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Euboica

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Bruno D'Agostino
, 
Michel Bats

Geometric Kyme

The excavation at Viglatouri, Kyme, on Euboea

E. Sapouna-Sakellaraki

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1The question whether or not there was a city called Kyme in Euboea, and its relationship with Cumae in the south part of the Italian peninsula, near the Bay of Naples, has occupied research for more than one hundred years. The concern of scholars with this problem was due mainly to two circumstances: that Euboean Kyme is referred to only rarely by the ancient authors, and that no remains had yet been discovered in the area dating from the colonisation period, that is the 8th c. BC, though remains of other periods (Bronze Age and Hellenistic period) had been located. Many modern scholars believed, as a result, that Italian Cumae was colonised from Aeolian Kyme.

  • 1 De Urbibus: Κύμη πέμπτη, τής Εὺβοίας (Kyme fifth, on Euboea).
  • 2 V, 3, 4: Οί δέ στόλον ἄγοντες Ίπποϰλῆς ό Κυμαῖος ϰαὶ Μεγασθένης ό Χαλϰιδέυς… (The leaders of the f (...)

2The Hellenistic town of Kyme on Euboea is known from inscriptions, such as IG XII, 9, 249, dating from the 4th c. BC, in which it is mentioned as one of the ϰῶμαι under Eretria. Of the ancient authors, Stephanos of Byzantium refers to Kyme in the 6th c. AD, in his treatise concerning cities1. It is Strabo, in the 1st c. BC, however, who states that Italian Cumae was colonised by a founder from Kyme together with one from Chalkis2.

  • 3 VI, 4.
  • 4 VIII, 22.
  • 5 Ant. Rom. VIII, 3

3Thucydides3, T. Livy4, and other authors, on the other hand, consider Italian Cumae to be a colony of the Chalkidians alone, and Dionysios of Halikar-nassos regards it as a colony of Eretrians and Chalkidians5.

  • 6 Periplous, 58: Κατ’Ερέτριαν Σκύρος (Skyros, opposite Eretria).

4The very name of Kyme on Euboea had disappeared for many centuries prior to the 18th c. AD. It is likely that at some, possibly very early, point in time the smaller city of Kyme was absorbed by the superior power of Eretria and was referred to as Eretria, a phenomenon not unknown in Greek cities. Indicative here is the statement of Skylax, in the 6th c. BC, who reports that Eretria is opposite Skyros6 - that is, in the general area of modern Kyme, where the site to be discussed below is to be found.

5The uncertainty of the literary sources regarding the existence of a Euboean city called Kyme in the 8th c. BC was reinforced by the lack of any archaeological evidence. Archaeological investigations in the area over a period of a hundred years, beginning with Willamowitz in 1895, had yielded no remains of the city of the Geometric period that gave its name to the Italian city, despite the fact that other sites were located at a very early date that had both earlier (Stomio, Evrima, Moni Mantzari, etc.) and later (Kastri Potamias) remains.

  • 7 Sapouna-Sakellaraki 1984.

6A decade ago my attention turned to the investigation of Kyme. In an article published in 19847, I stressed that the failure to discover the Euboean Kyme of the 8th c. BC, was a matter of chance and was due to the lack of systematic investigation in the area. I also defined the region in which this ancient city ought to be located. After intensive investigation in the area, remains were found on the hill of Viglatouri which allowed us to draw some important conclusions from the very first days of the excavation.

Fig. 1. Map of Euboea.

  • 8 Παπαβασιλείου Γ., Περὶ τῶν ἐν Ευβοία αρχαίων τάφων,’Αθῆναι, 1910, pp. 23 ff.
  • 9 Η. Sackett - V. Hankey - R. J. Howell - T. W. Jacobsen - M. R. Popham,‘Prehistoric Euboea. Contrib (...)

7The hill of Viglatouri lies in the area of Oxylithos (fig. 1), near the site of Stomio, where Papavasiliou8 found some Mycenaean tholos tombs. A small, outlying hill called Palaeokastri was also known in the foothills of Viglatouri and had been mentioned by British archaeologists9 as a site with ancient remains, in contrast with the hill of Viglatouri which was unknown until the present time. An investigation carried out in September 1994 on Palaeokastri revealed, after a brief trial trench, that it was mainly a small fort with a strong outer defence wall and structures inside it dating from Roman times. Part of this was excavated in September 1994.

8In the surrounding area we also noted the remains of a Roman public building, and possibly also of a temple (unfluted columns and some bases were found near the church of Ayia Triada, as well as part of a stone olive-press), which evidently came from the structures on Palaeokastri hill, and there were also some Hellenistic and earlier sherds. Pieces of cist and tile-covered graves are scattered amongst the maize growing in the plain, and part of an architrave block, which may come from the Roman building mentioned above to which the other architectural members belong, is built into the walls of the small church of Ayia Triada at the foot of the Palaeokastri hill.

Fig. 2. The general area of Kyme, showing the ancient sites. 1. Murteri. 2. M. Matzari. 3. Evrima Oxylithou. 4. Stomio. 5. Pla-tana. 6. Orologio. 7. Androniani. 8. Viglatouri and Palaekastro. 9. Aulonari. 10. Sares Aulonariou. 11. Kastri Potamias (after AE 1984, p. 152. fig. 1).

9The Viglatouri hill and the outlying Palaeokastri hill are at a vital point of the general area of Kyme (figs. 1-2). Viglatouri faces the coast, but cannot easily be seen from the sea. The hill is three kilometres inland from the coast at Stomio and lies between it and Avlonari. It rises in the fertile plain through which runs the river Manikias (the ancient Acheloos) and is surrounded by the Kotylaia mountains and the high hills of Ochthonia and Kyme. The modern village of Oxylithos is supplied with water from this area. From the point of view of geomorphology, therefore, this was an ideal site for a settlement, since it possessed all the essential preconditions for habitation.

10The existence of Early Helladic, Middle Helladic, and Mycenaean remains was detected on the Viglatouri hill, though the detailed stratigraphic investigation of these periods has not yet been completed. An important discovery, however, was made on the south-west side of the hill, where Geometric remains were found that led to the beginning of systematic excavation.

11The Geometric settlement lies on the south-west side of the Viglatouri hill (figs. 2-3), just below the summit. This is the lee side of the hill and is easy of access. On the north-east side the hill falls away sharply, and access on the other sides is more difficult. Parts of what was probably a fortification wall that will have defended the settlement at its more vulnerable points were located on the south-west and north-west sides of the hill, at a distance of 70 m. from the ruins uncovered. This wall has not been excavated, and nothing more can be said about it.

12At the point where the settlement was uncovered, farming had destroyed a large part of the ancient ruins and there were huge piles of stones. It became clear during the excavation that these belonged to the Geometric period, while a few later remains were discovered: an Archaic mask (fig. 31. 1), a black-glaze fragment of a pyxis lid, parts of a kantharos, and a lekythos (fig. 31. 2) of Hellenistic date.

13By good fortune, during the excavations from 1994 to 1997, buildings of the Geometric settlement (rectangular or apsidal) were discovered at many points. At other points, modern destruction had left only the remains of earlier phases [some Subneolithic remains (fig. 31. 3) a few Early Helladic, and more Middle Helladic (fig. 31. 4-6) and Late Helladic (fig. 31. 7; 32. 1-2, 41. 1-3)], with only a few, isolated Geometric remains, mainly consisting of pottery, which show that the Geometric settlement occupies a large part of the hill. The total extent of the settlement has not yet been calculated.

14As is clear from the remains of the earlier phases, the settlement is not a temporary one, but was built on an earlier urban tissue that goes back to at least 3000 BC.

15Considerable evidence for the period and the history of the place is preserved in the basic core of the Geometric settlement-the oval building and the “square” outside it-and it is these that will be our main concern here.

1. The Oval Building (Building A: figs. 4; 30. 1)

16The building stands at the centre of the Geometric settlement (fig. 30): it was built above a Mycenaean megaron (south corner, B), above a Protogeometric apsidal building (south-east part, Γ), and above some Geometric cist graves (north part).

Fig. 4. Oval building and main sector

17The building is an oval structure (figs. 4; 30) oriented north-south, with dimensions of 4. 90 x 9 m. It is preserved to a height of about 1 m., the surviving courses ranging from one in the south-west part to six in the north-east part.

18It is built of thick slabs of local stone laid in a pseudo-isodomic system, with small stone slabs between them (fig. 5). In the east and north-east parts, where the wall is preserved to its highest, there are vertical gaps at intervals probably for vertical wooden beams (fig. 6) designed to make the building resilient. The large number of stones (fig. 8) beneath which the building was discovered suggests that the superstructure, too, was stone-built. Thin stone slabs (fig. 7), amongst which were some schist slabs, were found in the upper layers, together with the burnt remains of wood, in both the north and the south part of the building; these may possibly be attributed to a horizontal roof supported on wooden beams. The few remains of bricks and tiles in the north-west and central part and in the centre of the south part, possibly belong to some structures inside the building. Outside, the east and south-east part of the building rests on a crepis which is founded on earlier buildings (MH and LH periods).

19Internally the building is divided into two parts by a transverse wall (figs. 4; 30) which will also have been built all the way up to the roof, since a thick layer of stones was found on both sides. No entrance door has been found, but it is probable that part of a door-jamb found precisely in the north part of the building came from a doorway. No other opening, as of a window, for example, has been identified on the basis of the architectural elements discovered. A mortar (fig. 9) that came to light outside the building may be connected with the door.

20The northernmost part, directly below the pile of stones, had a wealth of finds both inside and outside the building. On the outside, at a depth of 0. 20-0. 40 m. beneath the surface of the oval building were found parts of kraters, jugs, skyphoi and two amphora bases (fig. 10). Immediately after the appearance of the upper preserved surface of the north wall of the oval building, parts of the first kraters were discovered inside it (figs. 11; 33. 1). These first finds, and those discovered outside the building, may be interpreted as having rolled here from the neighbouring “square” (fig. 30. 2), which will be discussed below.

Fig. 5. Masonry of the oval building

Fig. 6. Typical timber-framing of the oval building.

Fig. 7. Emergence of the apse of the oval building.

Fig. 8. Pile of stones before the uncovering of the oval building.

21A bench (fig. 30. 5) consisting of three slabs was found in the east part of the building (fig. 12), inside the apse, beneath the second surviving course and in contact with the wall; on it, amidst burnt earth, stood (fig. 13) three cups covered with black paint. Between the bench and the wall were found a lekythos (no. 73) and a skyphos (no. 95), resembling similar ones discovered beneath and to the north of the bench, and also some fragments of a further three skyphoi covered with black paint and a krater, all of which had fallen from the bench. A large number of bones of both large and small animals were found beneath the bench, possibly indicating that sacrifices were held outside and banquets or certain other rituals inside the building. A large number of at a higher level in the south-east part of the excavated area also belong to the Geometric period.

Fig. 22. Circular stone structure.

22e) In the easternmost area so far excavated, wall 10, which is also curved (fig. 30. 15), belongs to the Geometric period.

23f) To the east of the precinct, tomb 4 (fig. 23; 30. 16) belongs to the Protogeometric period, as does tomb 2 (fig. 30. 22) to the north of the Submycemaean tomb 1, and possibly also tomb 5 (fig. 30. 23), which was made of slabs on three sides and part of a pithos on the fourth. Cup no. 79 was placed as a grave offering in tomb 3 (fig. 30. 24) to the west of the precinct.

  • 10 Themelis, Grabbauten, pp. 67 ff.

24g) A cist on the south-east side of the central sector (figs. 24, 30. 17) yielded large numbers of animal bones, together with traces of fire and MH, LH and Geometric pottery; it is possibly a type of eschara similar to those known from the Orient, Andros (Zagora), Tenos (Xoburgo) and Naxos, which are possibly also hearths; it is also similar to the one (fig. 30. 18) in the “square” of the central building complex at Viglatouri. In it was found a unique clay seal in the shape of a truncated cone, with incisions (no. 8, fig. 40. 1a-c); the material of this bears no resemblance to Aegean examples, but the incisions on it are related to the “primitive” Argive and some island seals. It is possible, finally, that the seal came from the Orient together with the glass beads. The similarity between the empty tombs and the cistcharaeschara is so great that it is often difficult to distinguish them. Cists are connected with the cult of the Hyperborean maidens, Artemis (e. g. Delos), and Iphigeneia10.

Fig. 24. The cist, wall 1, wall 2, and the oval building.

