11 (...)
  • 23 Evans 1935, 919–20, fig. 894; Mirié 1979, 47–49; Niemeier 1986, 84–85; Cameron 1987, 323, fig. 7.

7As in the case of the figure-of-eight shields mentioned above (figs. 1–2), several seal images present running bulls and crouching griffins above a socle zone of spiral or so-called ‘half-rosette motifs’ (figs. 7–10) and they probably ought to be interpreted in the same way, i. e. as a reflection of mural decoration19. A series of ‘half-rosette motifs’ forms a socle zone also on the large gold-ring from the Tiryns Treasure (fig. 10) probably supporting the ritual character of the scene depicted in this frieze-like image20. We should not forget, though, that in the mural scheme of Aegean Bronze Age architecture, ornamental friezes were mostly positioned above a figurative zone21. Exceptions are the wall paintings in the forecourt of the Megaron in the palace of Mycenae22 and in the Throne Room of Knossos23 showing ‘half-rosette motifs’ in their socle zones.

Figs. 5 and 6 Gold ring from Dendra (after CMS I, no. 189) and seal image from Knossos (after CMS II. 8, no. 498)

  • 24 CMS V Suppl. 3, no. 394.
  • 25 CMS II. 3, no. 8.
  • 26 CMS II. 3, no. 146. Cf. further the seal motif CMS II. 7, no. 16.

8That the exact position of decorative friezes probably was of minor importance for seal-engravers and other artists is demonstrated by the broad band of running spirals in the background behind a male figure carrying a ‘sacred garment’ and a double axe on seal impressions from Akrotiri on Thera24 (fig. 11) which could well indicate the wall-decoration of an interior room. A seal stone from Knossos shows a female figure carrying the same insignia in front of a horizontal frieze of a framed zigzag ornament at a lower level than on the Thera sealings25, and a lentoid seal from Malia presents in its middle zone a frieze-like decoration in front of two figures (although this might represent an altar)26.

Figs. 7 and 8 Seal images from Sklavokampos (after CMS II. 6, no. 256) and from Knossos (after CMS II. 8, no. 475)

  • 27 Evans, 1935, 168–71; Nilsson 1968, 357–67; Reusch 1958, esp. 353–56; Rutkowski 1981, 100–5; Hägg a (...)
  • 28 Reusch 1958, esp. 353–56; Hägg and Lindau 1984; Marinatos 1993, 155 with fig. 134; Hiller 2006.

9A further example of an indoor scene as indicated by the representation of mural decoration is probably to be recognised in the widespread seal motif of the ‘Goddess with snake-frame’ flanked by griffins or lions27 (fig. 12). In some examples these creatures have been placed upon their own baseline on a higher level than the central figure and thus probably refer to the mural paintings of a distinct ceremonial place, in all likelihood reflecting a ritual act which took place in the Throne Room of the palace at Knossos with its characteristic mural iconography28.

  • 29 Hiller 2005; Weißl 2000; Marinatos 2007a.

10Consequently the seal images in question should not be understood as literal ‘copies’ of murals but rather reproduced the type of an image as connected to its architectonic setting, that is, as a mural image in the interior room. Since the ‘half-rosette motif’ as well as running spirals constitute two motifs of highly symbolic value in the Aegean Bronze Age29, it appears plausible that by their inclusion into these seal images a more general allusion to iconographical models on palace walls was attempted.

  • 30 CMS II. 3, no. 21; II. 8, no. 515; V Suppl. 1A, no. 186; V Suppl. 1B, no. 113; V Suppl. 3, no. 392 (...)
  • 31 CMS I, no. 91; I Suppl., no. 34; II. 7, no. 16; II. 8, no. 487; III, no. 122; V, nos. 191a–b; V Su (...)
  • 32 CMS II. 3, no. 271; II. 5, no. 317; III, no. 504; VI, no. 270; IX, no. 136; XI, no. 55b.
  • 33 CMS V Suppl. 3, no. 80; X, no. 135. For further ornament motifs see CMS V Suppl. 1B, nos. 114, 135
  • 34 CMS I, nos. 223, 229, 276; II. 3, nos. 24, 62, 78; II. 6, nos. 43, 44, 160; II. 7, nos. 37, 38, 70 (...)
  • 35 For this motif see Blakolmer 2010, 96.
  • 36 CMS I Suppl., no. 92; II. 3, nos. 339, 340; VI, no. 152; X, no. 281. See further CMS I, no. 193; X (...)
  • 37 Platon 1971, 164, col. pl. 77; Marinatos and Hirmer 1973, 108–10; Bloedow 1990; Rehak and Younger (...)

11More problematic is our understanding of simpler frame design at the lower edge of seal images. A single horizontal base-line of a figurative scene in the form of a frieze need not indicate by itself any connection with mural iconography. However, there occur horizontal stripes in the form of one or more courses of ashlar masonry30, a dentate band31, a socle-zone decorated with diagonal lines32 or a zigzag motif33 or simply consisting of parallel lines34 (figs. 13–18). These examples allow us to raise the question whether these socle ornaments merely represent an abstract design filling the void lower part of the lentoid or oval seal surface or whether we are allowed to interpret them as a reflection of – or rather an allusion to – mural images consisting of a largescale iconographical motif above a dado zone. In the case of simple border stripes, we have to be cautious in interpreting them, of course. It is remarkable though that all these seal motifs can be understood as representing outdoor scenes, as is indicated by plants and trees depicted in the background. This fact allows us to exclude an interpretation of the lower zone as representing stone-paved palace courts, raised walks or low walls in front of the animals or human figures. A distinct iconographical topos, however, seems to be the motif of the agrimi crouching on top of the flat roof of an architectural structure indicated by two or more courses of ashlar masonry35. This occurs on several seals36 and is comparable to related scenes on the Shrine Rhyton from Kato Zakros37.

Figs. 9 and 10 Cushion seal from Pylos (after CMS I, no. 293) and gold ring from Tiryns (after CMS I, no. 179)

Figs. 11 and 12 Seal image from Akrotiri, Thera (after CMS V, Suppl. 3 no. 394) and seal stone from Knossos (after CMS II. 3, no. 8)

  • 38 Cf. Shaw 1971, 83–108; Hult 1983, esp. 44–49; Palyvou 2005b, 191–92.
  • 39 See Evans 1928, 443–44, fig. 260; Chapin and Shaw 2006, 59–68, col. pl. A.
  • 40 Bietak 2007, 42.

12The iconographical spectrum of the seal images showing socle-like zones (figs. 13–18) is rather restricted and mainly consists of crouching, standing or running bulls, boars and goats, bull-leaping scenes, occasionally procession scenes and deities as well as lions and griffins. On the other hand, dado-like zones remain widely unknown in the large repertory of further seal images such as those showing multi-figurative scenes of epiphany, of animal attacks and struggles as well as extended scenes of nature. Since this rather limited range of iconographical scenes in question possesses good parallels in actual mural paintings and stucco reliefs, it is highly tempting to interpret the socle zones in seal images as a deliberate indication of architectonic walls showing a distinct mural iconography. This would mean that an allusion not only to palatial iconography but also to palace murals was indicated by most of these seal images. An interpretation of these socle zones as built of ashlar blocks, however, is problematic, since ashlar masonry certainly did not constitute a common and wide-spread form of socle zone visible beneath mural paintings in Aegean Bronze Age architecture38. On the other hand, we must remember that largescale ashlar masonry was imitated by fresco painting on plastered walls at Knossos39 and at Tell el-Dabc a40.

Figs. 13, 14, and 15 Seal image from Knossos (after CMS II. 8, no. 515), seal stone from Kakovatos (after CMS I Suppl., no. 34), and seal stone in the Metropolitan Museum, New York (after CMS XII, no. 249)

Figs. 16, 17, and 18 Seal image from Akrotiri, Thera (after CMS V Suppl. 3, no. 392), gold ring from Mycenae (after CMS I, no. 91), and seal image from Gournia (CMS II. 6, no. 160)

2. Interior Scenes in Aegean Iconography

  • 41 Curti 1999; Laffineur 2005.
  • 42 Müller 1915, 247–51; Evans 1921b, 686–89, fig. 508; Warren 1969, 85, 174–76, 178–81; Kaiser 1976, (...)
  • 43 Cf. CMS II. 8, no. 280; Kaiser 1976, 10–11, 172, fig. 7 b (‘Knossos 1’); 14–15, 131 (‘Knossos 5’).
  • 44 Evans 1928, 804–8, figs. 526–27; 1930, 31, 46–65, pls. XVI–XVII; Cameron and Hood 1967, pls. II–II (...)

13Let us move to the question of interior scenes depicted in Minoan and Mycenaean images. The principal artistic convention which indicates that a scene took place in an interior room is the addition of a pillar characterized by a rectangular ‘capital’41. Good examples of this convention can be found in the register scenes of boxers and wrestlers on the Boxer Rhyton from Hagia Triada, whereas pillars are lacking in the scenes of bull leaping performed in the open air as represented in the second register of this relief vessel42 (fig. 19). Similar pillars also appear in other images showing ritual scenes on Minoan seals (fig. 21) and stone vases43. If the traditional interpretation of the Temple Miniature Fresco from Knossos (fig. 20) as depicting a ritual gathering in the Central Court holds true44, this frieze presents a highly formalized depiction of the interior of the palace complex (or the ‘court compound’) including a so-called tripartite shrine as focal point.

Fig. 19 Boxer Rhyton from Hagia Triada (after Decker 1995, 16, fig. 1)

  • 45 CMS II. 6, no. 17.
  • 46 Evans 1928, 742–43, 790–93, figs. 476, 516; Zervos 1956, 364–67, figs. 534–37; Forsdyke 1952; Mari (...)
  • 47 For the Aegean column see Wurz 1913; Graham 1962, 190–97; Wesenberg 1971, 3–27; Nörling 1995, 50–5 (...)

14Seal impressions from Hagia Triada present a scene of fighting warriors, with a scaled vertical stripe of unclear character in the central part45 (fig. 21). Rather than a body shield given in profile, this element might represent a pillar designating a fighting scene as taking place in the interior. This reminds us of the vertical stripe in the frieze of the so-called Chieftain Cup from Hagia Triada (fig. 23), irrespective of its exact function and meaning46. It is remarkable, in my opinion, that only pillars with the characteristic rectangular upper part were used for indicating interior scenes on seals, but the typical Minoan column, which constitutes an essential element of representations of architectonic façades, was used not in a single instance47.

Fig. 20 Temple Miniature Fresco from Knossos (after Cameron and Hood 1967, pl. II A)

Figs. 21 and 22 Seal image from Knossos (after CMS II. 8, no. 280) and seal image from Hagia Triada (after CMS II. 6. no. 17)

  • 48 Marinatos 1983, 18; 1984, 51; 1985, 219–20.
  • 49 Doumas 1987; 1992, 146–51, figs. 109–15.
  • 50 Doumas 1992, 176–79, figs. 138–41; Boulotis 1992, esp. 92, pls. 36 a–b; 2005, 31, fig. 8; Rehak 19 (...)

15A further element which could have defined an interior scene in Minoan iconography was the plain white background, a feature which occurs only sporadically in Aegean mural paintings. N. Marinatos interpreted the fish-bearing boys (fig. 24) and the girl wearing a long robe in the wall panels of the West House at Akrotiri as virtually performing some ritual acts in the room itself48. Although these three figures are positioned on top of a socle zone, this assumption seems to be quite convincing. A further example representing a scene as taking place in the actual room itself might be the male youths carrying vessels and a garment in Room 3 of Xeste 349. The same also applies to the procession scene in the staircase of Xeste 4, which shows a row of males carrying objects and ascending the steps50. All these are depicted on a monochrome white background and positioned on a horizontal groundline.

  • 51 For Minoan and Mycenaean ‘procession frescoes’ see esp. Boulotis 1987; Peterson 1981; Immerwahr 19 (...)
  • 52 Schiering 1960, 31.
  • 53 Schiering 1960; 1965; 1974, 144; 1987; 1992.
  • 54 Betancourt 1977, 19; 2000; Laffineur 1990a, 246–51; Blakolmer (forthcoming).
  • 55 Evans 1928, 112–13, 453; Karo 1930, 313; Marinatos and Hirmer 1973, pl. LI bottom.
  • 56 Riegl 1906, 7–8; Schiering 1965, 5–6; 1971, 5–6, 10; 1992, 318; Schäfer 1977, 12, 16; Walberg 1986 (...)

16By far the majority of figurative scenes in Aegean mural paintings, however, have a multicolored background. Even in Late Mycenaean procession frescoes, in most cases, the background is arranged by different colors in two or more horizontal or vertical zones divided by wavy lines51 (figs. 25–26). From the artistic point of view we can probably distinguish between ‘terrain-lines’ and ‘rockwork’ motifs, both of them multicolored and of irregular form. How do we interpret this widespread mode of rendering the background in Minoan as well as in Mycenaean figurative wall paintings? Does this traditional artistic feature really symbolize “nichts anderes als die nur wenig stilisierte Wiedergabe der Maserungen und eine Steigerung der Farben des Alabastersteines”52, as W. Schiering has concluded in several articles since the 1960s53? This would mean that in the respective images the figures have to be understood as walking in front of the real architectonic wall on which they were painted, thus presenting an artistic concept of space defined as “shallow stage” by Ph. Betancourt54. In Minoan landscape scenes, however, identical multicolored, wavy zones constituting the background have been interpreted as natural terrain, as the interior of a cave55, as the horizon and even as clouds56. Unfortunately, Schiering’s arguments have never been discussed, examined or criticized by others, and this was probably for two reasons: Schiering’s explanation was published essentially in German, and he basically used the methodology of Classical art history by utilizing arguments of artistic form.

Fig. 23 Chieftain Cup from Hagia Triada (after Sapouna-Sakellaraki 1971, pl. 33 b)

  • 57 See in general Niemeier 1989, esp. 167–169, fig. 1; Wedde 2004.

