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AGRUMED: Archaeology and history of citrus fruit in the Mediterranean

 | 
Véronique Zech-Matterne
, 
Girolamo Fiorentino

Research on and maintenance of the modern-day citrus collections in Germany and Austria

Claudia Gröschel

Texte intégral

  • 1 Lietzmann 2007: 74; Dobalová 2014: 115.
  • 2 See also the article of H.E. Paulus in this volume.

1Since the first evidence of oranges, citrons and lemons in the Royal Garden of Ferdinand I of Habsburg, Prague Castle, in 1538,1 citrus culture has been an important element of aristocratic courts and wealthy bourgeois palaces. The popularity of citrus plants, especially in the 16th and 17th centuries, resulted in the development of cultivating methods, garden tools, hibernating buildings and professional specialisation in the field. But citrus plants were also used in courtly representation as a symbol for the everlasting reign and virtue of the sovereign.2 In almost every residence in Germany and Austria, even in the smallest ones, citrus plant collections were created and orangeries were built. For about 250 years citrus fruits were among the most important and precious of plants.

  • 3 Balsam 2010.

2A decline in citrus plant collections, as well as the deterioration of hibernation buildings in princely and wealthy bourgeoisie gardens, started in the late 18th and early 19th centuries, partly because in the late 18th century, many new exotic plants were brought to central Europe. In Austria, the emperor sent gardeners and scientists abroad to collect unknown tropical plants and animals, and in England, the Royal Horticultural Society authorized plant hunters to search for novel plant species. Thus, large numbers of tropical plants arrived in the hotspots of botanical research such as London, Paris and Vienna, and new buildings had to be built to cultivate them under the harsh northern climatic conditions. In many gardens glass houses were built, where the tropical plants were cultivated throughout the year. As a result, most aristocrats and the wealthy bourgeoisie lost interest in citrus plants. Moreover, citrus collections had already lost their iconographical significance as a symbol for everlasting reign and the renaissance of antique traditions. However, even though the focus had changed towards tropical plants with the new technique of glass houses, citrus plant collections were still maintained in existing orangery buildings, and by the 19th century several new orangeries were being built (fig. 1).3

Fig. 1 - Citrus x aurantium in front of the 19th century orangery at Sanssouci, Potsdam (photograph C. Gröschel, 2015).

Fig. 1 - Citrus x aurantium in front of the 19th century orangery at Sanssouci, Potsdam (photograph C. Gröschel, 2015).

3During the 20th century, depending on the political and economic situation, some orangeries in Germany and Austria experienced a decline but others benefitted from an increased interest. With the abolition of the monarchies after World War I most of the citrus plant collections perished, but a few collections did survive, some of which exist to the present day.

4There are many reasons for the loss of citrus collections in the 20th century, two examples of which shall be mentioned here:

  • 4 Hamann 2001: 43.

5The major part of the outstanding collection of citrus and Mediterranean plants at Sanssouci, Potsdam, survived the difficult global economic crisis in 1929 and WWII. However, in 1946 the Russian occupying power removed the biggest and most beautiful plants, to an unknown location in the USSR, as trophies. Only a few diseased and weak plants remained in the orangery in Sanssouci.4

  • 5 Stieler 1999: 46.

6Faults in the cultivation of citrus also caused the loss of collections. An example is the collection at Oranienbaum, near Dessau, in Saxony-Anhalt. Here, the plant collection survived until one spring night in 1961 when a frost destroyed all the plants, which had just been placed in the garden. Only a few citrus trees, which incidentally had remained in the orangery building, survived. Ageing, vandalism and a lack of experience caused the loss of further plants, and by 1990 only nine trees remained.5

  • 6 Martz 2014: 11.
  • 7 Martz 2014: 14.
  • 8 Hassmann 2004: 252-253.
  • 9 Hassmann 2004: 257; Baumgartner 2003: 465-466.
  • 10 Gröschel 2015a.
  • 11 Ibidem.
  • 12 Antrag der Nationalräte Max Winter, Karl Volkert, Schiegl, Simon Abraham und Genossen, betreffend d (...)

7Fortunately, a few collections have survived until today, like those at Schönbrunn Palace, Vienna. The first evidence of orange trees in Vienna dates from 1542, when trees were cultivated in the Hofburg gardens situated in the city centre.6 By 1639, an inventory lists the collection as containing 97 big and small orange trees.7 At Katterburg, the widow’s seat of Eleonora Gonzaga, which later became the Schönbrunn Imperial Summer Palace, orange trees were first mentioned in 1647.8 During the second siege of Vienna by Turkish armies in 1683, parts of the gardens of Schönbrunn were destroyed, including the citrus collections. It was not until a few years later, that reconstruction of the gardens and the plant collections was started.9 In the 19th century, the citrus collection was in such a poor condition, that the administration of the imperial gardens had to take measures to save the plants. They invested large sums to develop the plants and to buy nearly 300 new orange trees. By 1866, Schönbrunn’s citrus collection consisted of 876 trees.10 However, in the same year, and due to budget cuts, the administration ordered the closure of the orangery and the sale of the plants. Fortunately, the gardeners disobeyed, and conscious of the extraordinary value of the collection, continued to take care of the plants and preserve the collection.11 The collection was again at risk in 1918, after the abolition of the monarchy when deputies of the provisional National Assembly requested the closure of the collection for budgetary reasons ;12 thankfully, this order was not carried out.