25The area in the north-west part of the excavation was used in the Geometric period, though most of the buildings at this point, whose foundations were on Middle Helladic and Late Helladic walls, have been destroyed. The buildings on this side are rectangular or trapezoidal in shape, and there are paved streets, of which at least three levels are preserved. The two streets that have been excavated are oriented NE-SW and N-S. The latter leads to the south part of the oval building, while the NE-SW street is parallel to this building. A paved structure (fig. 30. 20) in the north part, 1 m. wide, which is founded in a Middle Helladic level, has structural features similar to those of the “square” (2).

Fig. 25. The area of Oxylithos

26A rectangular building (E) in the west part, with a square paved structure (fig. 30. 26) in the north corner and a semicircular structure (fig. 30. 25) in the south-west, belongs to the Geometric period, though these structures are again founded in a Mycenaean level. The Protogeometric tomb next to the semicircular structure (tomb 3) confirms the existence of tombs inside the settlement.

27The discovery in this area, too, of bodies of kraters, and a large number (about fifteen) of legs of high-footed Geometric kraters, as well as of other types of vases, most of them skyphoi, points to the wealth of the inhabitants of the area. The large number of spindlewhorls and loomweights found during the excavation obliges us to suppose that the inhabitants were mainly occupied in stock-breeding and associated activities such as weaving, which possibly also contributed to the export trade.

28Another field of activity engaged in by the inhabitants will undoubtedly have been farming, since the natural environment (fig. 25) permitted the cultivation of olives, figs, etc. The large number of pithos fragments (fig. 26) retrieved from all periods reinforces the view that there was considerable farming activity.

29Finally, a workshop complex discovered to the north of the “square” is of great importance for the settlement. To the north of the circular stone-built structure (3), two rectangular pottery kilns (fig. 30. 19) were found in contact with each other (figs. 27-29), one of them resting on a Mycenaean level, while the second was built upon a Middle Helladic wall.

Fig. 26. Pointed pithos.

Fig. 27. Pottery kiln A.

Fig. 28. Detail of the pottery kiln A.

  • 11 Lefkandi II pp. 74-75 pl. 36 c.
  • 12 Arch Delt 28, 1973, pp. 538 ff. pl. 500 b.
  • 13 R. M. Cook, in BSA, 1961, pp. 64 ff.
  • 14 JdI 55, 1940, pp. 321-22.
  • 15 Z. Zimmer, Bronzegusswerkstätten, Mainz 1980, pl. 55.

30Rectangular pottery kilns are known from Lefkandi11 and the Pythagorion on Samos12, the latter found together with Late Geometric pottery. Proto-geometric and Geometric kilns were found at Argos13. Square kilns have also been found in the Ker-ameikos14. Finally, there is very close similarity with a kiln discovered at Nemea, which has been thought to be connected with metal-working15. At Kyme there are at present no indications of this kind of work in the area in which the kilns were found. It should be noted that a clay mould that was undoubtedly associated with a neighbouring workshop was found near the cist in the west corner of the oval building.

Fig. 29. Pottery kiln B.

31Workshops located near to sanctuaries are not unknown either in prehistoric times or in the Geometric period. They are found at many sanctuaries such as those of Olympia, Samos, Kalapodi, and Philia in Thessaly (see below).

  • 16 P. J. Crielaard,’How the West was won: Euboeans vs. Phoenicians’, in HBA 19/20, 1992-3, p. 241.

32The small area so far excavated has thus yielded much evidence for the activities of the occupants, which can be deduced mainly from the objects discovered there, and which will be examined directly. All the evidence suggests that there was an aristocracy at Kyme (Viglatouri) that could have taken part in the colonisation movement either for motives of competition16, or in search of an alternative sources of livelihood.

5. The finds

Pottery

33Vases and sherds of the Protogeometric and Geometric periods were found mainly inside the oval building, though also throughout the entire site. There are few whole pots. The majority are fragments, characteristic of the Early Iron Age down to the end of eighth century.

Protogeometric period

34The sherds of this period are few in number but diagnostic. They were found mainly around the oval building and in the “square” and come mainly from jugs, skyphoi, pyxides, and cups (figs. 34. 1-4; 41. 4-14). A few have been attributed to amphoras, while it is not always certain whether some coarse household wares or pithoi are to be assigned to this or the following, Geometric period.

a) Open vases

  • 17 Lefkandi I, pl. 152, no. 7. The numbers of the objects are those of the Kyme excavation catalogue.
  • 18 Skyros 1986, p. 44, fig. 26.
  • 19 Lefkandi II, p. 53, pl. 73, nn. 771, 773, 775, 777.
  • 20 Skyros 1986, fig. 26 and more recent finds.

35One characteristic type of the period is the one-handled cup which is represented by vase no. 79, found in tomb 3 to the north-west of the oval building (figs. 34. 3; 41. 4). This is a one-handled, un-painted cup made of light brown fabric with an everted high rim separated from the body by an incised line, a vertical handle, and a conical base (see also no. 220, fig. 34. 4, bottom right). This vase is probably a locally produced version of a type found at Lefkandi17, where it is dated to the Subprotogeometric period, and also on Skyros18. This type of vase is usually found on Euboea and Skyros in black and grey wares with incised decoration, represented at Viglatouri by a few grey sherds (no. 101). In these vases the surface beneath the rim is decorated with a zone of two groups of horizontal incised lines with a group of undulating horizontal lines between them (fig. 41. 5). At Lefkandi grey ware is represented by a very large number of vases19. The place of origin of this type of vase is thought to be the north-east Aegean (Lesbos) and eastern Asia Minor (the Troad, Smyrna). Recently it is represented by a large number of examples on Skyros20.

  • 21 Lefkandi I, pl. 102, 33, 2.
  • 22 Lefkandi I, pl. 125, 2, 1.
  • 23 Lefkandi III, pl. 63, tomb 57, 1.

36Other diagnostic sherds are those from the late PG period decorated with semicircles, which come from closed (fig. 41. 6-8) or open vases (fig. 41. 9), largely from the familiar skyphoi with pendant semicircles which are quite common on Euboea, being found mostly in the three cemeteries at Lefkandi, that is from tomb 33 of the Scoubris cemetery21, Palia Perivolia22, or Toumba23. The type is also known from Skyros, as shown by recent excavations in the area of Xenia, Ayia Aikaterini (to be published by the present writer), where it dates from the end of the Subprotogeometric III period as at Lefkandi.

  • 24 Coldstream 1995 a, p. 190, n. 2559, fig. 3, 5, n. 2555, fig. 3, 6.
  • 25 Aro, p. 225.

37Skyphoi with pendant semicircles, which are thought to be a Euboean product, are known from their dissemination in the Eastern Mediterranean, as at Amathus on Cyprus24, where they date from between 850 and 750 BC, at Hama, where they were used at as late as 721 BC, and above all from the well-known skyphoi of Al Mina, which are now thought to date down to the end of the eighth century BC25.

  • 26 Boardman 1952, pl. I, B, n. 20.
  • 27 Coldstream 1995 a, p. 190, fig. 3, n. 4.

38A few examples of another type of skyphos (fig. 41. 10), with a rim and body covered with black paint and a reserve band at the level of the handles, have come to light at Viglatouri. This type is known from26, and Amathus on Cyprus, where it is dated to the Subprotogeometric period, between 850 and 800 BC27.

  • 28 Lefkandi III, pl. 99, 79.

39The skyphos with its body decorated by two concentric circles, a motif known from Skyros (in press) and Lefkandi28, is represented at Viglatouri by a few sherds (fig. 41. 11).

  • 29 Lefkandi III, pl. 101, n. 80, 2; pl. 82 nn. 1, 3, 4, 6, 7.

40The high-stemmed skyphos with circles flanked by groups of vertical lines (fig. 41. 12) occurs at Lefkandi29, where it dates from the Subprotogeometric II-III period.

  • 30 Lefkandi II, 1 pl. 26 nn. 406-410; pl. 57.

41There are very few pieces that can be assigned to kraters at this period. A sherd with rope decoration beneath the rim may belong to a krater, as at Lefkandi30.

  • 31 See Lefkandi III, pl. 42 nn. 3, 7, 8, 11, 15 and Lefkandi I, p. 346 fig. 21, I, Subprotogeometric (...)

42Finally, two sherds may belong to a kantharos; these are rim sherds of a vase with red slip, possibly imitating a metallic model31.

  • 32 Nitsche, p. 10.

43As has recently been observed, the Subprotogeometric on Euboea corresponds with Middle Geometric I-II in Attica32.

b) Closed vases

44There are fewer diagnostic sherds from closed vases during this period. Vase no. 152 from tomb 4 is a whole pot, while only a small number of sherds decorated with characteristic semicircles and languettes (fig. 41. 6-9) was found.

  • 33 Asine, p. 137, fig. 129, 430 fig. 279.
  • 34 Lefkandi I, p. 314, fig. 14 E.

45Lekythos no. 152 (fig. 34. 1) from tomb 4 has an oval body and a low conical base. The handle springs from the rim and extends to the shoulder. The fabric is ochre-yellow, and the body is decorated with bands. A precise parallel is a lekythos from the PG tomb 27 at Asine33, and there are corresponding examples from Lefkandi34 dating from the LPG period.

  • 35 Lefkandi I, p. 315, fig. 14 G.
  • 36 Lefkandi I, p. 317, fig. 15 D.
  • 37 Lefkandi I, p. 328, fig. 17 B.

46Several sherds of lekythoi have languettes (fig. 41. 14) decorating the base of the necks, parallels for which are known from PG Skyros and Lefkandi35, which date from the Subprotogeometric period. A larger number of sherds of lekythoi or oinochoai have semicircles decorating the shoulder. The parallels from Lefkandi36 date from the MPG period. The motif of semicircles with a core at the base is also known from Lefkandi. These semicircles adorn pyxides of the SPG I period37.

Geometric period

47Despite the widespread destruction of the area, there was a greater number of pottery finds dating from the Geometric period. The most important of these, both whole pots and fragments, come from the oval building and the area around it. The vase types are mainly kraters and skyphoi, with a few oinochoai and jugs, possibly one or two dinoi, and fewer fragments of plates or kantharoi from the final use of the area. Scattered sherds of all the above types were found over the entire area, even in places where no architectural remains were preserved. The fabric of the vases is either reddish to brown, or, mainly, yellowish to brown, two types of fabric found at Chalkis and Eretria. The fabric of the pottery found in the excavation at Viglatouri is of a deeper red colour and it is not so well fired.

a) Kraters

48As we noted above, kraters were found mainly in the north-east and central part of the oval building and outside it. Several fragments of kraters, however, were found in both the east and the north-west part of the area excavated. At least twelve different kraters are connected with the oval building and the area immediately around it, while fragments of others were found mainly north-west of the main building complex.

49The fabric of which they are made is red or red-brown (no. 113, 120, 121) to brown (no. 119), while the bulk of the fragments or more complete kraters (no. 112, 118, 175, 176, 177, 178) are made of yellow-brown fabric. The quality of the fabric is possibly an indication of provenance.

  • 38 GGP, pl. 5 ff.
  • 39 GGP, pl. 17f. ; Corinth VII, pl. 12, no. 73.
  • 40 GGP, pl. 52d.
  • 41 GGP pl. 60e.
  • 42 Samos V, p. 14 pl. 7, 34, 35, 36, 38, fig. 2a-d.
  • 43 Samos V, p. 25, fig. 9.
  • 44 Andriomenou, Philia Epi, p. 74, pl. 22d.

50The shape of the body of the kraters in those cases where it could be established is globular, elongated globular or semiglobular. The base is tall and conical, normally with rings, though a series of at least fifteen bases found in the north-west part of the excavation were plain, without rings (no. 175). The rings may be more (no. 112, fig. 34. 5) or fewer in number, a feature which is a dating criterion on Samos. At Viglatouri the two types were found together. Kraters with similar ribs on the high foot are to be found in Attica (Kerameikos) from the 10th century, and also from the Middle Geometric II period38, and also at Corinth39. The corresponding examples in Crete belong to the Early Geometric II period40, and those from East Greece to the Middle Geometric period41. On Samos these kraters date from the 9th42 or the 8th century43. In the Dodecanese, painted bands are found in place of the rings from the Middle Geometric period onwards, as also on Samos. It is thus possible that many of the bases without ribs at Viglatouri had painted bands, which have flaked off. Atti-cizing MG II kraters are also known in Chalkis44 in the MG II period, though, like those at Lefkandi or Eretria, they are not found in such quantities as those in the area of Viglatouri-Kyme.

  • 45 Renaissance, p. 206.

51J. N. Coldstream45 believes that the ribs in the Middle Geometric period are a reflection of the metallic origins of the vases. I personally believe that they represent a “nostalgia” for an earlier, mainly Middle Helladic type: the well-known Minyan fruit-bowl, which is certainly related to metal vases, is to be found in abundance in the lower level of the excavation, and has exactly the same type of base.