17Of course, this is not the place for discussing the diverse interpretations of the wavy background, an essential part of figurative scenes in Aegean paintings. Let me only briefly state that, as far as I am concerned, Schiering’s concept of interpreting the multicolored, wavy lines as the incrustation of wall panels made of gypsum seems to be doubtful for several reasons. In any case, it is obvious that ‘terrain lines’ and ‘rockwork’ motifs have to be strictly distinguished from the rather schematic forms of painted imitation of mural socle zones made of gypsum. In iconographical scenes terrain elements are characterized by irregularity, arbitrariness and fantastic coloring. Thus, pictorial terrain elements such as those depicted in ‘procession frescoes’ from Knossos and Thebes (figs. 25–26) indicated that this ritual was located in the open landscape and not in the interior of a building or inside settlements. This interpretation is further supported by the depiction of plants, for example, in procession scenes in seal images57.

Fig. 24 Fisher Fresco from the West House, Akrotiri, Thera (after Doumas 1992, 52, pl. 19)

Fig. 25 Rhyton Bearer Fresco from Knossos (after Evans 1928, col. pl. XII, facing p. 707).

  • 58 Matz 1956, 90–94; Schäfer 1963, 196–205; Stevenson Smith 1965, 63–64; Kaiser 1976, 185–86; Iliakis (...)
  • 59 Morgan 1988; Televantou 1990; 1994; Doumas 1992, 58–85, figs. 26–48.

18There exist plenty of arguments that the so-called ‘cavalier perspective’ constituted the canonical concept of artistic space during the entire Aegean Bronze Age58. Based on the principle of ‘what is further up is meant to be further away’, the ‘cavalier perspective’ enabled a standardized depiction of numerous positions and situations of figures and objects in a logical as well as a coherent space. This principle can be best demonstrated by the miniature fresco from the West House of Akrotiri which depicts an artistic space reaching from the sea-bottom to the horizon and beyond59 (figs. 27–28). This is one of the few Aegean images which definitely show parts of the open sky. In the large majority of Minoan and Mycenaean wall paintings, though, the entire background represents the natural terrain. In my opinion, this also applies to procession scenes and images showing a similar treatment of the background – a multifunctional iconographical convention or an artistic tool which most probably defined Aegean procession scenes as taking place in the open space of the countryside, but not in the interior of the respective rooms.

19Thus, in considering Aegean mural paintings in their iconographical as well as architectonic contexts, we can conclude that interior scenes occur only very sporadically.

Fig. 26 Procession Fresco from Thebes, reconstruction by H. Reusch (after Reusch 1956, pl. 15)

Fig. 27 Miniature fresco from Akrotiri, Thera: detail of the South frieze (after Doumas 1992, 71, pl. 36)

Fig. 28 Miniature fresco from Akrotiri, Thera: perspective view of Town II (drawing by the author)

3. Reflections of Fresco Iconography on Relief Vessels and Seal Glyptic

  • 60 See Younger 1995, 343; Shaw 1997, 502.
  • 61 Cf. Laffineur 1990b, esp. 117–60; 1992, 105–12; 2000; Kilian-Dirlmeier 1987, esp. 207–11; Thomas 2 (...)
  • 62 Wace 1921–1923; Åström and Blomé 1964; Mylonas 1965; 1966, esp. 17–18, 20–21, 173–76; 1957, 25–29, (...)
  • 63 Evans 1901, 157; Nilsson 1968, 352, 357–60. Cf. the discussion by Blakolmer 2011.
  • 64 Blegen 1956, 95, pl. 40, 2; Reusch 1958, 334–58; Hiller 1996, 78–81; Maran and Stavrianopoulou 200 (...)
  • 65 Lolling 1880, 27, pls. VII, 1–3; Perrot and Chipiez 1894, 826–29; Poursat 1977b, 145–46, pl. XLIV; (...)
  • 66 CMS II. 8, no. 521.

20Let us move to the second part of this article which will focus on the question: How should we assess the artistic relationship between the fresco iconography on architectonic walls and other art forms? It has been assumed that pronounced differences existed between the iconography of Aegean seals and that of wall paintings due to contrasting formats and distinct artistic forms; only seldom did connections between them exist60. With assumptions such as these, however, we underestimate the essentially uniform ‘palatial’ character of Aegean Bronze Age iconography. Especially in the arts of Neopalatial Crete, regional predilections can scarcely be recognized, nor are any specialities of individual commissioners detectable61. Furthermore, it is astonishing that we can recognize hardly any fundamental changes in the development of Aegean iconography from the 17th to the 13th century; this can be demonstrated by the existence of numerous iconographical motifs which had a long life. The monumental stone relief image of the LH IIIB Lion Gate at Mycenae62, for example, possesses good iconographical parallels not only in other artistic media such as seals and reliefs of ivory, faience and terracotta, but it is also attested in its essential elements already in seal images of LM I Crete63. As is well known, the prominent mural decoration of the Throne Room in the LM I–II palace of Knossos was repeated in similar form at least in the LH IIIB palace at Pylos64. Furthermore, iconographical motifs such as the densely packed row of rams on a late Mycenaean ivory pyxis from Menidi65 have predecessors on clay sealings from LM I–II Knossos66. As a consequence, we should probably not expect any individual images or iconographical cycles to be strictly confined to one distinct artistic medium during the Aegean Bronze Age. Let us prove this character of strongly interrelated artistic genera in the Aegean by discussing two prominent examples.

4. The Origin of the Iconography of the Gold Cups from Vapheio in Minoan Stucco Reliefs

  • 67 Schachermeyr 1961–1962, 184.
  • 68 Tsountas 1889, 159–63, pl. 9; Schiering 1971, 3–10; Marinatos and Hirmer 1973, pls. 200–7; Davis 1 (...)
  • 69 See esp. Riegl 1906; Schiering 1971; Davis 1977, 1–50; Blakolmer 2005; 2007b, 32–35.
  • 70 CMS II. 3, no. 68. For the seal stone from Mochlos see Hughes and Warren 1963, 352–55, pl. 18, 3 b
  • 71 For ‘pattern-books’ see in general Dauphin 1978; Wachsmann 1987, 12–26; Militello 2000, 83; Donder (...)
  • 72 Pini 1983, esp. 572.
  • 73 Blakolmer 2007b, 39–40.

21In spite of the judgement by F. Schachermeyr that “Die minoische Bildkunst ist durch die Schule der Siegelglyptik gegangen und hat hier die Bedeutung des Rahmens wie die Beschränkung auf eine geschlossene Szene kennen gelernt”67, it seems highly probable that in respect of Neopalatial artistic media exactly the opposite was the case. It has also been argued that seal images formed closed iconographical devices. It can be observed, however, that numerous motifs on seals and signet rings constitute isolated scenes and discrete figurative motifs taken from larger iconographical cycles, mostly in the form of extensive friezes. This phenomenon can be best demonstrated by the iconography of the gold relief cups from the LH IIA tholos tomb at Vapheio68 (figs. 29–31). Both friezes showing bulls and men in a natural setting are composed of six figurative topoi, since all bull motifs possess excellent parallels in seal glyptic, on stone relief vases, in wall paintings and in other artistic media69. Although one could assume that the iconography of these relief vessels was created by combining different figural motifs of seal images, the artistic interrelation most probably ran in precisely the opposite direction. As an example of isolating figures out of larger iconographical contexts, I mention seals from Mochlos (fig. 32) and from Sellopoulo (fig. 33) showing a bull with its legs in an unnatural striding position70. The bull’s hind leg displaced backwards makes sense only if it were pulled away by somebody, as it is represented on one of the Vapheio cups (fig. 31). By comparing these emblem-like motifs, we learn that they could be isolated and stereotyped, exchanged and combined in different ways. Thus, vignette-like seal motifs such as these strongly support the existence of some kind of ‘pattern books’ in Neopalatial Crete71. Pini’s idea that a collection of clay sealings could have functioned as models, ‘master drawings’ or ‘pattern-books’ enabling the dissemination of standardized iconographical motifs into different artistic media is very convincing72. Regarding the original models of more complex iconographical scenes at a larger scale, though, it appears more plausible to postulate three-dimensional models, possibly made of terracotta73.

Fig. 29 ‘Violent’ gold cup from Vapheio (after Kaltsas 2007, fig. on p. 121, bottom right)

Fig. 30 Relief friezes of the gold cups from Vapheio (after Evans 1930, fig. 123, facing p. 178)

  • 74 See Blakolmer 2007b, 32–35 with further references.

22Although the artistic origin and the craftsmanship of the gold relief cups from Vapheio have been discussed and interpreted in different ways, it appears most likely that not only the iconographical concept but also the gold cups themselves can be seen as genuinely Minoan works. By a closer comparison of the composition of the relief friezes of both cups (fig. 30), we can remark that they correspond to each other to a great degree, for example by antithetical poses of the raised or sunken heads and tails as well as by the concave or convex bending of the bull’s back. It must be emphasized that the original concept of these friezes was certainly not conceived for the walls of vessels, since these do not allow for a clear comprehension of all compositional details. Even by turning the gold cups in both directions, one would never be able to perceive the sophisticated composition of these friezes. Thus, it can be excluded that the highly elaborate composition of the relief friezes was planned to be seen only in small sections on the body of a circular vessel. When rolled up in the form of friezes, we are not only able to talk of standardized motif formulae, but also of a detailed ‘choreography’ of these highly sophisticated relief images, composed as a pair of antithetical friezes74.

Fig. 31 ‘Quiet’ gold cup from Vapheio, detail (after Kaltsas 2007, fig. on p. 120, top)

Figs. 32 and 33 Seal stones from Mochlos (after Hughes and Warren 1963, pl. 18, 3b) and from Sellopoulo (CMS II. 3, no. 68)

  • 75 Supra n. 8.
  • 76 Evans 1930, 176–80; 1935, 228; Müller 1915, 271; Blakolmer 2007b, 37–43. Contra: Davis 1977, 15–16

23In Minoan arts, elongated friezes such as those on the gold relief cups from Vapheio can be perceived in their entire length only on an architectonic wall, and in the case of a relief image we prefer a large-scale relief frieze as the original model. We can hardly argue in favour of the existence of alternative artistic media such as large-scale stone relief friezes or extended statuary groups such as in Classical antiquity. Thus, for the origin of the extensive concept of these relief friezes, only one Aegean artistic medium comes into question, that is the large-scale stucco relief, an exclusive art form mainly concentrated at the palace of Knossos75 (fig. 34). Although A. Evans’ concept has been doubted for several reasons, a composition of two antithetical stucco relief friezes in the North Entrance Passage, as suggested by fig. 35, in the Great East Hall or in some other prominent place in the palace of Knossos may have formed the prototype of this iconography which was then highly influential for Minoan metalworkers, seal engravers and other artisans76.

Fig. 34 Northern Entrance Passage in the palace of Knossos, reconstruction (after Michailidou 1996, 93, fig. 46)

Fig. 35 Ground plan of the Northern part of the palace of Knossos with inscribed friezes of the Vapheio Cups (map after Evans 1928, 2, plan A; relief frieze after Winter 1890, fig. on p. 104)

5. A Compilation of Motifs in the Wall Paintings from Room 14 at Hagia Triada

  • 77 Halbherr 1903, 55–60, pls. VII–X; Stevenson Smith 1965, 77–9, figs. 106–110; Halbherr et al. 1980, (...)
  • 78 Militello 1992, 101–12; 1995, esp. 634–40; 1998, 251–53 with pl. 2; 2000, 85; Militello and La Ros (...)
  • 79 Popham 1974, 217–19, fig. 14 D, pls. 37 a–b.
  • 80 Sakellarakis 1991, 79, fig. 53; Sakellarakis and Sapouna-Sakellaraki 1997, 654–60, figs. 722–24.
  • 81 CMS II. 3, no. 114.
  • 82 For the Oxford ring see Evans 1928, 842, fig. 557; Sourvinou-Inwood 1971; Pini 1981, 138, 146–147; (...)
  • 83 Rehak 1997, 167–71 and esp. 163.
  • 84 Cameron 1987, 326, fig. 10 (reproduced laterally reversed); Evely 1999, 96 with fig.; 241–43 with (...)
  • 85 CMS II. 6, nos. 30–31; V Suppl. 1 A, no. 175. For this comparison see already Rehak 1997, 170, fig (...)
  • 86 For this motif see esp. Rehak 1992b, 50–57; Hiller 2001.
  • 87 Xenaki-Sakellariou 1985, 127–29, pl. 35 (nos. 2473 and 2475); Poursat 1977b, 93 (no. 299), pl. XXI (...)
  • 88 Schaeffer 1929, 292–93, pl. LVI; Kantor 1947, 86–89, pl. XXII J; Poursat 1999, 683–84, pl. CXLV a; (...)
  • 89 See esp. Marinatos 1988, 246, fig. 2; Rehak 1992b, 50–58, pls. X, XV a, XVIII a; Morgan 2005b, 167 (...)
  • 90 Cf. the reconstruction as “lion-goat” proposed by Taylour 1970, 277; Rehak 1992b, 54 with n. 157.

24Some prominent seal stones, signet rings and relief images may also enable a better understanding of the iconography of the tripartite mural paintings from Room 14 of Villa A at Hagia Triada (figs. 36 and 37). According to previous studies, this iconographical cycle is composed of a kneeling female figure in a natural setting including lily and crocus plants to the left side, a female figure with raised arms and in a bent position in front of an architectural construction on the smaller central wall in the main axis of the room, and a landscape with wild goats, cats and birds to the right side77. The kneeling woman on the mural scene on the left wall should not be interpreted as a flowerpicker or adorant. P. Militello78 has convincingly compared the scene with the iconographical motif of invocation of a deity (fig. 37), as it appears on gold rings from Sellopoulo79 (fig. 38), Archanes80, Kalyvia81 and other sites82. Regarding the central female figure, it seems questionable whether this goddess “raises her hands in an authoritative gesture” (P. Rehak83). Possibly we can ascribe to her a more concrete function. M. Cameron may have been right in linking the goddess with the animals in their natural setting depicted on the wall panel to the right84 (fig. 36). The most convincing combination of a seated or rather bent-over female figure with raised arms and accompanied by an agrimi is represented on seal impressions from Chania and Hagia Triada85 (figs. 39–41). This motif of a goddess feeding one or two goats86 is also well known from an ivory plaque from Mycenae87 and the ivory relief lid from Minet el-Beida (Ugarit)88 (fig. 42). The latter example probably constitutes a Levantine imitation of an Aegean motif, which was originally inspired by Near Eastern models. It is very likely that the fresco of the so-called Goddess with Grain feeding a quadruped from the Room of the Frescoes in the Cult Centre of Mycenae (fig. 43) constitutes a further example of this iconographic topos89. Although the traces of the animal accompanying this ‘Potnia theron’ have been interpreted as parts of a griffin or a lion, a reconstruction as some other animal to be fed by the plants in the goddess’s hands cannot be excluded90.

Fig. 36 Wall paintings from Room 14 at Hagia Triada, reconstruction by M. Cameron (after Cameron 1987, 326, fig. 10)

Fig. 37 Wall paintings from Room 14 at Hagia Triada, North wall, reconstruction by P. Militello (after Militello 1998, pl. 2).

Figs. 38 Gold ring from Sellopoulo (after Popham 1974, 218, fig. 14 Da).

  • 91 Militello 1998, 107–15; 2000, 79.
  • 92 See the reconstruction by Cameron, supra n. 84.

25Thus, it appears reasonable to perceive the goddess on the central wall at Hagia Triada not as dancing, but rather as holding bunches of plants in both raised hands and as turning her head to the right in the direction of the goats which are approaching her (fig. 36). Although the fragment showing a cat stalking a bird has been found at the left bottom corner of the south wall and a fragment with a jumping agrimi to its right side91, this does not exclude the possibility that one of the other goats was positioned above the cat and thus immediately in front of the central goddess92. Even if both or more agrimia were grouped together to the right side of the south wall, this would by no means exclude the possibility of a direct relation between the goddess and the goats running towards her. The architectural structure behind the goddess could best be understood as a podium-like seat.

  • 93 Cf. Morris 2004, 33.
  • 94 Militello and La Rosa 2000, 992–93. Cf. Militello 1998, 118–22, nos. V 5, 6, 8, 10, 11, 13, pls. 3 (...)

26If Militello’s reconstruction of a figure hugging large stones (considered to be baetyls) holds true (fig. 37), this motif well known in Minoan seal stones and gold rings was by no means confined to glyptic93, but occurred also in additional artistic media such as wall painting. Moreover, assuming that the reading of the iconography and the reconstruction proposed here are correct, the prominent ritual scene in the respective seal images can be related to a further iconographic topos of a goddess feeding flanking goats. There is no evidence of further motifs of ritual activity, such as pulling at a tree or branch or a female figure in rhythmic movement in the Hagia Triada painting. This, however, should not be categorically excluded, as Militello mentions plaster fragments which could indicate the presence of a third female figure94.

Figs. 39, 40, and 41 Seal images from Chania (after CMS V Suppl. 1A, no. 175) and Hagia Triada (after CMS II. 6, nos. 30 and 31)

  • 95 Cf. the comment of N. Marinatos in Rehak 1997, 174; Marinatos 1993, 149–50 with fig. 121.
  • 96 Supra n. 78.

27Thus, the tripartite wall paintings from Room 14 at Hagia Triada seem to represent a combination of at least two separate iconographic motifs, and make clear that the kneeling female to the left side is by no means directly addressed to or even worshipping the goddess in the centre, which was probably turned in the opposite direction95. Even if the mural painting to the left side represented an invocation or epiphany scene96, the image of the central goddess on the smaller wall most likely belongs to a different iconographic type. Nevertheless, the goddess constitutes the central figure of both iconographic sequences: she might be the goal of the ritual invocation by the kneeling woman (or girl?) to the left side and she is closely interrelated with the goats which she is going to feed. Moreover, the mural scenes from Room 14 at Hagia Triada demonstrate the distinct qualities of Minoan wall paintings: although large-scale figures and detailed depictions occur in stucco reliefs as well, the exuberant portrayal of different terrain forms and plants remains a speciality of paintings on the flat wall.

28In addition, this combination of two distinct motifs on the Hagia Triada murals and some obvious aspects of improvisation in the composition suggest that the original model of this iconographic cycle should be sought neither in seal glyptic nor in two-dimensional wall painting. In any case, these comparisons show that even this prominent cycle of ritual iconography was by no means confined to one distinct artistic medium. Although extensive landscape elements are mostly lacking in seal images, this comparison demonstrates the flexibility among Minoan artists in transferring figurative motifs from one artistic medium into another and in creating innovative combinations.

29In these and many further cases, Minoan seal images enable us to define the complex iconography of friezes in mural painting and stucco reliefs as well as on relief vessels of metal, stone and ivory. Images in these art genera by no means constituted individual, singular cases, but were strongly interrelated with each other.

Figs. 42 Ivory lid from Minet el-Beida (after Kantor 1947, pl. XXII J)

Figs. 43 Wall painting from the Cult Center at Mycenae (after Hampe and Simon 1980, pl. 76)

6. Conclusions

  • 97 See esp. Driessen 1989–90; Hitchcock 2000; Palyvou 2005a.

30I have to confess that – in contrast to the title of the present conference – my approach was anything but theory-based. Neither did I touch on social structures, nor was the aim of Aegean art to represent ‘realities’. However, one point becomes clear when we investigate the existence of iconographical cycles and the interrelationship of different art forms: Aegean iconography was essentially a matter of strictly ‘palatial’ concern, well comparable to what is called ‘palatial architectural forms’97. Therefore, it might be doubted whether a ‘non-official iconography’ of isolated, individual or private character ever existed during the palatial periods of the Aegean Bronze Age.

31What can be detected, though, is a certain hierarchy of artistic media. Above all, it is the art genre of seal glyptic which in many cases provides the ‘missing link’ for our comprehension of iconographical cycles well established especially in Neopalatial Crete and living on to a considerable degree until the late Mycenaean period. The lively exchange of iconographic motifs among Aegean art forms of different material, technique and size also paved the way for the establishing of iconographic standards and traditions which lasted for several centuries. Especially in images on seals and signet rings of Neopalatial Crete we recognize manifold relations and allusions to mural iconography transported on different levels: by reflections of architectural elements, by aspects of the artistic form and, last but not least, by the iconographic motifs themselves. Friezelike compositions indeed do not fit the round and oval forms of LM I seals and signet rings, but derive, without any doubt, from other art forms which were more conducive to scenes in registers. Similarly, nor were the walls of circular vessels suitable for highly complex and sophisticated compositions as in the case of many relief vases in Minoan Crete. From the example of the gold cups from Vapheio (fig. 30), we have seen that large-scale stucco reliefs could have formed the original artistic medium by which the iconographic standards were created. These were in turn taken up by artists working in different materials and techniques. The wall painting cycle from Villa A at Hagia Triada (figs. 36–37) informs us about the combination of iconographic formulae as well as the distinct qualities of the painting on a flat wall. Both case studies clearly demonstrated the close interconnections between mural images and minor art forms in Minoan Crete.

32Although Aegean arts show a strong tendency towards ‘miniaturization’, this should not blind us to the existence of one art genre which did present large-scale, polychrome relief images on walls – that is the Minoan stucco relief. Although it is difficult to prove this assumption on the basis of the preserved plaster fragments, there are many indications that larger-than-life sized figures in palatial wall reliefs could have constituted the original model for highly narrative figurative friezes as mirrored by certain images in seal glyptic and other minor arts.

  • 98 Blakolmer 2007b; 2010.

33One essential point is the basic difference between relief arts including seals on one hand and painting on a flat wall on the other hand. This latter required very special stylistic features such as the drawing of contours and a concentration on polychromy. Via a closer observation of the differences between fresco iconography and the thematic repertoire of the stucco reliefs in Minoan Crete, we gain the impression that in images painted on the flat wall the painters were unconstrained and flexible in their choice of motifs and their execution, whereas in stucco relief images they stuck to standardized iconographic formulae of figural scenes of humans and animals. Thus, rather standardized motif topoi spread out from the monumental stucco relief images on the walls of prominent areas in the palace of Knossos into most other artistic media98. Thanks to its ‘plastic qualities’ the Minoan stucco relief possessed much better preconditions for influencing small-scale relief art than paintings on a flat wall were able to do. Thus, the common principle that major art forms affect minor art forms appears to be valid also in the ‘artistic realm’ of the Aegean Bronze Age.

  • 99 Crowley 1999, 161–62.
  • 100 CMS II. 7, no. 3; Marinatos 2007b.

34The arts of Neopalatial Crete were essentially coined by the palatial ideologies of the Knossian elites. Their ‘images of power’ were most probably disseminated by means of artistic top-down mechanisms, that is, iconographic emblems were formulated and shaped in large-scale stucco reliefs – and to a lesser extent in mural paintings – in the palace of Knossos during the MM III and LM I periods. J. Crowley has remarked that Aegean seal images contained many essential themes seen in monumental relief and sculpture in the Near East and in Egypt99, best exemplified by the Proskynesis Sealing from Hagia Triada100. However, the only Minoan art form which probably possessed a similar symbolic value is the stucco relief. Art media such as precious ritual vessels as well as images on seals and sealings functioned as transmitters and distributors of representational motifs and thus served as a means for propagating iconographic concepts and iconological messages. Notably, the Knossos Replica Rings, precious metal rings from Neopalatial Crete, reproduced isolated extracts from extensive register scenes in concentrated, abbreviated or isolated form. These images, comparable to ‘quotations’, fulfilled the important ideological function of disseminating the complex iconography of the impressive, monumental stucco relief friezes on the walls of the palace at Knossos. Thus, the highly important decoration of Knossian palace architecture delivered the artistic models for the creation of ‘pictures of reminiscence’ spreading out into the wider Minoan realm.

Bibliographie

References

Akrivaki, N. 2003
“Τοιχογραφίες με παράσταση οδοντόφρακτου κράνους από την Ξεστή 4 του Ακρωτηρίου Θήρας.” In Αργονaύτης. Τιμητικός τόμος για τον καθηγητή Χρίστο Γ. Ντούμα από τους μαθητές του στο Πανεπιστήμιο Αθηνών (1980–2000), edited by A. Vlachopoulos and K. Birtacha, 527–41. Athens: Η Καθημερινή Α. E.

Åström, P., and B. Blomé. 1964
“A Reconstruction of the Lion Relief at Mycenae.” OpAth 5:159–91.

Betancourt, Ph. P. 1977
“Perspective and Third Dimension in Theran Painting.” In Temple University Aegean Symposium 2, edited by Ph. P. Betancourt, 19–22. Philadelphia: Temple University.

Betancourt, Ph. P. 2000
“The Concept of Space in Theran Compositional Systemics.” In Proceedings of the First International Symposium ‘The Wall Paintings of Thera’, Petros M. Nomikos Conference Centre, Thera, Hellas, 30 August–4 September 1997. Vol. I, edited by S. Sherratt, 359–63. Athens: Petros M. Nomikos and The Thera Foundation.

Bevan, A. 2007
Stone Vessels in the Bronze Age Mediterranean. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Bietak, M. 2007
“Introduction: Context and Date of the Wall Paintings.” In Taureador Scenes in Tell el-Dabc a (Avaris) and Knossos, edited by M. Bietak, N. Marinatos, and C. Palyvou, 13–43. Denkschriften der Gesamtakademie 43 and Untersuchungen der Zweigstelle Kairo des Österreichischen Archäologischen Instituts 27. Vienna: Verlag der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften.

Blakolmer, F. 2001
“Das minoisch-mykenische Stuckrelief. Zur Definition einer palatialen Kunstgattung der ägäischen Bronzezeit.” In Akten des 8. Österreichischen Archäologentages vom 23. bis 25. April 1999 am Institut für Klassische Archäologie der Universität Wien, edited by F. Blakolmer and H. D. Szemethy, 19–36. Wiener Forschungen zur Archäologie 4. Vienna: Phoibos.

Blakolmer, F. 2005
“Chaos und Ordnung. Ein ägyptischer Antagonismus in der minoischen Ikonographie des Stieres.” In Synergia. Festschrift für Friedrich Krinzinger. Vol. 2, edited by B. Brandt, V. Gassner, and S. Ladstätter, 135–42. Vienna: Phoibos.

Blakolmer, F. 2006
“The Minoan Stucco Relief: A Palatial Art Form in Context.” In Πεπραγμένα του Θ'Διεθνούς Κρητολογικού Συνεδρίου, Ελούντα, 1–6 Οκτωβρίου 2001. Vol. 1, pt. 1, edited by E. Tampakaki and A. Kaloutsakis, 9–25. Irakleio: Εταιρία Κρητικών Ιστορικών Μελετών.

Blakolmer, F. 2007a
“Minoisch-mykenische ‘Prozessionsfresken’: Überlegungen zu den dargestellten und den nicht dargestellten Gaben.” In Keimelion. The Formation of Elites and Elitist Lifestyles from Mycenaean Palatial Times to the Homeric Period. Akten des internationalen Kongresses vom 3. bis 5. Februar 2005 in Salzburg, edited by E. Alram-Stern and G. Nightingale, 41–57. Denkschriften der Gesamtakademie 350 and Veröffentlichungen der Mykenischen Kommission 27. Vienna: Verlag der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften.

Blakolmer, F. 2007b
“Vom Wandrelief in die Kleinkunst: Transformationen des Stierbildes in der minoisch-mykenischen Reliefkunst.” In ΣΤΕΦΑΝΟΣ ΑΡΙΣΤΕΙΟΣ. Archäologische Forschungen zwischen Nil und Istros. Festschrift für Stefan Hiller zum 65. Geburtstag, edited by F. Lang, C. Reinholdt, and J. Weilhartner, 31–47. Vienna: Phoibos.