  • 46 Lefkandi I, p. 340, pl. 32, no. 2.
  • 47 Andriomenou 1985a, p. 34, figs. 6, 11.

52The rim is either everted and has incisions beneath it (no. 117)-a rather rare type (figs. 34. 6; 41. 15)-or is a plain everted rim, represented here by a few examples. The most common type is a low, thick, vertical rim with a groove at the point where it joins the body (e. g. no. 118, 120, figs. 36. 1; 42. 1). The first type of rim, with a large number of incisions (no. 117, figs. 34. 6; 41. 15), is known from SPG I-II kraters at Lefkandi46, and is the earliest type. The higher vertical rim, either plain or with a groove at the point where it joins the body, has MG II parallels at Eretria47, and is in general diagnostic of this phase.

  • 48 Gift Exchange, p. 203, figs. 3-4.
  • 49 Lefkandi I, pl. 93 T5,l.

53The handles are either single horizontal loops or double loops (no. 117, figs. 34. 6; 41. 15). This type of handle is known from MG II Attic kraters with a lid48 and also from Lefkandi49, where they are characteristically found on PG I-II vases. The more common handle is a complex horizontal one with a vertical element (no. 118, 120, 121, 176), with both elements decorated.

54The decoration is in a few cases simple, with bands (no. 117) (figs. 34. 6; 41. 15) even on the shoulder. Most of the kraters are richly decorated with reserved bands in the lower part of the body covered with black paint (no. 177, fig. 11) and decoration in panels on the shoulder and handles. They are frequently decorated with nipples either side of the panel near the handles, a feature found in the Geometric pottery of Skyros and also in the cups of Kyme. This may therefore be a feature characteristic of Geometric Kyme and Skyros.

  • 50 Andriomenou, Philia Epi, p. 74, pl. 22a.
  • 51 Andriomenou 1984, pp. 40, 42, figs. 8-9, no. 11.

55Among the more characteristic ornaments decorating the panels are: two rows of lozenges, which adorn the panels in krater no. 120 (figs. 36. 1, 42. 1). The panel is bordered by groups of three lines on the three sides other than the one next to the rim. The reserved rim is decorated with a row of dots, which is found in pottery, mainly kraters and skyphoi, from the PG to the LG period, examples being the dots on the Atticizing vases of the Middle Geometric period50, or on LG skyphoi from the Chalkis atelier51.

  • 52 PGP, pl. 11, n. 2102.
  • 53 PGP, pl. 19a, n. 1472.
  • 54 PGP, pl. 38, 10.
  • 55 D. W. Coulson, The Dark Age in Messenia, Göteborg 1986, n. 337, pl. 13.
  • 56 P. Descoeudres, Eretria VI, Bern 1978, p. 8, n. 3, pl. 3.
  • 57 Andriomenou 1981, pl. 44.
  • 58 Samos V, pp. 24, 34, fig. 18, pl. 20, 114.
  • 59 Andriomenou, Philia Epi, p. 90, pl. 20.

56The motif of the lozenge is found from the PG period on in Attica52, on Rheneia53, in Lakonia54, on a krater from Osmanaga55, on a vase dating from the middle of the 8th century56, on a skyphos from Eretria57, on a krater from Samos58, on a krater from Chalkis of the first quarter of the 9th century59, and elsewhere.

  • 60 BSA 1952, p. 6, pl. 2,1.
  • 61 Ibidem.
  • 62 GGP, pl. 1a, h.
  • 63 Samos V, p. 16, fig. 3, pl. 3f, 21 bottom row.

57Another motif used to decorate the panels on the kraters is the maeander, in the simple Dipylon type (no. 113, fig. 43. 1), bordered by groups of lines on three sides. A similar type of maeander is found at Eretria60, and Boardman61 describes it as probably an Attic product because of the «Attic Dipylon style» of its decoration. This type of maeander, though less common, is known from Attica62, in the EG I period, and Samos63, where it dates from the end of the 9th century, when kraters began to be decorated with panels.

  • 64 Kerameikos V, p. 12 pl. 84.
  • 65 Lefkandi I, pl. 222, 112.
  • 66 Boardman, in BSA 62, 1967, pp. 70-72, pl. 14, 24.
  • 67 Coldstream 1995b, p. 252 n. 1, pl. 27a, 2.

58The most common type of maeander, with long horizontals, which adorned krater no. 121 (fig. 41. 16), is found in the Kerameikos from the end of the tenth century BC64, on Euboea (Lefkandi) in the SPG period65, and also on Crete in a tomb at Khaniale Tekke, Knossos, dating from the LG period66. The manner in which the maeander is drawn on the Viglatouri krater, with the rather careless alignment of lines at the corners, is similar to that on krater no. 118. Part of a similar krater with a maeander dating from the Middle Geometric II and Late Geometric I period was found at Pithekoussai67.

  • 68 GGP, pl. 5f.

59The composite handles on this krater are found in the Kerameikos on kraters of the Middle Geometric II period68 and they are also known from Cretan examples, from the North Aegean and from Boeotia. The nipples adorning krater no. 120 are also found here.

  • 69 Samos V, pl. 3, 21.
  • 70 Boardman 1952, pl. 2 A, 2.

60Krater no. 118 (figs. 35. 1; 43. 2) also has the same kind of panel, nipples, and a richly decorated composite handle. Decoration exactly like that on this handle is to be found on a krater handle from Samos69, dating from the last quarter of the 9th century, and probably on a handle from Eretria70.

  • 71 Samos V, pl. 11. 58.
  • 72 Ibidem.
  • 73 GGP, pl. 5f.
  • 74 Andriomenou 1985, pl. 11,2.

61Krater no. 119 (figs. 35. 2; 43. 3) has a more complex panel with a maeander bordered at the two narrow ends not only by bands but also by a vertical row of chevrons, while the bottom has a border of successive rows of undulating lines. The panel continues on the rim, where it is decorated with three bands. The combination of maeander and undulating lines is found in a krater from Samos of the early 8 th century BC71. Similar undulating lines also adorn fragments of other kraters at Viglatouri. The combination of maeander and zigzag or undulating lines is to be found on Samos72, in Attica73, and at Eretria74, and is dated to the Middle Geometric II period.

62A large number of bases, handles or body fragments of kraters were found inside and outside the oval building, and belong to the types described above. The open vase no. 178 (fig. 36. 2) is a unique example, probably of a krater, the upper part of which is covered with black paint. Beneath the black-painted part hang two pendant languettes, rather like a festoon. There are no parallels for this ornament and it may be the work of a local workshop.

63The few notable examples of kraters mentioned indicatively above, and the large number of fragments of similar vases found during the excavation, make it clear that use was made of this important vessel both inside the main building and, to a lesser extent, outside it. What will its use have been, however? Burial? Secular? This question is addressed below.

  • 75 Coldstream 1995c, p. 401.
  • 76 Gift Exchange, p. 205, figs. 6-7.

64In an article written in 199575 N. Coldstream speaks of large-scale Attic masterpieces found in the tumulus at Lefkandi, amongst which are MG I pedestal kraters, which he compares with the MG II kraters found in the tombs of Salamis and Amathus on Cyprus76, and also with the group found in a “royal context” at Hama, Tyre and Samaria. He considers, moreover, that like the later Euboean Cesnola kraters they were gifts exchanged between a Euboean aristocrat and a member of a corresponding social class.

65The large number of kraters found during the excavation of Kyme, the majority of which are in an Attic style, might thus be regarded as gifts to a local ruler, certainly of considerable influence, made during the MG II period to which the majority of the kraters belong.

66The tombs found beneath the oval building, the “square”, and also in the surrounding area, might offer a different interpretation, however: amongst the funerary monuments of Attica, kraters are known to have been placed on male tombs in the 9th century as libation vases or as markers. At Viglatouri, tombs have been found beneath the oval building, a circumstance susceptible of the interpretation that some kraters were used for burial purposes, though they will also perhaps have had another, religious or possibly ritual use, before being used for burial cult or as grave offerings. Their use may be assigned to the period just before the colonisation movement.

b) Skyphoi

  • 77 Coldstream 1995b, p. 267.

67Many rim, body or base fragments of these smaller vases have been found, since they could be used both for food and for drink77 in the Geometric period. It should be noted, of course, that it is not always easy to establish from the rim (fig. 42. 2-5) or the base whether the fragment belongs to a skyphos or to a one-handled cup. The majority of the skyphoi, especially the whole ones, were found inside the oval building and the “square” outside it, and also over the entire area of the excavation, though somewhat more sporadically.

  • 78 GGP, pl. 42e.
  • 79 Andriomenou 1985, pp. 55ff.

68They are usually covered with black paint, with no decoration, with a low vertical slightly everted rim, a semiglobular body and a disk base (e. g. no. 123, fig. 36. 5). This is the type found in Boeotia78 from the Early Geometric period and somewhat earlier. In the Cyclades and at Chalkis it is found in the Middle Geometric II phase79.

69In addition to the unpainted the skyphoi covered with black paint, and those with pendant semicircles examined above, all of which occur from the Late PG to the end of the 8th century BC, sherds of skyphoi have been found with decoration set in a panel between the handles. Coldstream places the skyphoi with a panel in the MG II period.

70These skyphoi are:

  • 80 Andriomenou 1984, p. 42, fig. 10, n. 12.
  • 81 Andriomenou 1985a, pl. 5, 17-28, pl. 6, 1-14.

71Part of a skyphos (fig. 42. 6) with a panel decorated with a maeander and bordered by a group of lines. A small star set outside the panel. The rim above the panel is reserved and decorated with three horizontal bands, a motif and combination known from the workshops of Chalkis80 and also in a skyphos from Eretria81. Various skyphoi fragments with a maeander were found inside the oval building. The eight-point stars are diagnostic of the second quarter of the 8th century BC.

  • 82 GGP, pl. 42 g.
  • 83 GGP, pl. 5e.

72A sherd from a skyphos covered with black paint is decorated with a reserved panel containing horizontal bands, while the rim is decorated with dots (fig. 42. 9). Dots are a characteristic MG II ornament on Boeotian82 and Attic83 skyphoi.

  • 84 Andriomenou 1984, fig. 20, nos. 36, 38.
  • 85 Andriomenou 1985a, p. 29; Gruppe III.
  • 86 Zagora 2, pl. 163d.

73Fragments of other skyphoi are decorated with dot rosettes (fig. 42. 7), either in a panel bounded by two lines, or placed freely in the ground beneath the band at the rim. Dot rosettes are found in Attica on skyphoi of the second half of the 8th century BC from tombs 50 and 71 of the Kerameikos. They occur as a supplementary motif in the LG Cesnola krater together with a multi-point star and lozenges like those on krater no. 120 from Kyme (Viglatouri). Skyphoi with similar decoration are known from the atelier of Chalkis84 and Eretria85 dating from the Middle Geometric II. On Andros it occurs in the LG period, after 750 BC86.

  • 87 GGP, pl. 17f and 17j.
  • 88 GGP, pl. 25c and e.
  • 89 Zagora 2, pl. 135a, 138c, 192, 156.
  • 90 Coldstream 1995b, fig. 3, no. 78.

74One favourite category of skyphoi consists of the skyphos with everted rim covered with black paint and a panel flanked at left and right by a triglyph, and adorned with a row of vertical parallel undulating lines (figs. 42. 10, 12). The motif is known from Corinthian kraters and skyphoi87 and an Argive kantharos88 dating from the Middle Geometric II period. Another like it has been found on Andros, where it is thought to be Euboean LG89, at Lef-kandi, and at Pithekoussai90.

  • 91 Ε. Σαπουνά-Σαϰελλαράϰη,‘Ανασϰαφή στο Καστρί Λιχάδας Ελβοίας το 1994’ in Αρχείον Ευβοϊϰών Μεωετών. (...)
  • 92 Lefkandi I pl. 43, n. 52.

75Another decorative style found on a skyphos from Viglatouri-Kyme is that of a skyphos (fig. 42. 13) with everted rim covered with black paint and irregular vertical parallel lines flanked by relief nipples on the ground at the shoulder. This decoration is known from LG skyphoi from Lichas in North Euboea91 and from Lefkandi92. At Lefkandi there are circles in the position occupied by the two nipples. The examples from Kyme possibly belong to a local workshop.

  • 93 Andriomenou, in Arch Eph 1982, pl. 21, 2, 3; Boardman 1952, pl. 1.
  • 94 Andriomenou 1984, p. 48, fig. 22, skyphos 41.

76Skyphoi (fig. 42. 12) with a rim covered with black paint or with a rim decorated with bands, have a panel on the shoulder with horizontal parallel undulating lines bordered by a group of four vertical lines, a motif known from skyphoi at Eretria93, while another version with straight rather than undulating lines is also found at Chalkis94. Many fragments were found adorned with versions of the above motifs.