Blakolmer, F. 2007c
“Der autochthone Stil der Schachtgräberperiode im bronzezeitlichen Griechenland als Zeugnis für eine mittelhelladische Bildkunst.” ÖJh 76:65–88.

Blakolmer, F. 2010
“Small is Beautiful. The Significance of Aegean Glyptic for the Study of Wall Paintings, Relief Frescoes and Minor Relief Arts.” In Die Bedeutung der minoischen und mykenischen Glyptik. VI. Internationales Siegel-Symposium aus Anlass des 50-jährigen Bestehens des CMS, Marburg, 9.–12. Oktober 2008, edited by W. Müller, 91–108. CMS Suppl. 8. Mainz: Philipp von Zabern.

Blakolmer, F. 2011
“Vom Thronraum in Knossos zum Löwentor von Mykene: Kontinuitäten in Bildkunst und Palastideologie.” In Österreichische Forschungen zur Ägäischen Bronzezeit 2009. Akten der Tagung am Fachbereich Altertumswissenschaften der Paris Lodron-Universität Salzburg vom 6. bis 7. März 2009, edited by F. Blakolmer, C. Reinholdt, J. Weilhartner, and G. Nightingale, 63–80. Vienna: Phoibos.

Blakolmer, F. Forthcoming “Spazio pittorico e prospettiva nell’età del Bronzo in Grecia.” In Rappresentazione, pratica e percezione dello spazio nell’età preclassica, edited by P. Militello. Praehistorica Mediterranea.

Blegen, C. W. 1956
“The Palace of Nestor. Excavations of 1955.” AJA 60:95–101.

Bloedow, E. F. 1990
“The ‘Sanctuary Rhyton’ from Zakros: What Do the Goats Mean?” Aegaeum 6:59–78.

Bloedow, E. F. 1996
“The Lions of the Lion Gate at Mycenae.” In Atti e Memorie del Secondo Congresso Internazionale di Micenologia, Roma–Napoli, 14–20 ottobre 1991. Vol. 3, edited by E. De Miro, L. Godart, and A. Sacconi, 1159–66. Incunabula Graeca 98. Rome: Gruppo editoriale internazionale.

Borchhardt, J. 1972.
Homerische Helme. Helmformen der Ägäis in ihren Beziehungen zu orientalischen und europäischen Helmen in der Bronze-und frühen Eisenzeit. Mainz: Philipp von Zabern.

Boulotis, Ch. 1987
“Nochmals zum Prozessionsfresko von Knossos: Palast und Darbringung von Prestige-Objekten.” In The Function of the Minoan Palaces. Proceedings of the Fourth International Symposium at the Swedish Institute in Athens, edited by R. Hägg and N. Marinatos, 145–56. SkrAth 4°, 35. Stockholm: Paul Åströms Förlag.

Boulotis, Ch. 1992
“Προβλήματα της Αιγαιακής ζωγραφικής και οι τοιχογραφίες του Ακρωτηριού.” In Ακρωτήρι Θήρας. Είκοσι χρόνια έρευνες (1967–1987). Ημερίδα, Αθήναι, 19 Δεκεμβρίου 1989, edited by Ch. Doumas, 81–93. Athens: Η εν Αθήναις Αρχαιολογική Εταιρεία.

Boulotis, Ch. 1995
“Αιγαιακές τοιχογραφίες: ένας πολύχρωμος αφηγηματικός λόγος.” Αρχαιολογία & Τέχνες 55 (June 1995): 13–32.

Boulotis, Ch. 2005
“Aspects of Religious Expression at Akrotiri.” ΑΛΣ 3:20–75.

Cameron, M. A. S. 1976
“On Theoretical Principles in Aegean Bronze Age Mural Restoration.” In Temple University Aegean Symposium 1, edited by Ph. P. Betancourt, 20–41. Philadelphia: Temple University.

Cameron, M. A. S. 1987
“The ‘Palatial’ Thematic System in the Knossos Murals. Last Notes on Knossos Frescoes.” In The Function of the Minoan Palaces. Proceedings of the Fourth International Symposium at the Swedish Institute in Athens, edited by R. Hägg and N. Marinatos, 321–28. SkrAth 4°, 35. Stockholm: Paul Åströms Förlag.

Cameron, M., and S. Hood, eds. 1967
Sir Arthur Evans’Knossos Fresco Atlas. Farnborough: Gregg Press.

Caubet, A., and V. Matoian. 1995
“Ougarit et l’Égée.” In Ras Shamra-Ougarit XI. Le pays d’Ougarit autour de 1200 av. J.-C.: Histoire et archéologie. Actes du Colloque international, Paris, 28 juin–1er juillet 1993, edited by M. Yon, M. Sznycer, and P. Bordreuil, 99–112. Paris: Éditions Recherche sur les Civilisations.

Chantraine, P., and A. Dessenne. 1957
“Sur quelques termes mycéniens relatifs au travail de l’ivoire, et notamment qe-qi-no-me-no et qe-qi-no-to.” RÉG 70:301–11.

Chapin, A. P. 1995
“Landscape and Space in Aegean Bronze Age Art.” Ph. D. diss., Universities of North Carolina at Chapel Hill and Ann Arbor.

Chapin, A. P. 2004
“Power, Privilege, and Landscape in Minoan Art.” In ΧΑΡΙΣ. Essays in Honor of Sara A. Immerwahr, edited by A. P. Chapin, 47–64. Hesperia Suppl. 33. Princeton, NJ: The American School of Classical Studies at Athens.

Chapin, A. P., and M. C. Shaw. 2006
“The Frescoes from the House of the Frescoes at Knossos: a Reconsideration of their Architectural Context and a New Reconstruction of the Crocus Panel.” BSA 101:57–88.

Cornelius, I. 2004
The Many Faces of the Goddess. Orbis biblicus et orientalis 204. Fribourg and Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht.

Crowley, J. L. 1999
“Essay on Ten Precious Gems: Originality in Aegean Art.” In MELETEMATA. Studies in Aegean Archaeology Presented to Malcolm H. Wiener as He Enters His 65th Year. Vol. 1, edited by Ph. P. Betancourt, V. Karageorghis, R. Laffineur, and W.-D. Niemeier, 155–63. Aegaeum 20. Liège and Austin: Université de Liège, Histoire de l’art et archéologie de la Grèce antique, and University of Texas at Austin, Program in Aegean Scripts and Prehistory.

Curti, M. 1999
“Ipotesi sul c. d. capitello fenestrato. Origine, forma, funzione.” In Επί Πόντον Πλαζόμενοι. Simposio italiano di Studi Egei (dedicato a Luigi Bernabò Brea e Giovanni Pugliese Carratelli), Roma, 18–20 febbraio 1998, edited by V. La Rosa, D. Palermo, and L. Vagnetti, 133–40. Rome: Scuola Archeologica Italiana di Atene.

Danielidou, D. 1998
Η οκτώσχημη ασπίδα στο Αιγαίο της 2ης π. Χ. χιλιετίας. Athens: Akademia Athenon.

Dauphin, C. 1978
“Byzantine Pattern Books: a Re-Examination of the Problem in the Light of the ‘Inhabited Scroll’.” Art History 1:400–23.

Davis, E. 1977
The Vapheio Cups and Aegean Gold and Silver Ware. New York and London: Outstanding Dissertations in the Fine Arts, 2nd Series. Garland.

Davis, E. 1987
“The Knossos Miniature Frescoes and the Function of the Central Court.” In The Function of the Minoan Palaces. Proceedings of the Fourth International Symposium at the Swedish Institute in Athens, edited by R. Hägg and N. Marinatos, 157–61. SkrAth 4°, 35. Stockholm: Paul Åströms Förlag.

Decker, W. 1995
Sport und Spiel in der griechischen Antike. Munich: Verlag C. H. Beck.

Donderer, M. 2005
“Und es gab sie doch! Ein neuer Papyrus und das Zeugnis der Mosaiken belegen die Verwendung antiker ‘Musterbücher ‘.” AntW 36 (2): 59–68.

Donderer, M. 2005–2006
“Antike Musterbücher und (k)ein Ende. Ein neuer Papyrus und die Aussage der Mosaiken.” Musiva & Sectilia 2–3:81–113.

Doumas, Ch. G. 1987
“Η ξεστή 3 και οι κυανοκέφαλοι στην τέχνη της Θήρας.” In Ειλαπίνη. Τόμος τιμητικός για τον καθηγητή Νικόλαο Πλάτωνα, edited by L. Kastranaki, G. Orphanou, and N. Giannadakis, 151–58. Irakleio: Βικελαία Δημοτική Βιβλιοθήκη.

Doumas, Ch. G. 1992
The Wall-Paintings of Thera. Athens: The Thera Foundation.

Driessen, J. 1989–90 “The Proliferation of Minoan Palatial Architectural Style: (I) Crete.” ActaArchLov 28–29:3–23.

Eichinger, W. 2004
Die minoisch-mykenische Säule. Form und Verwendung eines Baugliedes der ägäischen Bronzezeit. Hamburg: Verlag Dr. Kovaç.

Evans, A. J. 1901
The Mycenaean Tree and Pillar Cult and its Mediterranean Relations. London: Macmillan.

Evans, A. J. 1914
“The Tomb of the Double Axes and Associated Group.” Archaeologia or Miscellaneous Tracts Relating to Antiquity 65:1–94.

Evans, A. J. 1921
“On a Minoan Bronze Group of a Galloping Bull and Acrobatic Figure from Crete.” JHS 41:247–59.

Evans, A. 1921
The Palace of Minos: a Comparative Account of the Successive Stages of the Early Cretan Civilization as Illustrated by the Discoveries at Knossos. Vol. 1. London: Macmillan.

Evans, A. 1928
The Palace of Minos: a Comparative Account of the Successive Stages of the Early Cretan Civilization as Illustrated by the Discoveries at Knossos. Vol. 2. London: Macmillan.

Evans, A. 1930
The Palace of Minos: a Comparative Account of the Successive Stages of the Early Cretan Civilization as Illustrated by the Discoveries at Knossos. Vol. 3. London: Macmillan.

Evans, A. 1935
The Palace of Minos: a Comparative Account of the Successive Stages of the Early Cretan Civilization as Illustrated by the Discoveries at Knossos. Vol. 4. London: Macmillan.

Evely, D., ed. 1999
Fresco: A Passport into the Past. Minoan Crete through the Eyes of Mark Cameron. Athens: The British School at Athens.

Forsdyke, J. 1952
“Minos of Crete.” JWarb 15: 13–19.

Foster, K. P. 1979
Aegean Faience of the Bronze Age. New Haven and London: Yale University Press.

Foster, K.P., 1982
Minoan Ceramic Relief. SIMA 64. Gothenburg: Paul Åströms Förlag.

Gallo, M. 2005
“Per una riconsiderazione del betilo in ambito minoico.” Creta Antica 6:47–58.

Gates, M.-H. 1992
“Mycenaean Art for a Levantine Market? The Ivory Lid from Minet el Beidha/Ugarit.” In ΕΙΚΩΝ. Aegean Bronze Age Iconography: Shaping a Methodology. Proceedings of the 4th International Aegean Conference, University of Tasmania, Hobart, Australia, 6–9 April 1992, edited by R. Laffineur and J. L. Crowley, 77–84. Aegaeum 8. Liège: Université de Liège, Histoire de l’art et archéologie de la Grèce antique.

Graham, J.W. 1962
The Palaces of Crete. Princeton, NJ: University Press.

Hägg, R., and Y. Lindau. 1984
“The Minoan ‘Snake Frame’ Reconsidered.” OpAth 15:67–77.

Halbherr, F. 1903
“Resti dell’età micenea scoperti ad H. Triada presso Phaestos.” MonAnt 13:5–74.

Halbherr, F., E. Stefani, and L. Banti. 1980
Haghia Triada nel periodo tardo palaziale. ASAtene 55 (N. S. 39). Rome: L’Erma di Brettschneider.

Hampe, R., and E. Simon. 1980
Tausend Jahre Frühgriechische Kunst. Munich: Hirmer.

Higgins, R. 1956
“The Archaeological Background to the Furniture Tablets from Pylos.” BICS 3:39–44.

Hiller, S. 1971
“Beinhaltet die Ta-Serie ein Kultinventar?” Eirene 9:69–86.

Hiller, S. 1973
“Das Löwentor von Mykene.” AntW 4 (4): 21–30.

Hiller, S. 1996
“Knossos and Pylos. A Case of Special Relationship?” Cretan Studies 5:73–83.

Hiller, S. 2001
“Potnia/Potnios Aigon. On the Religious Aspects of Goats in the Aegean Late Bronze Age.” In POTNIA. Deities and Religion in the Aegean Bronze Age, Proceedings of the 8th International Aegean Conference, Göteborg, Göteborg University, 12–15 April 2000, edited by R. Laffineur and R. Hägg, 293–304. Aegaeum 22. Liège: Université de Liège, Histoire de l’art et archéologie de la Grèce antique.

Hiller, S. 2005
“The Spiral as a Symbol of Sovereignty and Power.” In Autochthon. Papers Presented to O. T. P. K. Dickinson on the Occasion of his Retirement, Institute of Classical Studies, University of London, 9 November 2005, edited by A. Dakouri-Hild and S. Sherratt, 259–70. BAR-IS 1432. Oxford: Archaeopress.

Hiller, S. 2006
“The Throne Room and Great East Hall. Questions of Iconography.” In Πεπραγμένα του Θ'Διεθνούς Κρητολογικού Συνεδρίου, Ελούντα, 1–6 Οκτωβρίου 2001. Vol. 1, pt. 1, edited by E. Tampakaki and A. Kaloutsakis, 245–58. Irakleio: Η Εταιρία Κρητικών Ιστορικών Μελετών.

Hitchcock, L. A. 2000
Minoan Architecture. A Contextual Analysis. SIMA-PB 155. Jonsered: Paul Åströms Förlag.

Hood, S. 1978
The Arts in Prehistoric Greece. Harmondsworth: Penguin Books.

Hughes, H.M.C., and P. Warren. 1963
“Two Sealstones from Mochlos.” CretChron 17:352–55.

Hult, G. 1983
Bronze Age Ashlar Masonry in the Eastern Mediterranean: Cyprus, Ugarit, and Neighbouring Regions. SIMA 66. Gothenburg: Paul Åströms Förlag.

Hurst, A., and F. Bruschweiler. 1979
“Description d’objets à Pylos et dans l’Orient contemporain.” In Colloquium Mycenaeum. Actes du sixième Colloque international sur les textes mycéniens et égéens, Neuchâtel 1975, edited by E. Risch and H. Mühlestein, 65–80. Neuchâtel and Geneva: Faculté des Lettres.

Iliakis, K. 1978
“Morphological Analysis of the Akrotiri Wall-Paintings of Santorini.” In Thera and the Aegean World, Papers Presented at the Second International Scientific Congress, Santorini, Greece. Vol. I, edited by Ch. Doumas, 617–28. London: Thera and the Aegean World.

Immerwahr, S.A. 1985
“A Possible Influence of Egyptian Art in the Creation of Minoan Wall Painting.” In L’iconographie minoenne. Actes de la table ronde d’Athènes (21–22 avril 1983), edited by P. Darcque and J.-C. Poursat, 41–50. BCH Suppl. 11. Athens and Paris: École française d’Athènes.

Immerwahr, S. A. 1990
Aegean Painting in the Bronze Age. University Park, PA: Pennsylvania State University Press.

Immerwahr, S. A. 2000
“Thera and Knossos: Relation of the Paintings to their Architectural Space.” In Proceedings of the First International Symposium ‘The Wall Paintings of Thera’, Petros M. Nomikos Conference Centre, Thera, Hellas, 30 August–4 September 1997. Vol. I, edited by S. Sherratt, 467–90. Athens: Petros M. Nomikos and The Thera Foundation.

Jones, B.R. 2005
“The Clothes-Line: Imports and Exports of Aegean Cloth(es) and Iconography.” In EMPORIA. Aegeans in the Central and Eastern Mediterranean. Proceedings of the 10th International Aegean Conference, Athens, Italian School of Archaeology, 14–18 April 2004. Vol. 2, edited by R. Laffineur and E. Greco, 707–15. Aegaeum 25. Liège: Université de Liège, Histoire de l’art et archéologie de la Grèce antique.

Jones, B.R. 2007
“A Reconsideration of the Kneeling Figure Fresco from Hagia Triada.” In Krinoi kai Limenes. Studies in Honor of Joseph and Maria Shaw, edited by Ph. P. Betancourt, M. C. Nelson, and H. Williams, 151–58. Prehistory Monographs 22. Philadelphia: INSTAP Academic Press.

Kaiser, B. 1976
Untersuchungen zum minoischen Relief. Bonn: Habelts Dissertationsdrucke.

Kaltsas, N. 2007
The National Archaeological Museum. Athens: John S. Latsis Public Benefit Foundation.

Kantor, H. 1947
“The Aegean and the Orient in the Second Millennium B. C.” AJA 51:1–103.

Kantor, H. 1960
“Ivory Carving in the Mycenaean Period.” Archaeology 13 (1): 14–25.

Karo, G. 1930
Die Schachtgräber von Mykenai. Munich: Verlag F. Bruckmann AG.

Kenna, V.E.G. 1960
Cretan Seals with a Catalogue of the Minoan Gems in the Ashmolean Museum. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Kilian-Dirlmeier, I. 1987
“Das Kuppelgrab von Vapheio: Die Beigabenausstattung in der Steinkiste. Untersuchungen zur Sozialstruktur in späthelladischer Zeit.” JRGZM 34 (1): 197–212.

Killen, J.T. 1999
“The Pylos Ta Tablets Revisited.” BCH 122:421–22.

Koehl, R.B. 1986
“The Chieftain Cup and a Minoan Rite of Passage.” JHS 106:99–110.

Krattenmaker, K. 1999
“The Shield Fresco in the Palace of Knossos Reconsidered.” AJA 103:315.

Krzyszkowska, O. 2005
Aegean Seals. An Introduction. London: Institute of Classical Studies.

Kyriakidis, E. 2000–2001
“Pithos or Baetyl? On the Interpretation of a Group of Minoan Rings.” OpAth 25–26:117–18.

Laffineur, R. 1977
Les vases en métal précieux à l’époque mycénienne. SIMA-PB 4. Gothenburg: Paul Åströms Förlag.

Laffineur, R. 1990a
“Composition and Perspective in Theran Wall-Paintings.” In Thera and the Aegean World III. Proceedings of the Third International Congress. Vol. 1, edited by D. A. Hardy, Ch. G. Doumas, J. A. Sakellarakis, and P. M. Warren, 246–51. London: Thera and the Aegean World.

Laffineur, R. 1990b
“The Iconography of Mycenaean Seals and the Status of their Owner.” Aegaeum 6:117–60.

Laffineur, R. 1992
“Iconography as Evidence of Social and Political Status in Mycenaean Greece.” In ΕΙΚΩΝ. Aegean Bronze Age Iconography: Shaping a Methodology. Proceedings of the 4th International Aegean Conference, University of Tasmania, Hobart, Australia, 6–9 April 1992, edited by R. Laffineur and J. L. Crowley, 105–12. Aegaeum 8. Liège: Université de Liège, Histoire de l’art et archéologie de la Grèce antique.

Laffineur, R. 2000
“The Iconography of Mycenaean Seals as Social Indicator: Further Reflections.” In Minoischmykenische Glyptik. Stil, Ikonographie, Funktion. V. Internationales Siegel-Symposium, Marburg, 23.–25. September 1999, edited by I. Pini, 165–79. CMS Suppl. 6. Berlin: Gebr. Mann.

Laffineur, R. 2005
“Les chapiteaux chevillés. Propos sur l’architecture minoenne en matériaux périssables.” In ΚΡΗΣ ΤΕΧΝΙΤΗΣ. L’artisan crétois. Recueil d’articles en l’honneur de Jean-Claude Poursat, publié à l’occasion des 40 ans de la découverte du Quartier Mu, edited by I. Bradfer-Burdet, B. Detournay, and R. Laffineur, 131–37. Aegaeum 26, Liège: Université de Liège, Histoire de l’art et archéologie de la Grèce antique.

La Rosa, V. 2001
“Minoan Baetyls: Between Funerary Rituals and Epiphanies.” In POTNIA. Deities and Religion in the Aegean Bronze Age, Proceedings of the 8th International Aegean Conference, Göteborg, Göteborg University, 12–15 April 2000, edited by R. Laffineur and R. Hägg, 221–26. Aegaeum 22. Liège: Université de Liège.

Logue, W. 2004
“Set in Stone: the Role of Relief-Carved Stone Vessels in Neopalatial Minoan Elite Propaganda.” BSA 99:149–72.

Lolling, H.G. 1880
Das Kuppelgrab bei Menidi. Athens: Karl Wilberg.

Maran, J., and E. Stavrianopoulou. 2007
“Πότνιος’Ανήρ – Reflections on the Ideology of Mycenaean Kingship.” In Keimelion. The Formation of Elites and Elitist Lifestyles from Mycenaean Palatial Times to the Homeric Period. Akten des internationalen Kongresses vom 3. bis 5. Februar 2005 in Salzburg, edited by E. Alram-Stern and G. Nightingale, 285–98. Denkschriften der Gesamtakademie 350. Vienna: Verlag der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften.

Marinatos, N. 1983
“The West House at Akrotiri as a Cult Centre.” AM 98:1 – 19.

Marinatos, N. 1984
Art and Religion in Thera. Reconstructing a Bronze Age Society. Athens: D. and I. Mathioulakis.

Marinatos, N. 1985
“The Function and Interpretation of the Theran Frescoes.” In L’iconographie minoenne. Actes de la table ronde d’Athènes (21–22 avril 1983), edited by P. Darcque and J.-C. Poursat, 219–30. BCH Suppl. 11. Athens and Paris: École française d’Athènes.

Marinatos, N. 1988
“The Fresco From Room 31 at Mycenae: Problems of Method and Interpretation.” In Problems in Greek Prehistory. Papers Presented at the Centenary Conference of the British School of Archaeology at Athens, Manchester, April 1986, edited by E. B. French and K. A. Wardle, 245–51. Bristol: Bristol Classical Press.

Marinatos, N. 1990
“The Tree, the Stone and the Pithos: Glimpses into a Minoan Ritual.” Aegaeum 6:127–43.

Marinatos, N. 1993
Minoan Religion. Ritual, Image, and Symbol. Columbia: University of South Carolina.

Marinatos, N. 2007a
“Rosette and Palm on the Bull Frieze from Tell el-Dabc a and the Minoan Solar Goddess of Kingship.” In Taureador Scenes in Tell el-Dabc a (Avaris) and Knossos, edited by M. Bietak, N. Marinatos, and C. Palyvou, 145–50. Denkschriften der Gesamtakademie 43 and Untersuchungen der Zweigstelle Kairo des Österreichischen Archäologischen Instituts 27. Vienna: Verlag der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften.

Marinatos, N. 2007b
“Proskynesis and Minoan Theocracy.” In ΣΤΕΦΑΝΟΣ ΑΡΙΣΤΕΙΟΣ. Archäologische Forschungen zwischen Nil und Istros. Festschrift für Stefan Hiller zum 65. Geburtstag, edited by F. Lang, C. Reinholdt, and J. Weilhartner, 179–85. Vienna: Phoibos.

Marinatos, S., and M. Hirmer. 1973
Kreta, Thera und das mykenische Hellas, 2nd ed. Munich: Hirmer.

Matz, F. 1956
Kreta, Mykene, Troja. Die minoische und die homerische Welt. Stuttgart: Gustav Kilpper Verlag.

Michailidou, A. 1996
Knossos. Ein Führer durch den Palast des Minos. Athens: Εκδοτική Αθηνών.

Militello, P. 1992
“Uno Hieron nella villa di Haghia Triada?” Sileno 18:101–12.

Militello, P. 1995
“Οι νωπογραφίες της ύστερης ανακτορικής περιόδου στην Αγία Τριάδα.” In Πεπραγμένα του Ζ'Διεθνούς Κρητολογικού Συνεδρίου. Vol. I, pt. 2, edited by Ν. Ε. Papadogiannakis, 631–42. Rethymno: Εταιρία Κρητικών Ιστορικών Μελετών.

Militello, P. 1998
Haghia Triada. Vol. 1, Gli affreschi. Padova: Bottega d’Erasmo.

Militello, P. 2000
“Nilotic Models and Local Reelaboration: the Hagia Triada Example.” In Κρήτη–Αίγυπτος. Πολιτισμικοί δεσμοί τριών χιλιετιών, edited by A. Karetsou, 78–85. Athens: Υπουργείο Πολιτισμού.

Militello, P. 2003
“Il Rhytòn dei Lottatori e le scene di combattimento: battaglie, duelli, agoni e competizioni nella Creta neopalaziale.” Creta Antica 4:359–401.

Militello, P., and V. La Rosa. 2000
“New Data on Fresco Painting from Ayia Triada.” In Proceedings of the First International Symposium ‘The Wall Paintings of Thera’, Petros M. Nomikos Conference Centre, Thera, Hellas, 30 August – 4 September 1997. Vol. II, edited by S. Sherratt, 991–97. Athens: Petros M. Nomikos and The Thera Foundation.

Mirié, S. 1979
Das Thronraumareal des Palastes von Knossos. Versuch einer Neuinterpretation seiner Entstehung und seiner Funktion. Saarbrücker Beiträge zur Altertumskunde 26. Bonn: Habelt.

Morgan, L. 1988
The Miniature Wall Paintings of Thera. A Study in Aegean Culture and Iconography. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Morgan, L., ed. 2005a
Aegean Wall Painting. A Tribute to Mark Cameron. BSA Studies 13. London: The British School at Athens.

Morgan, L. 2005b
“The Cult Centre at Mycenae and the Duality of Life and Death.” In Aegean Wall Painting. A Tribute to Mark Cameron, edited by L. Morgan, 159–71. BSA Studies 13. London: The British School at Athens.

Morris, Ch. 2004
“‘Art Makes Visible’: an Archaeology of the Senses in Minoan Élite Art.” In Material Engagements. Studies in Honour of Colin Renfrew, edited by N. Brodie and C. Hills, 31–43. Cambridge: McDonald Institute Monographs.

Müller, K. 1915
“Frühmykenische Reliefs aus Kreta und vom griechischen Festland.” JdI 30:242–336.

Mylonas, G.E. 1957
Ancient Mycenae. The Capital City of Agamemnon. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Mylonas, G.E. 1965
“Η ακρόπολις των Μυκηνών II.” ArchEph 1962:74–100.

Mylonas, G.E. 1966
Mycenae and the Mycenaean Age. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Niemeier, W.-D. 1985
Die Palaststilkeramik von Knossos. Stil, Chronologie und historischer Kontext. AF 13. Berlin: Gebr. Mann.

Niemeier, W.-D. 1986
“Zur Deutung des Thronraumes im Palast von Knossos.” AM 101:63–95.

Niemeier, W.-D. 1989
“Zur Ikonographie von Gottheiten und Adoranten in den Kultszenen auf minoischen und mykenischen Siegeln.” In Fragen und Probleme der bronzezeitlichen ägäischen Glyptik. Beiträge zum 3. Internationalen Siegel-Symposium, 5.–7. September 1985, edited by I. Pini, 163–84. CMS Suppl. 3. Berlin: Gebr. Mann.

Nilsson, M. P. 1968
The Minoan-Mycenaean Religion and its Survival in Greek Religion. 2nd ed. Lund: Skrifter Utgivna av Kungl. Humanistiska Vetenskapssamfundet i Lund.