  • 95 Andriomenou 1984, pp. 54, 56, 66, n. 61.

77Fragments with a horizontal handle, beneath which the surface is reserved and the body decorated with bands probably belong to skyphoi; corresponding vases are known from Chalkis95, Finally, a large number of handles, bases and body-fragments belong to skyphoi.

c) Cups

78A large number of sherds probably belonging to one-handled cups was found inside and outside the oval building. The majority of them are covered with black paint, while some have a decorated panel. We may note, indicatively:

c. 1 Cups covered with black paint

  • 96 Zagora 2, pl. 201c.

79Three whole cups with slightly everted rim and flat base, of which two (nos. 106, 107, fig. 43. 4-5) are covered with black paint and one (no. 111, fig. 36. 6) is unglazed. Nos. 106-107 have two nipples opposite the vertical handle. Cups or skyphoi with a reserved band at the rim (fig. 42. 2-5) are rare, as at Zagora on Andros96.

  • 97 Kerameikos V, I, pl. 105.

80A large number of strap-handles decorated with a row of horizontal lines was found inside or around the oval building. These handles are probably from cups covered with black paint. Cups of this type are known from the Kerameikos97 dating from the turn of the 10th and 9th century, and from EG Argos. At Viglatouri, however, they were found in a Middle Geometric II context.

c. 2 Decorated cups

81Two whole cups and fragments of other similar ones found inside or outside the oval building are of some interest.

  • 98 Lefkandi III, pl. 109, Sa XVI, 5.

82These cups (no. 95, fig. 36. 3-4, and no. 122, fig. 43. 6) have a semiglobular body, an everted rim, flat base, and a vertical strap-handle, opposite which are two nipples flanking a panel. The body is black-glazed except for the panel between the two nipples which is decorated with three successive horizontal zigzags bordered on three sides by a group of four lines (the bottom group is missing in no. 95). Cup no. 95 has an X outside the panel next to the handle. The type of vase and the decoration find precise parallels at Lef-kandi98, dating from the EG II-MG I period.

  • 99 Φ. Ζαφειροπούλου,‘Γεωμετριϰά ἀγγεία ἀπό τήν Νάξο’ in ASAtene, p. 123, fig. 6.
  • 100 Zagora 2, p. 194, pl. 182 a, b.

83Nipples are rare on Euboean and Cycladic pottery. Their presence is noted in PG amphoras from Naxos99, in a skyphos from Andros of the MG II period decorated with a small star and a vertical row of chevrons100, and in the above-mentioned vase from Lefkandi (see also Kraters).

  • 101 GGP, pl. 2b.
  • 102 GGP, pl. 17d.
  • 103 Samos V, pl. 17, 100-101.
  • 104 GGP, pl. 34c.
  • 105 Samos V, pl. 17, 100-101.
  • 106 Andriomenou 1985a, pp. 25ff.

84The zigzag motif is known in skyphoi mainly of the EG period in Attica101 and of the MG I period at Corinth102, Samos103, and Thera104. The X motif next to the handle finds a parallel on Samos, though together with a small star105, and Eretria106. At Eretria the small star is sometimes replaced by two dots. At Kyme, as at Eretria, the rim is frequently covered with black paint without any reserved bands. The examples from Eretria are dated to the first quarter of the 8th century BC.

85The zigzag motif occurs on several sherds which belong to skyphoi (fig. 42. 8) or kraters.

d) Plates-Kantharoi

  • 107 Andriomenou 1985a, p. 37, n. 135.
  • 108 Lekfandi III, pl. 102.
  • 109 Coldstream 1995a, pp. 200-201, fig. 1, pl. XVI.

86Plates are not common before the end of the 8th century BC. A few have been discovered at Chalkis and Eretria107, and earlier at Lefkandi108, dating from the LPG period. Euboean examples were exported to Amathus on Cyprus109, and date from the SPG period down to the early 8th century BC.

  • 110 Kerameikos V. 1, pl. 107 no. 5398 from grave 52.
  • 111 Zagora 2, pl. 165a.

87A fragment of a plate from Viglatouri (fig. 41. 13) is decorated with an undulating band set between groups of lines, a motif mainly used on closed vases, though it is also found in some open vases from the Kerameikos110 dating from the second quarter of the 8th century. The same decoration occurs on a krater of the MG II-LG I period from Zagora on Andros111, where it is combined with the dot rosette, a characteristic LG motif.

  • 112 GGP, pl. 10m and pl. 38h, j, 40c.
  • 113 Andriomenou 1985a, pl. 12, 3.
  • 114 Zagora 2, pl. 176.

88A few other characteristic fragments of handles were found at Viglatouri, such as the “omega” type (fig. 36. 7), and some with horns at the ends, similar to those of Cycladic and Attic plates112 and also those of Eretria113. At Eretria the type with horns is dated to the MG II period, while the Attic and Cycladic examples date from the LG I and II periods, like those found at Zagora on Andros114.

89Handles of this type were found inside the oval building and immediately outside it.

90Only a very few fragments, mainly of handles, can be attributed to kantharoi (fig. 33. 5, top left).

e) Closed vases

91A large number of closed vases were found in fragments. The Protogeometric vases have already been discussed above. Only a few whole vases of the Geometric period were preserved, though these are nevertheless diagnostic.

  • 115 Skyros 1998, pp. 48-49, figs. 37-39.

92One of the two whole lekythoi found in the excavation is no. 73 (figs. 37. 1; 43. 7), which had fallen behind the bench together with cup no. 95. The combination of lekythos or oinochoe and cup as a set was probably used in some special religious ritual, because it is frequently found in LG tombs, especially on Skyros. The shape of the vase, too, is associated with Late Geometric Skyros. Vases of this type dating from the Late Geometric-Early Archaic period, which are the closest typologically in terms of their shape, have come to light in recent excavations of the cemetery115. The Skyros vases are decorated with horses, while that from Kyme has plain bands; its discovery together with an MG cup and in an MG context assigns it to an earlier date.

93In addition to the whole vases, a large number of closed vases were found in which the upper or lower part of the body was preserved but do not fit together. Pieces of jugs and oinochoai were found inside the oval building in places where diagnostic vases such as kraters were also found. Three rims from trefoil oinochoai covered with black paint were found in the north-east part of the oval building above the east cist, and another together with a coarse trefoil oinochoe. A similar sherd was found in the south-east part of the excavation.

94The bases and lower body parts of the closed vases that were collected probably also belong to oinochoai or jugs. The bases are usually flat and the body is covered with black paint, and a group of reserved bands (e. g. no. 110, fig. 37. 2).

  • 116 GGP, pl. 42f.

95The lower part of a vase covered with black paint belongs to an oinochoe resembling EG Boeotian oinochoai116, where, however, the body is decorated with reserved bands like Viglatouri no. 110.

  • 117 Lefkandi I, p. 334, fig. 19B.

96Part of a vase with a disk base and brownish black horizontal bands belongs to the lower part of an amphora. The vase recalls similar pots of the LPG period from Lefkandi117, though it was found in a later context.

  • 118 GGP, pl. 3.

97Neck no. 109 probably belongs to an oinochoe of the MG II period; its handle (fig. 37. 3) is parallel to those from the Kerameikos118 dating from the Middle Geometric period. At least three other parts of jugs come from the oval building and several from the north-west part of the settlement.

  • 119 GGP, pl. 18e.
  • 120 Coldstream, Cesnola, p. 82, fig. 4.

98Part of a neck with horizontal bands, from the oval building, belongs to a Corinthian-type jug119 of the Middle Geometric II period. Similar examples have been found at Pithekoussai120.

99Part of another neck is decorated with a horizontal zigzag band flanked by two groups of horizontal lines. A large number of handles probably also belong to vases of this type.

f) Coarse wares

100A large number of pieces of coarse vases, mainly pithoi, were found in the area, most of them fragments which have not been mended because of the poor quality of the fabric and their weight.

101Many pithoi were found around the main building, some of which are so heavy that they were probably placed permanently in position at various points. Others were pointed and were set into the ground. The pithoi are either decorated, with incised, embossed or relief decoration (fig. 38. 1-2), or plain. It should be noted, however, that where the layers are severely disturbed and the context is not clear, it is difficult to assign a precise date to the pithoi.

102In addition to the pithoi, parts of cooking pots were found in many places, and also of jugs.

  • 121 Lefkandi I, pl. 111, 13, p. 309, fig. 12 G, fig. 20; GGP pl. 39, fig. 9k.
  • 122 Reber, p. 22, pl. 1, 3.
  • 123 Reber, fig. 1, 1.

103A characteristic example is the upper part of a one-handled vase (no. 116, fig. 38. 3). This vase recalls several from Lefkandi121. Its elongated body, however, recalls Submycenaean pots from the Athenian Agora122 and vases from the Kerameikos123. In all them, however, the handle touches the rim.

  • 124 Asine, pp. 428, fig. 276, 430, fig. 479.

104A whole unpainted, trefoil oinochoe of coarse fabric (no. 93, fig. 37. 4) was found in the west corner of the north part of the oval building, together with part of an MG II krater (no. 118), the lead spit (no. 104), beads, spindlewhorls, and the handle in the shape of a “butterfly” (no. 94). Precise parallels for the oinochoe have been found in the PG tombs 18 and 27 at Asine124.

  • 125 Vergina I, p. 202.
  • 126 Vergina I, p. 219, fig. 60.
  • 127 S. Hood, Prehistoric Emborio and Ag. Gala, 1981, fig. 123, pl. 31.

105The handle in the shape of a “butterfly” (no. 94, fig. 38. 4) was found together with the above oinochoe and part of a krater dating from the MG II period (no. 118). The handle is a curious one, but is fairly reminiscent of the horn-like or knob-like protrusions on vases from the Geometric cemetery at Vergina125, which Andronikos associates with handles on Italian vases126 and dates early in the first millennium. Related but very early examples of elaborate handles are to be found in the Late Neolithic period in the north-east Aegean127.

  • 128 Buchner, Pithekussai 1981, p. 265, fig. 2.
  • 129 Skyros 1986, p. 47, fig. 35, p. 49, fig. 39 and Sapouna-Sakellaraki, Geometric Skyros (forthcoming (...)

106The quantity and the quality of the pottery from Viglatouri-Kyme that has come to light to date is such that it may be regarded as certain that there was a flourishing Geometric centre here. It may be noted that so far no pictorial motifs, characteristic of end of the Late Geometric period on Euboea, have been found corresponding with those discovered in small quantities at Chalkis, Eretria, Pithekoussai128, and in the Cesnola group. It is therefore of great interest that I recently had the good fortune to find a group of skyphoi and jugs with scenes of this nature on Skyros129, demonstrating that Skyros had some important workshops at the end of the Geometric period which were clearly influenced by the Cesnola painter. Our knowledge is thus enriched for areas with a good context in Euboea and the surrounding area: Kyme, mainly for the Middle Geometric period, and Skyros for the Late Geometric.

Small objects

107A large number of small objects were found dating from the Geometric period.

Jewellery

108In contrast with neighbouring Skyros, which in recent years has yielded a vast quantity of gold jewellery, fibulae or faience vases, etc., corresponding with that from Lefkandi, the small finds from Viglatouri-Kyme are made of humbler materials; they are nevertheless of great interest.

109A fairly large number of clay, glass or stone beads came to light, mainly in the north part of the oval building and outside it.

Clay beads

  • 130 Zagora 2, pl. 272a, b.

110The clay beads are the most common and occur in a variety of shapes. One category of clay beads, triangular in shape, imitates imported glass beads (fig. 39. 1). Where the glass beads have inlays, the clay ones are painted black or brown (fig. 44. 23-25), or merely have a black band around the corners. A clay bead imitating a glass bead was found at Zagora on Andros130, though this has incised decoration. Other clay beads are spherical or compressed spherical, lentoid (fig. 39. 2), conical (fig. 44. 1-4) - plain or with incisions (figs. 38. 5; 39. 5; 44. 18,19-21) - biconical, fusiform, and triangular pyramidal (figs. 38. 5; 39. 1-2; 44. 5-17) in shape. Many of them have shapes similar to spindlewhorls though they are different in size.

Stone beads (figs. 39. 3; 44. 10, 26)

111Several stone beads were found both inside and outside the oval building. These beads are made of steatite and rock crystal, materials used in Mycenaean times, and their shapes are also common in the Mycenaean period (conical, spherical, compressed spherical or biconical). Several of them were found in an unambiguously Geometrical context, and must therefore have been heirlooms or survivals of Mycenaean shapes. Some of the conical beads have been described as spindlewhorls, but the smaller ones are probably beads. A small pyramidal bead is a rather unusual shape (fig. 44. 26).

Glass beads (figs. 39. 4; 44. 27-30)

  • 131 Zagora 2, pl. 271 a-b, 270 d-e.
  • 132 Lefkandi I, p. 223.

112The glass beads, which were found mostly in the main building, are spherical or triangular, and are made of black or dark blue glass paste. Both types have inlays of whitish glass paste at three points. The round shape has also been found on Andros131. Glass beads have been thought to be of Phoenician origin, and Higgins accepts this in the case of the beads found at Lefkandi132. The same is probably true in the case of the beads from Kyme, for we know from our excavation on Skyros that there is considerable evidence, mainly in the form of objects made of faience, pointing to relations with the Orient.

Spindlewhorls (fig. 39. 5; 40. 2; 44. 20)

  • 133 Lefkandi II, pl. 34, 35, no. 43.

113Another category of finds, which is connected with women’s activities and the economy of the region, comprises loomweights and spindlewhorls. Discoid loomweights with a hole at the centre were found scattered over the area. The function is unknown of the rectangular clay objects resembling one found at Lefkandi133.

  • 134 Reber, p. 171.
  • 135 Zagora 2, p. 74, nn. 191-197.

114Like the beads, the spindlewhorls occur in a wide variety of shapes. The conical ones are a particularly common shape. They are found either plain or decorated, like no. 44, which has embossed circles on the base and circles with herring-bone pattern on the body (figs. 40. 2; 44. 20). The technique of embossed decoration is believed to have come either from the North (Milojicic) or from the Orient (Bouzek). Like Reber134, I believe it is a technique that perhaps evolved in Attica, independently of and in parallel with other areas. Other shapes of loomweight include barrel-shaped (no. 137), oval (no. 130), piriform (no. 55), round, biconical, either plain or with incised decoration (no. 191). Biconical spindlewhorls were found at Zagora on Andros135, dating from the 8th c. BC. A lentoid spindlewhorl from Viglatouri-Kyme, finally, has a group of incised lines in torsion (fig. 44. 18).

115SEAL

  • 136 GG, p. 211 fig. 68a; Zagora 2, pl. 287. For island seals, see J. Boardman, Island Gems, London 196 (...)
  • 137 GG, p. 151 fig. 50.
  • 138 Boardman-Buchner, nn. 2, 3; GG, p. 229, fig. 75f.

116Special mention, finally, must be made of a tall cylindrical seal (no. 8, figs. 38. 5; 40. 1; 44. 22). This clay seal has no parallel in the Aegean, as far as I know. It probably came from the Orient along with the glass beads. The motifs, which are incomprehensible, are possibly associated with the Orient, though on some of the island seals of this period, from Melos and Andros, the same motif is rendered in an abstract manner, as it is on the seal from Viglatouri136. The same abstraction is also to be found on Geometric seals from Argos137. The few “island gems” found at Eretria are made of bone or ivory, and not of clay. Abstraction is also found in seals of the “lyre player” category, which were also found at Eretria, Pithekoussai138, and elsewhere. The seal (no. 8) may thus be regarded as contemporary with the oval building, because it is in keeping with the general trend of the period.

Metal objects

117The metal objects found at Viglatouri, are mostly iron, with some of lead and rather fewer of bronze.

Iron objects

118Almost all the iron objects were found in the oval building, apart from the iron knife which came from tomb 4. Iron knives (figs. 32. 4; 44. 31-43), together with beads and cups were found in the north and north-west parts of the apse. The rest of the iron knives (figs. 32. 3; 44. 31-43), and the part of a horse bridle no. 11, were found amongst the large groups of finds in the east, along with a great number of vases, cups, and kraters, dating from the Middle Geometric period, spindlewhorls, and glass beads, while the iron fibula (no. 5a-b) (figs. 32. 4; 44. 46) was found at the centre of the area along with characteristic MG II pottery. The knives, the double axe no. 64 (figs. 44. 47) and the spit no. 104 (figs. 40. 3; 44. 44) were found above the cists.

119The knives from Viglatouri are not large, their length ranging from 0. 07-0. 10 m. Some of them are straight and have a regular cutting edge, while others are curved like a sickle with the cutting edge on the inside.

120Some knives preserve the sharp blade (fig. 44. 36-38) in which the handle was attached without the aid of a nail, while in the case of no. 37 (fig. 44. 37), a nail was used to attach a handle of perishable material.

121The fact that the knives were not found together with weapons allows us to look upon them as items of household or ritual use, with some specific function, such as cutting meat. No other cutting tools, such as saws, etc., which would suggest that they are simply the stored tools of a country house, were discovered.

  • 139 E. Sapouna-Sakellaraki, Die Fibeln der griechischen Inseln, München 1978, p. 107, pl. 44, nn. 1498 (...)

122The iron fibula found at the centre of the north part of the oval building (no. 3b) (fig. 44. 46) belongs to Sakellaraki type IXb139, which dates to the end of the Geometric period; it is thus one of the latest objects deposited in the building, together with the fragments of Late Geometric skyphoi.

  • 140 Lefkandi II, 2, pl. 32, 34, no. 1.
  • 141 Donder, p. 3.
  • 142 Donder, n. 100, 12.
  • 143 Donder, p. 300 pl. 12, no. 112.

123The rather curious object no. 11 (figs. 40. 3; 44. 45), which consists of a long rod, 0. 165 m. in length, of rectangular section, with a hole at one end and forming a thicker cylinder at the other, may be the long part of a horse bridle. Similar, if not identical rods have been found in a horse burial at Toumba, Lefkandi140. Such trappings are known mainly from Cyprus (Salamis, Palaipaphos, Tamassos), where they are found together with the complete harness in horse burials accompanying the human dead. Individual parts of bridles are known in the Halstatt Culture in the Early Iron Age, though they are rarely found individually in tombs in Greece or Asia Minor141. A bridle from Elis142, belonging to Donder’s type IX, is connected with the Kyme bridle. Donder’s type IX is considered to be one of the earliest of the Iron Age and is related to types found in South Russia and the Caucasus. Type IX has also been found at Kalapodi, though there the rod is twisted143.

  • 144 V. Desborough, The Greek Dark Ages, London 1972, p. 126, fig. 22.
  • 145 Lefkandi I, p. 256, pl. 244E and F.

124The double axe (no. 64, fig. 44. 47) is an object used from very ancient times for practical and religious purposes in the Orient and Minoan Crete. An example dating from the Iron Age has been found in the settlement at Karphi144, and they have also come to light in tombs at Argos, the Athenian Agora and the Kerameikos. The examples from Lefkandi145 are heavier, and certainly had a practical use, while the axe from Viglatouri-Kyme, which is 0. 08 m. long is an elegant instrument and probably had a ritual rather than a practical function.

  • 146 Coldstream, Cesnola, pp. 77ff.
  • 147 Buchner, Pithekoussai 1981, p. 265, fig. 2.
  • 148 Pausanias I, 24, 4; L. Deubner, Attische Feste, Berlin 1966, pp. 159ff.

125In his interpretation of the representation of the double axe combined with a horse on vases from the Cesnola workshop146 and local equivalents found at Pithekoussai147, Coldstream claims that the double axe has been incorrectly associated with Poseidon Hippeios and his sons, Aktorione-Molione. He believes that the double axe was the favourite tool for cutting wood, for battle and for religious ritual, and was probably a symbol of the aristocracy. One should not forget its use in the Classical period, at the Attic festival of the Bouphonia148.

  • 149 P. Courbin,’Obeloi d’Argolid et d’ailleur’, in Renaissance, p. 156.

126Another iron object of great importance found in the cist beneath the oval building is the spit (no. 104, figs. 40. 3; 44. 44). This is 0. 24 m. long though spits are usually 1. 10 m. in length. In his study of them149, Courbin examines the issue in great detail. Spits have been found in both tombs and sanctuaries. Many scholars regard them as a religious symbol or an instrument of sacrifice. This accounts for their different weight or length in several cases, which may be interpreted in terms of different practices or different workshops. When found in tombs or temples, they clearly do not have money-value. The spits found in temples are probably connected with religious banquets and those in tombs are a sign of the economic power and social status of the deceased, since in daily life these objects were exchanged for animals, vessels, etc.

127An iron pin 0. 064 m. long (no. 198) perhaps dates from the Geometric period, though it was not found in a clear context.

Lead objects

128Another distinct group consists of the lead objects found at Viglatouri-Kyme in all levels from the MH to the LH period. One particularly interesting item is a twisted lead vase handle (fig. 40. 5, top row, left) found outside the enclosure in the central sector, at the east part of the excavation, where there is a curved wall of an apsidal building (T10).

  • 150 H. Thompson, The Agora of Athens, vol XIV, Princeton 1972, p. 53, pl. 39b.

129A number of folded lead sheets (fig. 40. 5, top row, second and third left) found in the area resemble similar pieces found at Dodona, in the Ancient Agora of Athens150, in north Euboea and elsewhere. They contain a variety of texts: curses, questions asked of the oracle, and prayers. The sheets of this type at Viglatouri were found in both a Geometric and a mixed context. Some are still unfolded, and we do not know whether they had any incised signs.

130A lead disk (no. 258) 0. 025 m. in diameter, resembles a stud. There are also many joining fragments of pithoi from all periods (fig. 40. 5).

  • 151 Lefkandi I, pp. 258-9, pl. 246f.
  • 152 Ibidem.

131Another interesting lead object (no. 163, fig. 40. 5, bottom row, right) resembles the base and bottom of a vase with a boss at the centre. It perhaps belongs to a bowl. This object was found outside the oval building in a mixed context. A lead weighing-scale pan was found at Lefkandi151. The imperfections apparent in the technique of the utensil from Lefkandi are due, according to H. Catling152, to the fact that it was covered by gold leaf. The poor workmanship in the lead object from Kyme is possibly due to the same cause.

Bronzes

132There are only two bronze objects that may be assigned to this period. A bronze bowl (no. 115, fig. 40. 4), which will have been suspended, as is clear from the hole in the rim, and a dagger (no. 230), were found in a mixed context.

  • 153 K. Kilian,‘Weihungen aus Eisenverarbeitung im Heili-gtum zu Philia (Thessalien)’, in Renaissance, (...)
  • 154 R. Felsch,‘Zur Chronologie und zur Stil geometrischen Bronzen’, in Renaissance, pp. 123ff.
  • 155 Ibidem, p. 147.

133The metal objects are also important for the interpretation of the area. First of all, they are almost all concentrated in the main building, and were apparently ritual implements or dedications. Dedications of this kind are known from the early phases of the Argive Heraion and the sanctuaries at Olympia, on Samos, and at Philia in Thessaly153. Some of these objects, indeed, were made in the sanctuary itself, a phenomenon known at Olympia, Delphi, Isthmia, Philia and Kalapodi154. Metal workshops in settlements are known at Eretria, Ephesos, Pithekoussai, and elsewhere155. No evidence has been found at Viglatouri for metal-working facilities in the Geometric period. Such evidence has come to light, however, for the Mycenaean period, with waste being discovered near the Mycenaean sanctuary (Building B). A connection between workshops and sanctuaries is also known from the Mycenaean period and from the Pylos tablets where reference is made to “temple-bronze”. At Viglatouri they may conceivably still be concealed in the unexcavated area, since their uniformity of manufacture of the objects suggests that they belong to the same, possibly local, workshop.

***

134The important complex of the oval building at Viglatouri-Kyme is, as we have seen above, constructed within a settlement that was probably protected by a fortification wall. Retaining walls were also used to create artificial flat areas, and thus increase the surface available at a given level. It is clear from the pottery that the Geometric settlement was built in the Middle Geometric II period (800-760 BC); this is also the period when it was at its most flourishing, although there are some earlier, Proto-geometric buildings in insulae. The settlement lasted until at least the Late Geometric I period.

135Amongst the houses there were cist burials, both earlier and contemporary with the Geometric settlement; the practice is not unknown elsewhere. Burials intra muros are known at Zagora, Thermon, Attica, Eretria and elsewhere.

136The Geometric buildings were erected above earlier (Middle Helladic and Late Helladic) settlements, and the earlier walls were frequently reused either fully or in part in the Geometric period. The continuous use of an area is known from Thorikos, Nichoria, the acropolis at Asine, Tiryns, and Mycenae, where Geometric huts were built above the palace, at Hyria on Naxos, and elsewhere. A similar sequence of settlements is known on Euboea at Xeropoli, Lefkandi.

137The oval building is contemporary with apsidal (central and east sectors) and rectangular (west sector) buildings, as at Eretria. The plan of the settlement seems to date from the Middle Geometric period. It was at this period that the complex of the oval building-“square” was created, as well as the streets that separated the buildings.