Nörling, Th. 1995
Altägäische Architekturbilder. Archaeologica Heidelbergensia 2. Mainz: Philipp von Zabern.

Palmer, L. R. 1957
“A Mycenaean Tomb Inventory.” Minos 5:58–92.

Palyvou, C. 2000
“Concepts of Space in Aegean Bronze Age Art and Architecture.” In Proceedings of the First International Symposium ‘The Wall Paintings of Thera’, Petros M. Nomikos Conference Centre, Thera, Hellas, 30 August – 4 September 1997. Vol. I, edited by S. Sherratt, 413–36. Athens: Petros M. Nomikos and The Thera Foundation.

Palyvou, C. 2005a
Akrotiri Thera. An Architecture of Affluence 3,500 Years Old. Philadelphia: INSTAP Academic Press.

Palyvou, C. 2005b
“Architecture in Aegean Bronze Age Art: Façades with no Interiors.” In Aegean Wall Painting. A Tribute to Mark Cameron, edited by L. Morgan, 185–97. BSA Studies 13. London: The British School at Athens.

Papatsaroucha, E. 2005
“La pierre et l’objet double: Questions iconographiques de la glyptique minoenne.” In ΚΡΗΣ ΤΕΧΝΙΤΗΣ. L’artisan crétois. Recueil d’articles en l’honneur de Jean-Claude Poursat, publié à l’occasion des 40 ans de la découverte du Quartier Mu, edited by I. Bradfer-Burdet, B. Detournay, and R. Laffineur, 177–84. Aegaeum 26. Liège: Université de Liège, Histoire de l’art et archéologie de la Grèce antique.

Perrot, G., and Ch. Chipiez. 1894
Histoire de l’art dans l’antiquité VI. La Grèce primitive, l’art mycénien. Paris: Hachette.

Peterson, S. E. 1981
“Wall Paintings in the Aegean Bronze Age: The Procession Frescoes.” Ph. D. diss., University of Minnesota.

Pini, I. 1981
“Echt oder falsch? – Einige Fälle.” In Studien zur minoischen und helladischen Glyptik. Beiträge zum 2. Marburger Siegel-Symposium 26.–30. September 1978, edited by I. Pini, 135–57. CMS Suppl. 1. Berlin: Gebr. Mann.

Pini, I. 1983
“Neue Beobachtungen zu den tönernen Siegelabdrücken von Zakros.” AA: 559–72.

Pini, I. 1996
“Die minoisch-mykenische Glyptik: Ergebnisse und offene Fragen.” In Atti e Memorie del Secondo Congresso Internazionale di Micenologia, Roma – Napoli, 14–20 ottobre 1991. Vol. 3, edited by E. De Miro, L. Godart, and A. Sacconi, 1091 – 100. Incunabula Graeca 98. Rome: Gruppo editoriale internazionale.

Pini, I. 1997
Die Tonplomben aus dem Nestorpalast von Pylos. Mainz: Philipp von Zabern.

Pini, I. 2000
“Der Aussagewert von Bildthemen für die Chronologie der spätbronzezeitlichen Glyptik.” In Minoisch-mykenische Glyptik. Stil, Ikonographie, Funktion. V. Internationales Siegel-Symposium, Marburg, 23.–25. September 1999, edited by I. Pini, 239–44. CMS Suppl. 6. Berlin: Gebr. Mann.

Platon, L. 2003
“Το ανάγλυφο ρυτό της Ζάκρου, κάτω από ένα νέο σημασιολογικό πρίσμα.” In Αργονaύτης. Τιμητικός τόμος για τον καθηγητή Χρίστο Γ. Ντούμα από τους μαθητές του στο Πανεπιστήμιο Αθηνών (1980–2000), edited by A. Vlachopoulos and K. Birtacha, 331–66. Athens: Η Καθημερινή Α. E.

Platon, N. 1971
Zakros. The Discovery of a Lost Palace of Ancient Greece. New York: Scribner’s Sons.

Platonos-Giota, M. 2004
Αχαρναί. Acharnes: Demos Acharnon.

Popham, M. R. 1974
“Sellopoulo Tombs 3 and 4, Two Late Minoan Graves near Knossos.” BSA 69:195–257.

Poursat, J.-C. 1977a
Les ivoires mycéniens. Essai sur la formation d’un art mycénien. BÉFAR 230. Paris: École française d’Athènes.

Poursat, J.-C. 1977b
Catalogue des ivoires mycéniens du Musée National d’Athènes. BÉFAR 230. Paris: École française d’Athènes.

Poursat, J.-C. 1999
“Ivoires chypro-égéens: De Chypre à Minet-el-Beida et Mycènes.” In MELETEMATA. Studies in Aegean Archaeology Presented to Malcolm H. Wiener as He Enters His 65th Year. Vol. 3, edited by Ph. P. Betancourt, V. Karageorghis, R. Laffineur, and W.-D. Niemeier, 683–88. Aegaeum 20. Liège and Austin: Université de Liège, Histoire de l’art et archéologie de la Grèce antique, and University of Texas at Austin, Program in Aegean Scripts and Prehistory.

Poursat, J.-C. 2008
L’art égéen 1. Grèce, Cyclades, Crète jusqu’au milieu du IIe millénaire av. J.-C. Paris: Éditions A. et J. Picard.

Rehak, P. 1992a
“Minoan Vessels with Figure-Eight Shields.” OpAth 19:115–24.

Rehak, P. 1992b
“Tradition and Innovation in the Fresco from Room 31 in the ‘Cult Center’ at Mycenae.” In ΕΙΚΩΝ. Aegean Bronze Age Iconography: Shaping a Methodology. Proceedings of the 4th International Aegean Conference, University of Tasmania, Hobart, Australia, 6–9 April 1992, edited by R. Laffineur and J. L. Crowley, 39–62. Aegaeum 8. Liège: Université de Liège, Histoire de l’art et archéologie de la Grèce antique.

Rehak, P. 1996
“Aegean Breechcloth, Kilts, and the Keftiu Paintings.” AJA 100:35–51.

Rehak, P. 1997
“The Role of Religious Painting in the Function of the Minoan Villa: The Case of Ayia Triada.” In The Function of the ‘Minoan Villa’. Proceedings of the Eighth International Symposium at the Swedish Institute at Athens, 6–8 June 1992, edited by R. Hägg, 163–75. Stockholm: Paul Aströms Förlag.

Rehak, P., and J.G. Younger. 1994
“Technical Considerations on the Planning of Minoan Stone Relief Vessels: the Zakros Rhyton.” AJA 98:306–7.

Rehak, P., and J.G. Younger. 1998
“International Styles in Ivory Carving in the Bronze Age.” In The Aegean and the Orient in the Second Millennium. Proceedings of the 50th Anniversary Symposium, Cincinnati, 18–20 April 1997, edited by E. H. Cline and D. Harris-Cline, 229–56. Aegaeum 18. Liège: Université de Liège, Histoire de l’art et archéologie de la Grèce antique.

Reusch, H. 1956
Die zeichnerische Rekonstruktion des Frauenfrieses im boiotischen Theben. AbhBerl 1955. Vol. 1. Berlin: Akademie-Verlag.

Reusch, H. 1958
“Zum Wandschmuck des Thronsaales in Knossos.” In Minoica. Festschrift zum 80. Geburtstag von Johannes Sundwall, edited by E. Grumach, 334–58. Berlin: Akademie-Verlag.

Riegl, A. 1906
“Zur kunsthistorischen Stellung der Becher von Vafio.” ÖJh 9:1–19.

Rodenwaldt, G. 1912
Die Fresken des Palastes. Tiryns II. Mainz: Verlag Philipp von Zabern.

Rutkowski, B. 1981
Frühgriechische Kultdarstellungen. AM Suppl. 8. Berlin: Gebr. Mann.

Sacconi, A. 1999
“La tavoletta PY Ta 716 e le armi di rappresentanza nel mondo egeo.” In Επί Πόντον Πλαζόμενοι. Simposio italiano di Studi Egei (dedicato a Luigi Bernabò Brea e Giovanni Pugliese Carratelli), Roma, 18–20 febbraio 1998, edited by V. La Rosa, D. Palermo, and L. Vagnetti, 285–89. Rome: Scuola Archeologica Italiana di Atene.

Sakellarakis, Y., and E. Sapouna-Sakellaraki. 1991
Κρήτη. Αρχάνες. Athens: Εκδοτική Αθηνών.

Sakellarakis, Y., and E. Sapouna-Sakellaraki. 1997
Archanes. Minoan Crete in a New Light. Vol. 1–2. Athens: Ammos Publications.

Sapouna-Sakellaraki, E. 1971
Μινωïκόν Ζώμα. Athens: Η εν Αθήναις Αρχαιολογική Εταιρεία.

Schachermeyr, F. 1961–1962
“Die Szenenkomposition der minoischen Bildkunst und ihre Bedeutung für die Beurteilung der altkretischen Kultur.” In Πεπραγμένα του Α'Διεθνούς Κρητολογικού Συνεδρίου. CretChron 15–16: 177–85.

Schaeffer, F.-A. 1929
“Les fouilles de Minet-el-Beida et de Ras Shamra.” Syria 10:285–97.

Schäfer, H. 1963
Von ägyptischer Kunst, 4th ed. Wiesbaden: Otto Harrassowitz.

Schäfer, J. 1977
“Zur kunstgeschichtlichen Interpretation altägäischer Wandmalerei.” JdI 92:1–23.

Schiering, W. 1960
“Steine und Malerei in der minoischen Kunst.” JdI 75:17–36.

Schiering, W. 1965
“Die Naturanschauung in der altkretischen Kunst.” AntK 8:3–12.

Schiering, W. 1971
“Die Goldbecher von Vaphio.” AntW 2 (4): 3–10.

Schiering, W. 1974
“Formale Gesichtspunkte zu einigen Motiven auf den sog. Talismanic Stones.” In Die kretischmykenische Glyptik und ihre gegenwärtigen Probleme, edited by Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft, 143–48. Boppard: Harald Boldt Verlag.

Schiering, W. 1987
“Stein- und Geländemotive in der minoischen Wandmalerei auf Kreta und Thera.” In Ägäische Bronzezeit, edited by H.-G. Buchholz, 314–28. Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft Darmstadt.

Schiering, W. 1992
“Elements of Landscape in Minoan and Mycenaean Art.” In ΕΙΚΩΝ. Aegean Bronze Age Iconography: Shaping a Methodology. Proceedings of the 4th International Aegean Conference, University of Tasmania, Hobart, Australia, 6–9 April 1992, edited by R. Laffineur and J. L. Crowley, 317–22. Aegaeum 8. Liège: Université de Liège, Histoire de l’art et archéologie de la Grèce antique.

Schmitz-Pillmann, P. 2006
Landschaftselemente in der minoisch-mykenischen Wandmalerei, Winckelmann-Institut der Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin 6. Berlin: Verlag Willmuth Arenhövel.

Servais-Soyez, J., and B. Servais-Soyez. 1984
“La tholos «oblongue» (tombe IV) et le tumulus (tombe V) sur le Vélatouri.” In Thorikos VIII, 1972/1976, edited by H. F. Mussche, J. Bingen, and J. Servais, 15–71. Gent: Comité des Fouilles Belges en Grèce.

Shaw, J. W. 1971
Minoan Architecture: Materials and Techniques. ASAtene 49 (N. S. 33). Rome: L’Erma di Brettschneider.

Shaw, M. C. 1986
“The Lion Gate Relief of Mycenae Reconsidered.” In Φίλια έπη εις Γεώργιον Ε. Μυλωνάν. Vol. 1, 108–23. Athens: Η εν Αθήναις Αρχαιολογική Εταιρεία.

Shaw, M.C. 1995
“Bull Leaping Frescoes at Knossos and Their Influence on the Tell el-Dabc a Murals.” In Trade, Power and Cultural Exchange: Hyksos Egypt and the Eastern Mediterranean World 1800–1500 B. C. An International Symposium, Wednesday, November 3, 1993, edited by M. Bietak, 91–120. Egypt and the Levant 5. Vienna: Verlag der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften.

Shaw, M.C. 1997
“Aegean Sponsors and Artists: Reflections of Their Roles in the Patterns of Distribution of Themes and Representational Conventions in the Murals.” In ΤΕΧΝΗ. Craftsmen, Craftswomen, and Craftmanship in the Aegean Bronze Age, Proceedings of the 6th International Aegean Conference, Philadelphia, Temple University, 18–21 April 1996. Vol. 2, edited by R. Laffineur and Ph. P. Betancourt, 481–504. Aegaeum 16. Liège and Austin: Université de Liège, Histoire de l’art et archéologie de la Grèce antique, and University of Texas at Austin, Program in Aegean Scripts and Prehistory.

Shaw, M.C., and K. Laxton. 2002
“Minoan and Mycenaean Wall Hangings. New Light from a Wall Painting at Ayia Triada.” Creta Antica 3:93–104.

Sourvinou-Inwood, Ch. 1971
“On the Authenticity of the Ashmolean Ring 1919.56.” Kadmos 10:60–69.

Speciale, M.S. 1999
“La tavoletta PY Ta 716 e i sacrifici di animali.” In επί πόντον πλαζόμενοι. Simposio italiano di Studi Egei (dedicato a Luigi Bernabò Brea e Giovanni Pugliese Carratelli), Roma, 18–20 febbraio 1998, edited by V. La Rosa, D. Palermo, and L. Vagnetti, 291–97. Rome: Scuola Archeologica Italiana di Atene.

Speciale, M.S. 2000
“Furniture in Linear B: the evidence for tables.” In Πεπραγμένα του Η‘ Διεθνούς Κρητολογικού Συνεδρίου. Vol. I, pt. 3, edited by Α. Karetsou, 227–39. Irakleio: Εταιρία Κρητικών Ιστορικών Μελετών.