138The earlier (Protogeometric) buildings in the settlement may have been built of mud on a stone base, for below the foundation level of most of the Geometric buildings there is a thick layer of beaten clay, while both the oval building and the structures around it were stone-built, as is clear from the piles of stones covering the ruins. Evidently therefore, there was a change in the architecture in the 8th century BC. As we know, the apsidal houses at Antissa on Lesbos were also built of bricks, as were the Late Geometric houses on Andros, at Eretria, Lathouriza, and elsewhere.

139There are workshops to the north and also to the west of the oval building, as is apparent from the kilns uncovered to the north of the “square”, which were in a good state of preservation, and other kilns preserved only in fragmentary conditions in the west part of the settlement.

140The oval shape of the main building is a familiar one in the 8th century BC (Smyrna, Miletos, Ephesos, Areopagos (Athens), Thermon, Tiryns, Eleusis, Oropos and also the model of Samos).

  • 156 Odyssey, XXII, 128-137.

141The oval building is oriented north-south, and is quite large for its shape, with walls 0. 50 m. thick made of rectangular and a few triangular stones. The walls are reinforced by wooden posts, the μεσοδμή of Homer156. The positions of these have been detected mainly in the east part of the building. It will have had a flat roof, as known from the model found on Lemnos, made of stone slabs and timber. A number of tiles found inside the building possibly belonged to special structures. No trace of column-supports has been found. What were probably bases of two columns in the inside near the south-east wall and either side of the transverse wall may have had some other function, possibly of a religious nature. There will have been an entrance in the north sector, where part of a door-jamb is preserved, though there is no trace of a threshold, a feature frequently found in Geometric buildings.

  • 157 Hägg in Renaissance, p. 189.

142Some of the elements inside the oval building, other than the finds, help us to interpret its nature: the most indicative feature is the bench made of thin slabs in the east part, on which cups were found together with lekythoi, a set often found in LG tombs on Skyros, and also at Asine157. Together with them were found iron knives and other metal objects such as part of a horse bridle, glass beads, etc., that may be interpreted as dedications. Similar benches are found in sanctuaries such as that at Karphi, on Crete, at Tiryns, Dreros, and elsewhere.

143The paved area on the north-west side of the north part of the building may be a kind of exedra, rather than a bed, as it has been interpreted in other cases.

  • 158 Ibidem, p. 87.

144The flat slab in the south corner of the north part, which covered an area with traces of burning and bones, next to a column base, has been interpreted in similar contexts, as at Mycenae, as an altar158. It may have been a kind of table with the same function.

  • 159 M. Andronikos,’Totenkult’, in Arch Hom III, Göttingen 1968, p. 33. Kurtz-Boardman, pp. 51-52.
  • 160 D. Ridgway, L’alba della Magna Grecia, Milano 1984 (Greek ed. 1992), p. 88, fig. 4.
  • 161 Cl. Bérard, L’Heroon à la Porte d’Ouest (Eretria III), 1970, p. 30.

145The stone-paved circular structure with traces of fire next to the slab mentioned above, in contact with the transverse wall, may have been a kind of hearth. Next to it, in the centre of the area, were found part of a krater, a fibula, a grinder and some skyphoi in a thick layer of ash. It may also be noted that a circle of small stones was found to the south of the bench. Beneath it were discovered iron objects, such as the double axe and knives which were probably placed there as grave offerings in the cists located at a lower level. A circle of stones used as a grave-marker is familiar in Attica from the Protogeo-metric period on, and indicates the presence of a tomb, as do the stelai, for which there can be no other explanation159. The circle of stones is also known at Pithekoussai160. The altar for burnt sacrifices, the central hearth and the bench are features found at Asine and Nichoria. It is clear that no tumulus was erected over the tombs, like the Heroon at Eretria161.

  • 162 K. Fagerström, Greek Iron Age Architecture. Development through changing time (SIMA 81), Goteborg (...)
  • 163 A. Μαξαράϰης-Αἰνιὰν,‘Λατρευτιϰά δεῖπνα στίς ϰατοιϰὶες τῶν ἀρχόντων. Ὁ Ὁμηριϰός οἶϰος’, in Πραϰτιϰά (...)

146The large number and nature of the artefacts concentrated in the north part - kraters, skyphoi, metal objects, and beads-combined with the fixed features of the building referred to above, make it impossible to interpret it as a residence, an ordinary storeroom, or a workshop162 ; on the contrary, they are strong evidence for the theory that this was an area in which certain ritual acts were carried out. If all the items found on the floor of the building are associated with the cists beneath it, there can be no doubt that this was an area for a hero cult similar to the earlier Heroon at Lefkandi. It is, that is to say, a sanctuary built above the tombs, and not the house of a ruler that was also used as a sanctuary, as may be the case in other instances163.

  • 164 Hägg in Renaissance, p. 189.

147The “square” to the north of the oval building is certainly associated with it. A significant proportion of the kraters rolled from there. It should perhaps be associated therefore, with the exterior paved area at Metropolis on Naxos, the open-air altar at Symi Viannou, or the open precinct next to the sanctuary at Vroulia. The “square” may have had a stoa offering protection against the weather, like the sanctuary of Hera on Delos (8th century). All the above features are typical of the urban design and layout of the Geometric period. The eschara-cist in the east corner reinforced the view that it was devoted to open-air cult. The circular structure to the north of the “square” is related to the «circular stone settings» at Asine164, where animal bones, traces of fire and sherds were found. Similar structures have been found at Troy and Miletos, and may be connected with ritual banquets.

148The enclosure wall in which the above complex is set has parallels from the 8th century at the temple of Hera on Samos, and also in the triangular enclosure of the Heroon at Eretria.

  • 165 B. Bergquist, The Archaic Greek Temenos, Lund 1967, p. 58.

149The oval structure at Viglatouri-Kyme should therefore be compared in its function with the oval building on the Areopagos at Athens which was located in the area of the tombs. It was, that is, a “Kulthaus”, in honour of heroised dead ancestors, at which gatherings were also held. The spit found in the building may have been associated with this function. The gatherings in the precinct, especially in the “square”, may have had the nature of political assemblies. At Viglatouri-Kyme, therefore, we have a typical sanctuary of the period165, with a main sanctuary in front of which was an open area.

  • 166 Odyssey XX, 128, 137; Herodotus I, 180.

150A narrow paved corridor is preserved around the precinct at a number of points, which corresponds to the λαύρη of Homer166.

  • 167 A. Mazarakis-Ainian,‘New evidence of the Late geometric-Archaic Lathouriza’, in Klados. Essays in (...)

151The semicircular structure in the west part of the excavation, used in the Geometric period, is another kind of hearth or altar, outside the precinct. There is a similar structure at Lathouriza167.

  • 168 Themelis, Grabbauten.

152Finally, the eschara-cist with four slabs is used as a kind of altar. Two escharas were found: one in the east part of the “square” and the other in the southeast part of the excavation. The latter contained a large number of animal bones and ash. The clay seal no. 8 found in it is a unique find. Similar escharacists are to be found in the Cyclades, and at Iolkos, Vravrona, Megara and Emborio168.

  • 169 D. Rupp,‘Reflection on the development of altars in the 8th. cent. B. C.’, in Renaissance, pp. 101 (...)

153The settlement at Viglatouri-Kyme seems to have different kinds of hearths which, in additional to their practical function, were used as altars, the focus of the cult169.

154The excavation of this settlement has thus uncovered an important Geometric centre which had foreign relations, as indicated, for example, by the Attic and Atticizing kraters and cups, or the Phoenician beads, etc. The period at which it flourished, mainly in the 8th century BC, and the earlier (Proto-Geometric) occupation, connect it with both the pre-colonial period and the period of colonisation.

155Viglatouri-Kyme is the first settlement on Euboea to have yielded well-stratified pottery of the Middle, and, to a lesser extent, of the Late Geometric period.

Annexes

Aknowledgment

The drawings are made by D. Christou. The article has been finished before the publication of: A. Mazarakis-Ainian, From Rulers to Temples, Jonsered 1997.

Supplementary abbreviations

Andriomenou, Philia = Ανδρειωμένου Α., Ἐϰ του πρωἰμου εργαστηρίου της Χαλϰίδος’, Φίλια Επη εις Γεώργιον Μυλωνάν, Αθήναι, 1987, Β pp. 71 ff.

Andriomenou 1981 = Ανδρειωμένου Α.,‘Γεωμετριϰή ϰαι Υπογεωμετριϰή ϰεραμειϰή ἐξ’Ερετρίας III’, in ArchEph 1981, pp. 84 ff.

Andriomenou 1982 = Ανδρειωμένου Α.,‘Γεωμετριϰή ϰαι Υπογεωμετριϰή ϰεραμειϰή ἐξ’Ερετρίας IV’, in ArchEph 1982, pp. 161 ff.

Andriomenou 1984 = Andriomenou Α.,‘Skyphoi de l’atelier de Chalkis’, in BCH CVIII, 1984, pp. 37 ff.

Andriomenou 1985 = Andriomenou Α.,’Skyphoi de l’atelier de Chalkis’, in BCH CIX, 1985, pp. 55 ff.

Andriomenou 1985a = Andriomenou Α.,’Keramikfunde aus Eretria, Attisch M. G. II’, in AM 100, 1985, pp. 23 ff.

Aro = Aro S.,‘Keramikfunde als Hinweiss auf die Euböer als Kulturvermittler zwi-schen dem vorderen Orient und Italien’, in HBA 19/20, 1982-3, pp. 20 ff.

Asine = Ο. Frödin - A. Persson, Asine, results of the Swedish excavations 1922-1930, Stockholm 1938.

Boardman 1952 = Boardman J.,‘Pottery from Eretria’, in BSA XLVII, 1952, p. 1 ff.

Boardman - Buchner = Boardman J. -Buchner G.,‘Seals from Ischia and the Lyre player group’, in JdI 81, 1966, 1 ff.

Buchner, Pithekussai = Buchner G.,‘Pithekussae, alcuni aspetti 1981 peculiari’, in ASAtene (Ν. S. XLIII), 1981, pp. 263 ff.

Coldstream = Coldstream J. N.,‘The meaning of regional styles in the 8th cent. B. C.’, in Renaissance, pp. 17 ff.

Coldstream, Cesnola = Coldstream J. N.,‘Pithekussae, Cyprus and the Cesnola painter’, in AION ArchStAnt I (N. S.), 1994, pp. 77 ff.

Coldstream 1995a = Coldstream J. N.,‘Amathus Tomb N. W. 194, The Greek pottery imports, and Greek Geometric and Archaic imports from the tombs of Amathus IT (Dept. of Antiquities Cyprus), 1995, pp. 187 ff.

Coldstream 1995b = Coldstream J. N.,‘Euboean Imports from Pithekussae’, in BSA 90, 1995, pp. 251 ff.

Coldstream 1995c = Coldstream J. N.,‘The rich lady of the Areopagos and her contemporaries. A tribute in memory of E. Lord Smithson’, in Hesperia 64, 1965, pp. 391 ff.

Coldstream 1996 = Coldstream J. N.,‘Minos redivivus. Some nostalgic Knossians of the ninth c. B. C.’, in PraktAkAth, 1996, pp. 233 ff.

Corinth VII = Weinberg S., Corinth VII,1. The Geometric and the Orientalizing Pottery, Cambridge (Mass.) 1943.

Drerup = Drerup H.,‘Griechische Baukunst in geometrischer Zeit’, in ArchHom 2. 0, 1969.

Donder = Donder H.,’Zaumzeug in Griechenland und Cypern’, in PBF XVI,3, München 1980.

Gift Exchange = Coldstream J. N.,‘Gift exchange in the eighth century B. C.’, in Renaissance, pp. 201 ff.

GG = Coldstream J. N., Geometric Greece, London 1977.

GGP = Coldstream J. N., Greek Geometric Pottery, London 1968.

Kerameikos V = Kübler K., Kerameikos V. Die Nekropolis des 10 bis 8 Jh., Berlin 1954.

Kurtz-Boardman = Kurtz D. -Boardman J., Greek Burial Customs, London 1971, pp. 31 ff.

Lefkandi I = Popham M. -Sackett H. - Themelis P., Lefkandi I. The settlement, the cemetery, Oxford 1980.

Lefkandi II = Catling H. W. - Lemos I., Lefkandi II. The Protogeometric building at Toumba, London 1990.

Lefkandi = III Popham M. -Lemos I., Lefkandi III. The Early Iron Age cemetery at Toumba, the excavations of 1981 to 1984, London 1996.

Nitsche = Nitsche Α.,‘Bemerkungen zur Chronologie und Herkunft der Protogeome-trischen und geometrischen Import-keramik von Tyros’, in HBA 13/14, 1986-1987, pp. 7 ff.

PGP = Desborough V., Protogeometric Pottery, London 1952.

Reber = Reber C., Untersuchungen zur hand-gemachten Keramik Griechenlands in der submykenischen, protogeometrischen und der geometrischen Zeit, Jansered 1991.

Renaissance = Hägg R. -Marinatos N. (eds.), The Greek Renaissance of the eighth cent. B. C., Stockholm 1983.

Samos V = Walter H., Samische Gefasse. Cronologie und Landschaftsstil (Samos V), 1968.

Skyros 1986 = Σαπουνά-Σαϰελλαράϰη Ε.,‘Από τήν Εύβοια ϰαί τήν Σϰύρο’, in AAA XIX, 1986, pp. 44 ff.

Sapouna-Sakellaraki 1984 = Σαπουνά-Σαϰελλαράϰη Ε.,‘H Εὐβοϊϰή Κύμη τῆς ἐποχής τῶν αποικισμῶν’, in ArchEph 1984, pp. 151 ff.

Snodgrass 1971 = Snodgrass A. M., The Dark Age of Greece, Edinburgh 1971.

Themelis, Grabbauten = Themelis P., Frühgriechische Grabbauten, Mainz 1976.

Vergina I = Andronikos Μ., Βεργίνα I, Τό νεϰροταφείο των Τύμβων, Athens 1969.

Zagora 2 = Kambitoglou A. -Birchall A. -Coulton J. -Green R. J., Zagora 2. Excavation of a geometric town on the island of An-dros, Athens 1988.

Fig. 30.

Abbreviations

ΜΗ = Middle Helladic

LH = Late Helladic

PG = Protogeometrie

G = Geometric

Τ = Wall (Greek Τεῖχος)

t. = Grave (Greek τάφος)

List of architectural elements

1-Oval Building (A)

2-Square or Exedra

3-Stone structure

4-Enclosure

5-Bench

6-Circle of small stones above pits

7-Paved area above cists and LH wall

8-Paved circle

9-Table altar?

10 a,b - Column bases

11 - Clay structure

12 - PG wall (Γ)

13 a - Geometric building

13 b - Mycenaean sanctuary (B)

14 - Curved wall (∆ = Τ 13)

15 - Curved wall (T 10)

16 - Grave 4

17 – Cist

18 - Cist in the East corner of the Square 2

19 – Kilns

20 - Paved structure

21 - Grave 1

22 - Grave 2

23 - Grave 5

24 - Grave 3

25 - Semicircular paved area

26 - Rectangular paved area (E)

Scale 1:100 - (Graphic editing by Floriana Persico)

Fig. 30. General plan of the excavation.

Fig. 31. 1. Archaic mask. 2. Part of a hellenistic lekythos. 3. Part of a sub-Neolithic table. 4, 6. Fragments of Minyan vases. 5. Local imitation of a Minyan vase. 7. Mycenaean pottery.

Fig. 32. 1. Mycenaean figurine. 2. Feet of Mycenaean kylikes. 3-4. Metal objects from the south-east part of the oval building (3) and from the east and central part of it (4).

Fig. 33. 1. Krater n. 177. 2. Krater n. 119. 3. Body and handle of krater n. 121, from the area of the west cist. 4. Cup n. 122. 5. LG pottery from the south part of the oval building.

Fig. 34. 1. Protogeometric lekythos n. 152. 2, 4. Protogeometric pottery. 3. PG cup from tomb 3. 5. Foot of Geometric krater n. 112. 6. Krater n. 117.

Fig. 35. 1. Krater n. 1182. 2. Kratern. 119.

Fig. 36. 1. Krater n. 120. 2. Krater n. 178. 3-4. Cup 95. 5. Black-glaze skyphos n. 123. 6. Cup n. 111. 7. Plates, skyphoi and cups of the LG period.

Fig. 37. 1. Lekythos n. 73. 2. Jug n. 110. 3. Black-glaze oinochoe n. 109. 4. Unpainted trefoil oinchoe

Fig. 38. 1-2. Parts of decorated pithoi. 3. Part of household vessel n. 116. 4. Handle n. 94, in the shape of a “butterfly”. 5. Embossed and incised clay beads. Seal n. 8.

Fig. 39. 1. Clay imitations of glass beads. 2. Clay beads and spindlewhorls. 3. Stone beads. 4. Glass beads. 5. Undecorated spind-lewhorls and beads.

Fig. 40. 1a-c. Seal n. 8 and impression. 2a-b. Spindlewhorl n. 44. 3. The horse bridle (n. 11) and the spit (n. 104). 4. Bronze bowl n. 115. 5. Lead objects.

Fig. 41. 1. Bone pin. 2. Horse figurine. 3. Askos (C). 4. PG cup from tomb 3. 5. Black ware (n. 101). 6-8. Open and closed vases with semicircles. 9. LPG skyphos with pendant semicircles. 10. Skyphos with reserved band. 11-13. Protogeometric sherds. 14. Part of an EG vase with languettes. 15. Krater n. 117. 16. Krater n. 121. (Scale 1:2).

Fig. 42. 1. Krater n. 120. 2-5. Bodies and rims of skyphoi. 6-14. Fragments of skyphoi. (Scale 1:2).

Fig. 43. 1. Krater n. 113. 2. Krater n. 118. 3. Krater no. 119. 4-5. Black-glaze cups nn. 106-107. 6. Cup 122. 7. Lekythos n. 73. (Scale 1:2).

Fig. 44. 1-17. Spindlewhorls and beads of assorted shapes. 18-21. Decorated beads and spindlewhorls. 22. Seal n. 44. 23-30. Clay, stone and glass beads. 31-43. Iron knives. 44. Spit. 45. Horse bridle. 46. Fibula. 47. Double axe. (Scale 1:2).

Notes

1 De Urbibus: Κύμη πέμπτη, τής Εὺβοίας (Kyme fifth, on Euboea).

2 V, 3, 4: Οί δέ στόλον ἄγοντες Ίπποϰλῆς ό Κυμαῖος ϰαὶ Μεγασθένης ό Χαλϰιδέυς… (The leaders of the fleet Hippokles of Kyme and Megasthenes of Chalkis…).

3 VI, 4.

4 VIII, 22.

5 Ant. Rom. VIII, 3

6 Periplous, 58: Κατ’Ερέτριαν Σκύρος (Skyros, opposite Eretria).

7 Sapouna-Sakellaraki 1984.

8 Παπαβασιλείου Γ., Περὶ τῶν ἐν Ευβοία αρχαίων τάφων,’Αθῆναι, 1910, pp. 23 ff.

9 Η. Sackett - V. Hankey - R. J. Howell - T. W. Jacobsen - M. R. Popham,‘Prehistoric Euboea. Contribution toward a survey’, in BSA 1966, p. 73.

10 Themelis, Grabbauten, pp. 67 ff.

11 Lefkandi II pp. 74-75 pl. 36 c.

12 Arch Delt 28, 1973, pp. 538 ff. pl. 500 b.

13 R. M. Cook, in BSA, 1961, pp. 64 ff.

14 JdI 55, 1940, pp. 321-22.

15 Z. Zimmer, Bronzegusswerkstätten, Mainz 1980, pl. 55.

16 P. J. Crielaard,’How the West was won: Euboeans vs. Phoenicians’, in HBA 19/20, 1992-3, p. 241.

17 Lefkandi I, pl. 152, no. 7. The numbers of the objects are those of the Kyme excavation catalogue.

18 Skyros 1986, p. 44, fig. 26.

19 Lefkandi II, p. 53, pl. 73, nn. 771, 773, 775, 777.

20 Skyros 1986, fig. 26 and more recent finds.

21 Lefkandi I, pl. 102, 33, 2.

22 Lefkandi I, pl. 125, 2, 1.

23 Lefkandi III, pl. 63, tomb 57, 1.

24 Coldstream 1995 a, p. 190, n. 2559, fig. 3, 5, n. 2555, fig. 3, 6.

25 Aro, p. 225.

26 Boardman 1952, pl. I, B, n. 20.

27 Coldstream 1995 a, p. 190, fig. 3, n. 4.

28 Lefkandi III, pl. 99, 79.

29 Lefkandi III, pl. 101, n. 80, 2; pl. 82 nn. 1, 3, 4, 6, 7.

30 Lefkandi II, 1 pl. 26 nn. 406-410; pl. 57.

31 See Lefkandi III, pl. 42 nn. 3, 7, 8, 11, 15 and Lefkandi I, p. 346 fig. 21, I, Subprotogeometric I period.

32 Nitsche, p. 10.

33 Asine, p. 137, fig. 129, 430 fig. 279.

34 Lefkandi I, p. 314, fig. 14 E.

35 Lefkandi I, p. 315, fig. 14 G.

36 Lefkandi I, p. 317, fig. 15 D.

37 Lefkandi I, p. 328, fig. 17 B.

38 GGP, pl. 5 ff.

39 GGP, pl. 17f. ; Corinth VII, pl. 12, no. 73.

40 GGP, pl. 52d.

41 GGP pl. 60e.

42 Samos V, p. 14 pl. 7, 34, 35, 36, 38, fig. 2a-d.

43 Samos V, p. 25, fig. 9.

44 Andriomenou, Philia Epi, p. 74, pl. 22d.

45 Renaissance, p. 206.

46 Lefkandi I, p. 340, pl. 32, no. 2.

47 Andriomenou 1985a, p. 34, figs. 6, 11.

48 Gift Exchange, p. 203, figs. 3-4.

49 Lefkandi I, pl. 93 T5,l.

50 Andriomenou, Philia Epi, p. 74, pl. 22a.

51 Andriomenou 1984, pp. 40, 42, figs. 8-9, no. 11.

52 PGP, pl. 11, n. 2102.

53 PGP, pl. 19a, n. 1472.

54 PGP, pl. 38, 10.

55 D. W. Coulson, The Dark Age in Messenia, Göteborg 1986, n. 337, pl. 13.

56 P. Descoeudres, Eretria VI, Bern 1978, p. 8, n. 3, pl. 3.

57 Andriomenou 1981, pl. 44.

58 Samos V, pp. 24, 34, fig. 18, pl. 20, 114.

59 Andriomenou, Philia Epi, p. 90, pl. 20.

60 BSA 1952, p. 6, pl. 2,1.

61 Ibidem.

62 GGP, pl. 1a, h.

63 Samos V, p. 16, fig. 3, pl. 3f, 21 bottom row.

64 Kerameikos V, p. 12 pl. 84.

65 Lefkandi I, pl. 222, 112.

66 Boardman, in BSA 62, 1967, pp. 70-72, pl. 14, 24.

67 Coldstream 1995b, p. 252 n. 1, pl. 27a, 2.

68 GGP, pl. 5f.

69 Samos V, pl. 3, 21.

70 Boardman 1952, pl. 2 A, 2.

71 Samos V, pl. 11. 58.

72 Ibidem.

73 GGP, pl. 5f.

74 Andriomenou 1985, pl. 11,2.

75 Coldstream 1995c, p. 401.

76 Gift Exchange, p. 205, figs. 6-7.

77 Coldstream 1995b, p. 267.

78 GGP, pl. 42e.

79 Andriomenou 1985, pp. 55ff.

80 Andriomenou 1984, p. 42, fig. 10, n. 12.

81 Andriomenou 1985a, pl. 5, 17-28, pl. 6, 1-14.

82 GGP, pl. 42 g.

83 GGP, pl. 5e.

84 Andriomenou 1984, fig. 20, nos. 36, 38.

85 Andriomenou 1985a, p. 29; Gruppe III.

86 Zagora 2, pl. 163d.

87 GGP, pl. 17f and 17j.

88 GGP, pl. 25c and e.

89 Zagora 2, pl. 135a, 138c, 192, 156.

90 Coldstream 1995b, fig. 3, no. 78.

91 Ε. Σαπουνά-Σαϰελλαράϰη,‘Ανασϰαφή στο Καστρί Λιχάδας Ελβοίας το 1994’ in Αρχείον Ευβοϊϰών Μεωετών. 31, 1994-1995, pp. 101 ff., phot. 40, 1st in the bottom row, drawing 21, a, d.

92 Lefkandi I pl. 43, n. 52.

93 Andriomenou, in Arch Eph 1982, pl. 21, 2, 3; Boardman 1952, pl. 1.

94 Andriomenou 1984, p. 48, fig. 22, skyphos 41.

95 Andriomenou 1984, pp. 54, 56, 66, n. 61.

96 Zagora 2, pl. 201c.

97 Kerameikos V, I, pl. 105.

98 Lefkandi III, pl. 109, Sa XVI, 5.

99 Φ. Ζαφειροπούλου,‘Γεωμετριϰά ἀγγεία ἀπό τήν Νάξο’ in ASAtene, p. 123, fig. 6.