Stamatelopoulou, D. 1999
“Τα έπιπλα μέσα από τις πινακίδες της γραμμικής Β'γραφής.” Corpus. Αρχαιολογία. Ιστορία των πολιτισμών 3 (March 1999): 46–55.

Stevenson Smith, W. 1965
Interconnections in the Ancient Near East. New Haven: Yale University Press.

Stürmer, V. 2001
“‘Naturkulträume’ auf Kreta und Thera: Ausstattung, Definition und Funktion.” In POTNIA. Deities and Religion in the Aegean Bronze Age, Proceedings of the 8th International Aegean Conference, Göteborg, Göteborg University, 12–15 April 2000, edited by R. Laffineur and R. Hägg, 69–75. Aegaeum 22. Liège: Université de Liège.

Taylour, W. 1970
“New Light on Mycenaean Religion.” Antiquity 44:270–79.

Televantou, Ch.A. 1990
“New Light on the West House Wall-Paintings.” In Thera and the Aegean World III. Proceedings of the Third International Congress. Vol. 1, edited by D. A. Hardy, Ch. G. Doumas, J. A. Sakellarakis, and P. M. Warren, 309–26. London: Thera and the Aegean World.

Televantou, Ch.A. 1994
Ακρωτήρι Θήρας. Οι Τοιχογραφίες της Δυτικής Οικίας. Athens: Η εν Αθήναις Αρχαιολογική Εταιρεία.

Thomas, E. 1995
“Zur Glyptik der zweiten Phase der spätminoischen Periode.” In Sceaux minoens et mycéniens. IVe symposium international, 10–12 septembre 1992, Clermont-Ferrand, edited by I. Pini and J.-C. Poursat, 241–50. CMS Suppl. 5, Berlin: Gebr. Mann.

Thomas, E. 2003
“Bilder als Medien. Das Siegelbild als Mittel der Kommunikation in der minoischen Palastzeit.” In Medien in der Antike. Kommunikative Qualität und normative Wirkung, edited by H. von Hesberg and W. Thiel, 203–17. Cologne: Schriften des Lehr-und Forschungszentrums für die Antiken Kulturen des Mittelmeerraumes.

Tsountas, Ch. 1889
“'Ερευναι εν τη Λακωνική και ο τάφος του Βαφειού.” ArchEph: 129–72.

Ventris, M. 1955
“Mycenaean Furniture on the Pylos Tablets.” Eranos 53:109–24.

Wace, A.J.B. 1921–1923
“Excavations at Mycenae, § VII. The Lion Gate and Grave Circle area.” BSA 25:9–38.

Wace, A.J.B., and W. Lamb. 1921–1923a
“Excavations at Mycenae, § VIII. The palace, 6. The court.” BSA 25:188–204.

Wace, A.J.B., and W. Lamb. 1921–1923b
“Excavations at Mycenae, § VIII. The palace, 14. The megaron.” BSA 25:232–57.

Wachsmann, Sh. 1987
Aegeans in the Theban Tombs. Louvain: Peeters.

Walberg, G. 1986
Tradition and Innovation. Essays in Minoan Art. Mainz: Philipp von Zabern.

Warren, P. 1969
Minoan Stone Vases. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Warren, P. 1990
“Of baetyls.” In Πεπραγμένα του ΣΤ' Διεθνούς Κρητολογικού Συνεδρίου, Χανιά, 24-30 Αυγούστου 1986, Vol. I, pt. 1, edited by Β. Niniou-Kindeli, 353–63. Chania: Η Εταιρία Κρητικών Ιστορικών Μελετών.

Wedde, M. 2004
“On the Road to the Godhead: Aegean Bronze Age Glyptic Procession Scenes.” In Celebrations. Sanctuaries and the Vestiges of Cult Activity. Selected Papers and Discussions from the Tenth Anniversary Symposion of the Norwegian Institute at Athens, 12–16 May 1999, edited by M. Wedde, 151–86. Papers from the Norwegian Institute at Athens 6. Bergen: The Norwegian Institute at Athens.

Weißl, M. 2000
“Halbrosette oder Federfächer? Zu Bedeutung und Funktion eines ägäischen Ornamentes.” In Österreichische Forschungen zur Ägäischen Bronzezeit 1998. Akten der Tagung am Institut für Klassische Archäologie der Universität Wien, 2.–3. Mai 1998, edited by F. Blakolmer, 89–95. Wiener Forschungen zur Archäologie 3. Vienna: Phoibos.

Wesenberg, B. 1971
Kapitelle und Basen. Beobachtungen zur Entstehung der griechischen Säulenformen. BJb Suppl. 32. Düsseldorf: Rheinland-Verlag.

Winter, F. 1890
“Ausgrabung des Kuppelgrabes von Vafio.” AA 1890:102–4.

Wurz, E. 1913
Der Ursprung der kretisch-mykenischen Säule. Munich: Müller und Rentsch.

Xenaki-Sakellariou, A. 1985
Οι θαλαμωτοί τάφοι των Μυκηνών. Paris: de Boccard.

Yon, M. 1979
“La dame au miroir.” In Studies Presented in Memory of Porphyrios Dikaios, edited by V. Karageorghis, 63–75. Nikosia: Lions Club of Nicosia/Zavallis Press.

Younger, J. G. 1995
“Interactions between Aegean Seals and other Minoan-Mycenaean Art Forms.” In Sceaux minoens et mycéniens. IVe symposium international, 10–12 septembre 1992, Clermont-Ferrand, edited by I. Pini and J.-C. Poursat, 331–48. CMS Suppl. 5. Berlin: Gebr. Mann.

Younger, J. G. 2009
“Tree Tugging and Omphalos Hugging on Minoan Gold Rings.” In Archaeologies of Cult. Essays on Ritual and Cult in Crete in Honor of Geraldine C. Gesell, edited by A. L. D’Agata and A. Van de Moortel, 43–49. Hesperia Suppl. 42. Princeton, NJ: The American School of Classical Studies at Athens.

Zervos, Ch. 1956
L’art de la Crète néolithique et minoenne. Paris: Éditions “Cahiers d’art”.

Notes

1 Several questions raised in this article are also discussed in Blakolmer 2010.

2 Pini 1996, 1092; 2000, 243.

3 See a seal stone from Elis, today in Berlin (CMS XI, no. 27) and a sealing from Pylos: CMS I Suppl., no. 180; Pini 1997, 9, no. 15, pl. 5.

4 Davis 1977; Laffineur 1977.

5 Warren 1969; Kaiser 1976; Bevan 2007; Logue 2007.

6 Poursat 1977a; 2008, 113–22, 230–48; Foster 1979; 1982.

7 Immerwahr 1990; Boulotis 1995; Morgan 2005a.

8 Kaiser 1976, 257–309; Blakolmer 2001; 2006.

9 See Evans 1921a, 254–55; 1921b, esp. 684–95. Cf. further Hood 1978, 219; Younger 1995, 340–41; Blakolmer 2010.

10 CMS II. 3, no. 113; II. 8, nos. 127, 276–278; III, no. 500; V Suppl. 3, no. 331; Sakellarakis and Sapouna-Sakellaraki 1997, 660–61, fig. 725.

11 CMS II. 8, no. 127; V Suppl. 3, no. 331.

12 Rodenwaldt 1912, 34–40, pl. V; Immerwahr 1990, 203 (Ti no. 10), pl. XIX; Shaw and Laxton 2002, 99–100, fig. 6.

13 Danielidou 1998, 230–37, pls. 38–40; Krattenmaker 1999; Shaw and Laxton 2002.

14 Evans 1914, 26–28, figs. 37 a–b, col. pl. IV; 1930, 309–11, fig. 198; 1935, 871, fig. 863; Niemeier 1985, 122–23, fig. 59, 9; 125–26, fig. 60; Rehak 1992a, 122–23, fig. 18; Borchhardt 1972, 46, no. 8 III, pls. 7–8.

15 Akrivaki 2003.

16 Cf. Evans 1928, 309: “architectonic suggestion”.

17 See esp. CMS I, nos. 189, 329 (= Pini 1997, 22, no. 39); II. 8, nos. 172, 498.

18 Ventris 1955; Higgins 1956; Chantraine and Dessenne 1957; Palmer 1957; Hiller 1971; Hurst and Bruschweiler 1979; Killen 1999; Stamatelopoulou 1999; Sacconi 1999; Speciale1999; 2000.

19 CMS I, nos. 179, 282, 293; II. 6, no. 256; II. 8, no. 475; V, no. 517. See further CMS I, no. 197. Cf. in general Shaw 1995, 96. See also the motif of a crouching griffin on top of a socle zone decorated with a wavy band on a gold sheet from Thorikos: Servais-Soyez 1984, 47–50, figs. 26, 6 a–b; Blakolmer 2007c, 68, fig. 6.

20 CMS I, no. 179.

21 Cameron 1976, 30–31, fig. 1; Laffineur 1990a, 248–49; Palyvou 2000; 2005a; Immerwahr 2000. For border ornaments on the upper part of seal images see CMS V, no. 32; XII, no. 135.

22 Wace and Lamb 1921–1923a, 190–92, fig. 191; 1921–1923b, 234–35, fig. 46, pl. XXXV a; Matz 1956, 112, pl. 80 top.

23 Evans 1935, 919–20, fig. 894; Mirié 1979, 47–49; Niemeier 1986, 84–85; Cameron 1987, 323, fig. 7.

24 CMS V Suppl. 3, no. 394.

25 CMS II. 3, no. 8.

26 CMS II. 3, no. 146. Cf. further the seal motif CMS II. 7, no. 16.

27 Evans, 1935, 168–71; Nilsson 1968, 357–67; Reusch 1958, esp. 353–56; Rutkowski 1981, 100–5; Hägg and Lindau 1984; Niemeier 1986, 74–77; Blakolmer 2011.

28 Reusch 1958, esp. 353–56; Hägg and Lindau 1984; Marinatos 1993, 155 with fig. 134; Hiller 2006.

29 Hiller 2005; Weißl 2000; Marinatos 2007a.

30 CMS II. 3, no. 21; II. 8, no. 515; V Suppl. 1A, no. 186; V Suppl. 1B, no. 113; V Suppl. 3, no. 392; VI, no. 336; XII, nos. 137, 249.

31 CMS I, no. 91; I Suppl., no. 34; II. 7, no. 16; II. 8, no. 487; III, no. 122; V, nos. 191a–b; V Suppl. 1A, nos. 145, 164, 175; V Suppl. 1B, no. 60; V Suppl. 3, no. 63.

32 CMS II. 3, no. 271; II. 5, no. 317; III, no. 504; VI, no. 270; IX, no. 136; XI, no. 55b.

33 CMS V Suppl. 3, no. 80; X, no. 135. For further ornament motifs see CMS V Suppl. 1B, nos. 114, 135.

34 CMS I, nos. 223, 229, 276; II. 3, nos. 24, 62, 78; II. 6, nos. 43, 44, 160; II. 7, nos. 37, 38, 70; II. 8, no. 237; V, no. 433; VI, no. 128; IX, no. 13D; XI, nos. 55a, 57; Kenna 1960, 105, no. 122. See further Thomas 1995, 245–47, figs. 5–7; 2003, 215, pl. IX.

35 For this motif see Blakolmer 2010, 96.

36 CMS I Suppl., no. 92; II. 3, nos. 339, 340; VI, no. 152; X, no. 281. See further CMS I, no. 193; XIII, no. 19.

37 Platon 1971, 164, col. pl. 77; Marinatos and Hirmer 1973, 108–10; Bloedow 1990; Rehak and Younger 1994, 306–7; Platon 2003.

38 Cf. Shaw 1971, 83–108; Hult 1983, esp. 44–49; Palyvou 2005b, 191–92.

39 See Evans 1928, 443–44, fig. 260; Chapin and Shaw 2006, 59–68, col. pl. A.

40 Bietak 2007, 42.

41 Curti 1999; Laffineur 2005.

42 Müller 1915, 247–51; Evans 1921b, 686–89, fig. 508; Warren 1969, 85, 174–76, 178–81; Kaiser 1976, 26–28 (‘Haghia Triada 2’), figs. 25 a, d; Halbherr et al. 1980, 82–83, figs. 51–52; Marinatos and Hirmer 1973, pls. 106–7; Militello 2003.

43 Cf. CMS II. 8, no. 280; Kaiser 1976, 10–11, 172, fig. 7 b (‘Knossos 1’); 14–15, 131 (‘Knossos 5’).

44 Evans 1928, 804–8, figs. 526–27; 1930, 31, 46–65, pls. XVI–XVII; Cameron and Hood 1967, pls. II–IIA; Davis 1987; Cameron 1987, 326, fig. 8; Immerwahr 1990, 63–65, 173 (Kn No. 15), pl. 22.

45 CMS II. 6, no. 17.

46 Evans 1928, 742–43, 790–93, figs. 476, 516; Zervos 1956, 364–67, figs. 534–37; Forsdyke 1952; Marinatos and Hirmer 1973, pls. 100–2; Warren 1969, 174–76, 178–80 (P 197); Kaiser 1976, 28–9 (‘Hagia Triada 3’), fig. 25 a; Koehl 1986; Logue 2004, 158–59.

47 For the Aegean column see Wurz 1913; Graham 1962, 190–97; Wesenberg 1971, 3–27; Nörling 1995, 50–51; Eichinger 2004.

48 Marinatos 1983, 18; 1984, 51; 1985, 219–20.

49 Doumas 1987; 1992, 146–51, figs. 109–15.

50 Doumas 1992, 176–79, figs. 138–41; Boulotis 1992, esp. 92, pls. 36 a–b; 2005, 31, fig. 8; Rehak 1996, 47–8, fig. 10.

51 For Minoan and Mycenaean ‘procession frescoes’ see esp. Boulotis 1987; Peterson 1981; Immerwahr 1990, 114–21; Blakolmer 2007a.