100 Zagora 2, p. 194, pl. 182 a, b.

101 GGP, pl. 2b.

102 GGP, pl. 17d.

103 Samos V, pl. 17, 100-101.

104 GGP, pl. 34c.

105 Samos V, pl. 17, 100-101.

106 Andriomenou 1985a, pp. 25ff.

107 Andriomenou 1985a, p. 37, n. 135.

108 Lekfandi III, pl. 102.

109 Coldstream 1995a, pp. 200-201, fig. 1, pl. XVI.

110 Kerameikos V. 1, pl. 107 no. 5398 from grave 52.

111 Zagora 2, pl. 165a.

112 GGP, pl. 10m and pl. 38h, j, 40c.

113 Andriomenou 1985a, pl. 12, 3.

114 Zagora 2, pl. 176.

115 Skyros 1998, pp. 48-49, figs. 37-39.

116 GGP, pl. 42f.

117 Lefkandi I, p. 334, fig. 19B.

118 GGP, pl. 3.

119 GGP, pl. 18e.

120 Coldstream, Cesnola, p. 82, fig. 4.

121 Lefkandi I, pl. 111, 13, p. 309, fig. 12 G, fig. 20; GGP pl. 39, fig. 9k.

122 Reber, p. 22, pl. 1, 3.

123 Reber, fig. 1, 1.

124 Asine, pp. 428, fig. 276, 430, fig. 479.

125 Vergina I, p. 202.

126 Vergina I, p. 219, fig. 60.

127 S. Hood, Prehistoric Emborio and Ag. Gala, 1981, fig. 123, pl. 31.

128 Buchner, Pithekussai 1981, p. 265, fig. 2.

129 Skyros 1986, p. 47, fig. 35, p. 49, fig. 39 and Sapouna-Sakellaraki, Geometric Skyros (forthcoming).

130 Zagora 2, pl. 272a, b.

131 Zagora 2, pl. 271 a-b, 270 d-e.

132 Lefkandi I, p. 223.

133 Lefkandi II, pl. 34, 35, no. 43.

134 Reber, p. 171.

135 Zagora 2, p. 74, nn. 191-197.

136 GG, p. 211 fig. 68a; Zagora 2, pl. 287. For island seals, see J. Boardman, Island Gems, London 1963.

137 GG, p. 151 fig. 50.

138 Boardman-Buchner, nn. 2, 3; GG, p. 229, fig. 75f.

139 E. Sapouna-Sakellaraki, Die Fibeln der griechischen Inseln, München 1978, p. 107, pl. 44, nn. 1498-99.

140 Lefkandi II, 2, pl. 32, 34, no. 1.

141 Donder, p. 3.

142 Donder, n. 100, 12.

143 Donder, p. 300 pl. 12, no. 112.

144 V. Desborough, The Greek Dark Ages, London 1972, p. 126, fig. 22.

145 Lefkandi I, p. 256, pl. 244E and F.

146 Coldstream, Cesnola, pp. 77ff.

147 Buchner, Pithekoussai 1981, p. 265, fig. 2.

148 Pausanias I, 24, 4; L. Deubner, Attische Feste, Berlin 1966, pp. 159ff.

149 P. Courbin,’Obeloi d’Argolid et d’ailleur’, in Renaissance, p. 156.

150 H. Thompson, The Agora of Athens, vol XIV, Princeton 1972, p. 53, pl. 39b.

151 Lefkandi I, pp. 258-9, pl. 246f.

152 Ibidem.

153 K. Kilian,‘Weihungen aus Eisenverarbeitung im Heili-gtum zu Philia (Thessalien)’, in Renaissance, p. 131.

154 R. Felsch,‘Zur Chronologie und zur Stil geometrischen Bronzen’, in Renaissance, pp. 123ff.

155 Ibidem, p. 147.

156 Odyssey, XXII, 128-137.

157 Hägg in Renaissance, p. 189.

158 Ibidem, p. 87.

159 M. Andronikos,’Totenkult’, in Arch Hom III, Göttingen 1968, p. 33. Kurtz-Boardman, pp. 51-52.

160 D. Ridgway, L’alba della Magna Grecia, Milano 1984 (Greek ed. 1992), p. 88, fig. 4.

161 Cl. Bérard, L’Heroon à la Porte d’Ouest (Eretria III), 1970, p. 30.

162 K. Fagerström, Greek Iron Age Architecture. Development through changing time (SIMA 81), Goteborg 1988, p. 57.

163 A. Μαξαράϰης-Αἰνιὰν,‘Λατρευτιϰά δεῖπνα στίς ϰατοιϰὶες τῶν ἀρχόντων. Ὁ Ὁμηριϰός οἶϰος’, in Πραϰτιϰά Ε’ Συνεδρίου γιἀ τήν Ὁδύσσεια. Ἰθάϰη 1-14 Σεττεμβρίου 1987’, 1990, pp. 177 ff., 178.

164 Hägg in Renaissance, p. 189.

165 B. Bergquist, The Archaic Greek Temenos, Lund 1967, p. 58.

166 Odyssey XX, 128, 137; Herodotus I, 180.

167 A. Mazarakis-Ainian,‘New evidence of the Late geometric-Archaic Lathouriza’, in Klados. Essays in honour of J. N. Coldstream, London 1993, p. 147, figs. 4-6.

168 Themelis, Grabbauten.

169 D. Rupp,‘Reflection on the development of altars in the 8th. cent. B. C.’, in Renaissance, pp. 101ff.

Table des illustrations

Légende Fig. 1. Map of Euboea.
URL http://books.openedition.org/pcjb/docannexe/image/640/img-1.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 1000k
Légende Fig. 2. The general area of Kyme, showing the ancient sites. 1. Murteri. 2. M. Matzari. 3. Evrima Oxylithou. 4. Stomio. 5. Pla-tana. 6. Orologio. 7. Androniani. 8. Viglatouri and Palaekastro. 9. Aulonari. 10. Sares Aulonariou. 11. Kastri Potamias (after AE 1984, p. 152. fig. 1).
URL http://books.openedition.org/pcjb/docannexe/image/640/img-2.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 755k
URL http://books.openedition.org/pcjb/docannexe/image/640/img-3.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 1,5M
Légende Fig. 4. Oval building and main sector
URL http://books.openedition.org/pcjb/docannexe/image/640/img-4.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 4,3M
Légende Fig. 5. Masonry of the oval building
URL http://books.openedition.org/pcjb/docannexe/image/640/img-5.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 1,2M
Légende Fig. 6. Typical timber-framing of the oval building.
URL http://books.openedition.org/pcjb/docannexe/image/640/img-6.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 1,2M
Légende Fig. 7. Emergence of the apse of the oval building.
URL http://books.openedition.org/pcjb/docannexe/image/640/img-7.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 1,3M
Légende Fig. 8. Pile of stones before the uncovering of the oval building.
URL http://books.openedition.org/pcjb/docannexe/image/640/img-8.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 2,0M
Légende Fig. 22. Circular stone structure.
URL http://books.openedition.org/pcjb/docannexe/image/640/img-9.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 290k
Légende Fig. 23. Tomb 4
URL http://books.openedition.org/pcjb/docannexe/image/640/img-10.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 277k
Légende Fig. 24. The cist, wall 1, wall 2, and the oval building.
URL http://books.openedition.org/pcjb/docannexe/image/640/img-11.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 583k
Légende Fig. 25. The area of Oxylithos
URL http://books.openedition.org/pcjb/docannexe/image/640/img-12.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 615k
Légende Fig. 26. Pointed pithos.
URL http://books.openedition.org/pcjb/docannexe/image/640/img-13.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 240k
Légende Fig. 27. Pottery kiln A.
URL http://books.openedition.org/pcjb/docannexe/image/640/img-14.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 465k
Légende Fig. 28. Detail of the pottery kiln A.
URL http://books.openedition.org/pcjb/docannexe/image/640/img-15.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 378k
Légende Fig. 29. Pottery kiln B.
URL http://books.openedition.org/pcjb/docannexe/image/640/img-16.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 303k
Légende Fig. 30. General plan of the excavation.
URL http://books.openedition.org/pcjb/docannexe/image/640/img-17.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 5,9M
Légende Fig. 31. 1. Archaic mask. 2. Part of a hellenistic lekythos. 3. Part of a sub-Neolithic table. 4, 6. Fragments of Minyan vases. 5. Local imitation of a Minyan vase. 7. Mycenaean pottery.
URL http://books.openedition.org/pcjb/docannexe/image/640/img-18.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 3,8M
Légende Fig. 32. 1. Mycenaean figurine. 2. Feet of Mycenaean kylikes. 3-4. Metal objects from the south-east part of the oval building (3) and from the east and central part of it (4).
URL http://books.openedition.org/pcjb/docannexe/image/640/img-19.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 3,7M
Légende Fig. 33. 1. Krater n. 177. 2. Krater n. 119. 3. Body and handle of krater n. 121, from the area of the west cist. 4. Cup n. 122. 5. LG pottery from the south part of the oval building.
URL http://books.openedition.org/pcjb/docannexe/image/640/img-20.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 4,7M
Légende Fig. 34. 1. Protogeometric lekythos n. 152. 2, 4. Protogeometric pottery. 3. PG cup from tomb 3. 5. Foot of Geometric krater n. 112. 6. Krater n. 117.
URL http://books.openedition.org/pcjb/docannexe/image/640/img-21.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 5,6M
Légende Fig. 35. 1. Krater n. 1182. 2. Kratern. 119.
URL http://books.openedition.org/pcjb/docannexe/image/640/img-22.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 5,1M
Légende Fig. 36. 1. Krater n. 120. 2. Krater n. 178. 3-4. Cup 95. 5. Black-glaze skyphos n. 123. 6. Cup n. 111. 7. Plates, skyphoi and cups of the LG period.
URL http://books.openedition.org/pcjb/docannexe/image/640/img-23.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 1,1M
Légende Fig. 37. 1. Lekythos n. 73. 2. Jug n. 110. 3. Black-glaze oinochoe n. 109. 4. Unpainted trefoil oinchoe
URL http://books.openedition.org/pcjb/docannexe/image/640/img-24.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 3,8M
Légende Fig. 38. 1-2. Parts of decorated pithoi. 3. Part of household vessel n. 116. 4. Handle n. 94, in the shape of a “butterfly”. 5. Embossed and incised clay beads. Seal n. 8.
URL http://books.openedition.org/pcjb/docannexe/image/640/img-25.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 4,4M
Légende Fig. 39. 1. Clay imitations of glass beads. 2. Clay beads and spindlewhorls. 3. Stone beads. 4. Glass beads. 5. Undecorated spind-lewhorls and beads.
URL http://books.openedition.org/pcjb/docannexe/image/640/img-26.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 4,1M
Légende Fig. 40. 1a-c. Seal n. 8 and impression. 2a-b. Spindlewhorl n. 44. 3. The horse bridle (n. 11) and the spit (n. 104). 4. Bronze bowl n. 115. 5. Lead objects.
URL http://books.openedition.org/pcjb/docannexe/image/640/img-27.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 4,6M
Légende Fig. 41. 1. Bone pin. 2. Horse figurine. 3. Askos (C). 4. PG cup from tomb 3. 5. Black ware (n. 101). 6-8. Open and closed vases with semicircles. 9. LPG skyphos with pendant semicircles. 10. Skyphos with reserved band. 11-13. Protogeometric sherds. 14. Part of an EG vase with languettes. 15. Krater n. 117. 16. Krater n. 121. (Scale 1:2).
URL http://books.openedition.org/pcjb/docannexe/image/640/img-28.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 2,6M
Légende Fig. 42. 1. Krater n. 120. 2-5. Bodies and rims of skyphoi. 6-14. Fragments of skyphoi. (Scale 1:2).
URL http://books.openedition.org/pcjb/docannexe/image/640/img-29.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 2,5M
Légende Fig. 43. 1. Krater n. 113. 2. Krater n. 118. 3. Krater no. 119. 4-5. Black-glaze cups nn. 106-107. 6. Cup 122. 7. Lekythos n. 73. (Scale 1:2).
URL http://books.openedition.org/pcjb/docannexe/image/640/img-30.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 690k
Légende Fig. 44. 1-17. Spindlewhorls and beads of assorted shapes. 18-21. Decorated beads and spindlewhorls. 22. Seal n. 44. 23-30. Clay, stone and glass beads. 31-43. Iron knives. 44. Spit. 45. Horse bridle. 46. Fibula. 47. Double axe. (Scale 1:2).
URL http://books.openedition.org/pcjb/docannexe/image/640/img-31.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 600k

© Publications du Centre Jean Bérard, 1998

Conditions d’utilisation : http://www.openedition.org/6540