52 Schiering 1960, 31.

53 Schiering 1960; 1965; 1974, 144; 1987; 1992.

54 Betancourt 1977, 19; 2000; Laffineur 1990a, 246–51; Blakolmer (forthcoming).

55 Evans 1928, 112–13, 453; Karo 1930, 313; Marinatos and Hirmer 1973, pl. LI bottom.

56 Riegl 1906, 7–8; Schiering 1965, 5–6; 1971, 5–6, 10; 1992, 318; Schäfer 1977, 12, 16; Walberg 1986, esp. 129–30; Immerwahr 1985, 45; Chapin 1995, 166–211; Schmitz-Pillmann 2006.

57 See in general Niemeier 1989, esp. 167–169, fig. 1; Wedde 2004.

58 Matz 1956, 90–94; Schäfer 1963, 196–205; Stevenson Smith 1965, 63–64; Kaiser 1976, 185–86; Iliakis 1978, 618, 621; Chapin 1995; Palyvou 2005b, 185–89.

59 Morgan 1988; Televantou 1990; 1994; Doumas 1992, 58–85, figs. 26–48.

60 See Younger 1995, 343; Shaw 1997, 502.

61 Cf. Laffineur 1990b, esp. 117–60; 1992, 105–12; 2000; Kilian-Dirlmeier 1987, esp. 207–11; Thomas 2003, esp. 206–9.

62 Wace 1921–1923; Åström and Blomé 1964; Mylonas 1965; 1966, esp. 17–18, 20–21, 173–76; 1957, 25–29, pls. 8–9; Hiller 1973; Shaw 1986; Bloedow 1996.

63 Evans 1901, 157; Nilsson 1968, 352, 357–60. Cf. the discussion by Blakolmer 2011.

64 Blegen 1956, 95, pl. 40, 2; Reusch 1958, 334–58; Hiller 1996, 78–81; Maran and Stavrianopoulou 2007, 287–91.

65 Lolling 1880, 27, pls. VII, 1–3; Perrot and Chipiez 1894, 826–29; Poursat 1977b, 145–46, pl. XLIV; Platonos-Giota 2004, 115–16, fig. 34, col. fig. 12 b.

66 CMS II. 8, no. 521.

67 Schachermeyr 1961–1962, 184.

68 Tsountas 1889, 159–63, pl. 9; Schiering 1971, 3–10; Marinatos and Hirmer 1973, pls. 200–7; Davis 1977, 1–50.

69 See esp. Riegl 1906; Schiering 1971; Davis 1977, 1–50; Blakolmer 2005; 2007b, 32–35.

70 CMS II. 3, no. 68. For the seal stone from Mochlos see Hughes and Warren 1963, 352–55, pl. 18, 3 b.

71 For ‘pattern-books’ see in general Dauphin 1978; Wachsmann 1987, 12–26; Militello 2000, 83; Donderer 2005; 2005–2006.

72 Pini 1983, esp. 572.

73 Blakolmer 2007b, 39–40.

74 See Blakolmer 2007b, 32–35 with further references.

75 Supra n. 8.

76 Evans 1930, 176–80; 1935, 228; Müller 1915, 271; Blakolmer 2007b, 37–43. Contra: Davis 1977, 15–16.

77 Halbherr 1903, 55–60, pls. VII–X; Stevenson Smith 1965, 77–9, figs. 106–110; Halbherr et al. 1980, 91–93, 229–33; Immerwahr 1990, 49–50, 54, 161, 165, 180 (A. T. no. 1), pls. 17–18; Rehak 1997; Militello 1998, 99–132, pls. 1–8, A–H; Stürmer 2001; Chapin 2004, 49–50, fig. 3.2; Jones 2005; Poursat 2008, 178–80, figs. 232–34.

78 Militello 1992, 101–12; 1995, esp. 634–40; 1998, 251–53 with pl. 2; 2000, 85; Militello and La Rosa 2000. See also Jones 2007, esp. 151–53, pl. 18, 5.

79 Popham 1974, 217–19, fig. 14 D, pls. 37 a–b.

80 Sakellarakis 1991, 79, fig. 53; Sakellarakis and Sapouna-Sakellaraki 1997, 654–60, figs. 722–24.

81 CMS II. 3, no. 114.

82 For the Oxford ring see Evans 1928, 842, fig. 557; Sourvinou-Inwood 1971; Pini 1981, 138, 146–147; Krzyszkowska 2005, 333, fig. 622. For this iconographical type see Marinatos 1990, esp. 87–90; Warren 1990; Kyriakidis 2000–2001; La Rosa 2001; Gallo 2005; Papatsaroucha 2005; Younger 2009.

83 Rehak 1997, 167–71 and esp. 163.

84 Cameron 1987, 326, fig. 10 (reproduced laterally reversed); Evely 1999, 96 with fig.; 241–43 with fig.

85 CMS II. 6, nos. 30–31; V Suppl. 1 A, no. 175. For this comparison see already Rehak 1997, 170, fig. 12; 173; and esp. Hiller 2001, 295, 301.

86 For this motif see esp. Rehak 1992b, 50–57; Hiller 2001.

87 Xenaki-Sakellariou 1985, 127–29, pl. 35 (nos. 2473 and 2475); Poursat 1977b, 93 (no. 299), pl. XXIX; 1999, 684–85; Kantor 1960, 23–24, fig. 23; Yon 1979, 68–69, fig. 3.

88 Schaeffer 1929, 292–93, pl. LVI; Kantor 1947, 86–89, pl. XXII J; Poursat 1999, 683–84, pl. CXLV a; Yon 1979, 68, fig. 2; Gates 1992; Caubet and Matoian 1995; Rehak and Younger 1998, 249–50; Cornelius 2004, esp. 110–11 (no. 2,7) with bibliography.

89 See esp. Marinatos 1988, 246, fig. 2; Rehak 1992b, 50–58, pls. X, XV a, XVIII a; Morgan 2005b, 167–68, pl. 24 b.

90 Cf. the reconstruction as “lion-goat” proposed by Taylour 1970, 277; Rehak 1992b, 54 with n. 157.

91 Militello 1998, 107–15; 2000, 79.

92 See the reconstruction by Cameron, supra n. 84.

93 Cf. Morris 2004, 33.

94 Militello and La Rosa 2000, 992–93. Cf. Militello 1998, 118–22, nos. V 5, 6, 8, 10, 11, 13, pls. 3 B, F a, O a.

95 Cf. the comment of N. Marinatos in Rehak 1997, 174; Marinatos 1993, 149–50 with fig. 121.

96 Supra n. 78.

97 See esp. Driessen 1989–90; Hitchcock 2000; Palyvou 2005a.

98 Blakolmer 2007b; 2010.

99 Crowley 1999, 161–62.

100 CMS II. 7, no. 3; Marinatos 2007b.

Notes de fin

* I am very grateful to the organizers of this conference for their invitation and hospitality. I also want to thank Sarah Cormack for her patience in reading this paper and checking my English.

Table des illustrations

Légende Figs. 1 and 2 Gold ring from Kalyvia (after CMS II. 3, no. 113) and seal image from Knossos (after CMS II. 8, no. 127)
URL http://books.openedition.org/pucl/docannexe/image/2839/img-1.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 52k
Légende Fig. 3 Shield Fresco from Tiryns (after Rodenwaldt 1912, pl. V)
URL http://books.openedition.org/pucl/docannexe/image/2839/img-2.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 142k
Légende Fig. 4 a–b: Ritual vessels from Isopata (after Evans 1914, col. pl. IV, facing p. 26; 27, figs. 37 a–b)
URL http://books.openedition.org/pucl/docannexe/image/2839/img-3.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 111k
Légende Figs. 5 and 6 Gold ring from Dendra (after CMS I, no. 189) and seal image from Knossos (after CMS II. 8, no. 498)
URL http://books.openedition.org/pucl/docannexe/image/2839/img-4.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 54k
Légende Figs. 7 and 8 Seal images from Sklavokampos (after CMS II. 6, no. 256) and from Knossos (after CMS II. 8, no. 475)
URL http://books.openedition.org/pucl/docannexe/image/2839/img-5.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 39k
Légende Figs. 9 and 10 Cushion seal from Pylos (after CMS I, no. 293) and gold ring from Tiryns (after CMS I, no. 179)
URL http://books.openedition.org/pucl/docannexe/image/2839/img-6.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 90k
Légende Figs. 11 and 12 Seal image from Akrotiri, Thera (after CMS V, Suppl. 3 no. 394) and seal stone from Knossos (after CMS II. 3, no. 8)
URL http://books.openedition.org/pucl/docannexe/image/2839/img-7.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 57k
Légende Figs. 13, 14, and 15 Seal image from Knossos (after CMS II. 8, no. 515), seal stone from Kakovatos (after CMS I Suppl., no. 34), and seal stone in the Metropolitan Museum, New York (after CMS XII, no. 249)
URL http://books.openedition.org/pucl/docannexe/image/2839/img-8.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 64k
Légende Figs. 16, 17, and 18 Seal image from Akrotiri, Thera (after CMS V Suppl. 3, no. 392), gold ring from Mycenae (after CMS I, no. 91), and seal image from Gournia (CMS II. 6, no. 160)
URL http://books.openedition.org/pucl/docannexe/image/2839/img-9.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 63k
Légende Fig. 19 Boxer Rhyton from Hagia Triada (after Decker 1995, 16, fig. 1)
URL http://books.openedition.org/pucl/docannexe/image/2839/img-10.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 94k
Légende Fig. 20 Temple Miniature Fresco from Knossos (after Cameron and Hood 1967, pl. II A)
URL http://books.openedition.org/pucl/docannexe/image/2839/img-11.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 1,1M
Légende Figs. 21 and 22 Seal image from Knossos (after CMS II. 8, no. 280) and seal image from Hagia Triada (after CMS II. 6. no. 17)
URL http://books.openedition.org/pucl/docannexe/image/2839/img-12.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 43k
Légende Fig. 23 Chieftain Cup from Hagia Triada (after Sapouna-Sakellaraki 1971, pl. 33 b)
URL http://books.openedition.org/pucl/docannexe/image/2839/img-13.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 85k
Légende Fig. 24 Fisher Fresco from the West House, Akrotiri, Thera (after Doumas 1992, 52, pl. 19)
URL http://books.openedition.org/pucl/docannexe/image/2839/img-14.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 120k
Légende Fig. 25 Rhyton Bearer Fresco from Knossos (after Evans 1928, col. pl. XII, facing p. 707).
URL http://books.openedition.org/pucl/docannexe/image/2839/img-15.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 118k
Légende Fig. 26 Procession Fresco from Thebes, reconstruction by H. Reusch (after Reusch 1956, pl. 15)
URL http://books.openedition.org/pucl/docannexe/image/2839/img-16.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 181k
Légende Fig. 27 Miniature fresco from Akrotiri, Thera: detail of the South frieze (after Doumas 1992, 71, pl. 36)
URL http://books.openedition.org/pucl/docannexe/image/2839/img-17.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 1,1M
Légende Fig. 28 Miniature fresco from Akrotiri, Thera: perspective view of Town II (drawing by the author)
URL http://books.openedition.org/pucl/docannexe/image/2839/img-18.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 206k
Légende Fig. 29 ‘Violent’ gold cup from Vapheio (after Kaltsas 2007, fig. on p. 121, bottom right)
URL http://books.openedition.org/pucl/docannexe/image/2839/img-19.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 54k
Légende Fig. 30 Relief friezes of the gold cups from Vapheio (after Evans 1930, fig. 123, facing p. 178)
URL http://books.openedition.org/pucl/docannexe/image/2839/img-20.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 198k
Légende Fig. 31 ‘Quiet’ gold cup from Vapheio, detail (after Kaltsas 2007, fig. on p. 120, top)
URL http://books.openedition.org/pucl/docannexe/image/2839/img-21.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 294k
Légende Figs. 32 and 33 Seal stones from Mochlos (after Hughes and Warren 1963, pl. 18, 3b) and from Sellopoulo (CMS II. 3, no. 68)
URL http://books.openedition.org/pucl/docannexe/image/2839/img-22.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 27k
Légende Fig. 34 Northern Entrance Passage in the palace of Knossos, reconstruction (after Michailidou 1996, 93, fig. 46)
URL http://books.openedition.org/pucl/docannexe/image/2839/img-23.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 392k
Légende Fig. 35 Ground plan of the Northern part of the palace of Knossos with inscribed friezes of the Vapheio Cups (map after Evans 1928, 2, plan A; relief frieze after Winter 1890, fig. on p. 104)
URL http://books.openedition.org/pucl/docannexe/image/2839/img-24.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 188k
Légende Fig. 36 Wall paintings from Room 14 at Hagia Triada, reconstruction by M. Cameron (after Cameron 1987, 326, fig. 10)
URL http://books.openedition.org/pucl/docannexe/image/2839/img-25.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 167k
Légende Fig. 37 Wall paintings from Room 14 at Hagia Triada, North wall, reconstruction by P. Militello (after Militello 1998, pl. 2).
URL http://books.openedition.org/pucl/docannexe/image/2839/img-26.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 59k
Légende Figs. 38 Gold ring from Sellopoulo (after Popham 1974, 218, fig. 14 Da).
URL http://books.openedition.org/pucl/docannexe/image/2839/img-27.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 39k
Légende Figs. 39, 40, and 41 Seal images from Chania (after CMS V Suppl. 1A, no. 175) and Hagia Triada (after CMS II. 6, nos. 30 and 31)
URL http://books.openedition.org/pucl/docannexe/image/2839/img-28.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 79k
Légende Figs. 42 Ivory lid from Minet el-Beida (after Kantor 1947, pl. XXII J)
URL http://books.openedition.org/pucl/docannexe/image/2839/img-29.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 107k
Légende Figs. 43 Wall painting from the Cult Center at Mycenae (after Hampe and Simon 1980, pl. 76)
URL http://books.openedition.org/pucl/docannexe/image/2839/img-30.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 692k

© Presses universitaires de Louvain, 2012

Conditions d’utilisation : http://www.openedition.org/6540