8Over the centuries one can observe a cyclical period of ups and downs. The Schönbrunn citrus collection was repeatedly threatened by war, budget cuts, lack of interest and maintenance errors, but, despite these threats, the collection currently consists of about 500 trees from 100 different varieties (fig. 2).

Fig. 2 - One of about 40 remaining Citrus x aurantium which were probably bought in 1865 to enlarge the citrus collection at Schönbrunn, Vienna (photograph C. Gröschel, 2006).

Fig. 2 - One of about 40 remaining Citrus x aurantium which were probably bought in 1865 to enlarge the citrus collection at Schönbrunn, Vienna (photograph C. Gröschel, 2006).
  • 13 Gröschel 2007.

9However, the Schönbrunn collection is rather an exceptional case. In many historical gardens the orangery buildings have remained empty, were used for other purposes than plant hibernation or simply left to deteriorate. In 1979, due to concern about the decline of orangery culture, the director of the Prussian Gardens in Potsdam (at that time the German Democratic Republic – GDR) called on gardeners to preserve the knowledge of citrus plant cultivation, to save the existing collections, and to take precautions to build up new ones. For this purpose, the ‘Arbeitskreis Orangerien’ (AKO) was founded in the former GDR – it is interesting to note the irony of a working group on a feudal topic being established in a socialist state. However, within a very short time it turned out that the project encompassed matters other than plant cultivation: the function, technique and architectural decoration of the hibernation buildings, heating systems, historical literature on the cultivation of citrus plants, citrus gardeners’ tools, plant pots, mythology and the political iconology of citrus fruits, as well as the interdisciplinary talk between citrus and visual arts, music and literature.13

10After the fall of the Berlin Wall, and the collapse of the GDR, colleagues from West Germany joined the renowned AKO. Today, it boasts 19 institutions and 80 private members not only in Germany and Austria, but also in Denmark, Sweden, the Netherlands, Switzerland, Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland and Italy. Since 1918, many of the former princely gardens are state-owned. In Germany these palaces and gardens are managed by state heritage agencies, who, for the large part, are members of the AKO. Meanwhile the large number of professions included in the AKO: gardeners, landscape architects, architects, art historians, botanists, archaeologists, technicians, lawyers and others, reflect the complexity of the tasks.

  • 14 Balsam 2007.
  • 15 Andersen 2007.
  • 16 Fetterova 2007.
  • 17 Fatsar 2014; Alföldy 2014.

11Today, orangery buildings in many baroque and landscaped gardens act as historical evidence. In its first survey, the AKO listed more than 600 orangery buildings in Germany.14 Even in Sweden, in a country with a rather inappropriate climate for citrus cultivation, about 50 orangery buildings still exist.15 In the Czech Republic, the registration of orangery buildings is a field of research within garden preservation.16 In Hungary, the knowledge about orangeries has been almost completely lost, but recently the buildings have generated new scientific interest.17

  • 18 Balsam 2014.
  • 19 ICOMOS 2007.

12In recent years, most of the state-owned gardens remaining orangery buildings have been restored; however, many orangery buildings still exist in municipal and private gardens. An important task, therefore, is to associate orangery issues with the public preservation of historical monuments. Consequently, the annual AKO congresses at various orangeries are an important opportunity for support and exchange;18 as was the international congress at the orangery of Seehof, Bamberg, which the AKO and the International Council on Monuments and Sites (ICOMOS) hosted in 2005.19

  • 20 Wimmer 1999; Wimmer, Böhm 1999.

13The issue of orangeries is also implicated in the conservation of historical monuments and gardens: the function of the buildings is to protect the plants, and without the plants the buildings lose their initial purpose. In parallel with researching and conserving the hibernation buildings, it is important to regain knowledge on the cultivation of citrus plants in northern climates. An important source of this information is the historical literature from the 16th century onwards, which details how to re-establish and maintain citrus plant collections.20 This knowledge was disseminated to full effect between 1998 and 2009 when the AKO organized six citrus cultivation workshops to train orangery gardeners.

  • 21 Ferrari 1646; Volkamer 1708 and 1714; Risso, Poiteau 1818.
  • 22 Scultetus 1731.
  • 23 Wimmer 2011.
  • 24 German words for C. x aurantium.

14As a result, many existing citrus plant collections in historical gardens have been enlarged and are in a much better condition. Although in well-known and wide-spread citrus monographs, such as Ferrari, Volkamer and Risso,21 the number of species and varieties is very high, we know little about the different species and varieties in bourgeois and princely citrus plant collections. Normally, in garden inventories only the species are listed, not the varieties. One of the few exceptions is the plant catalogue of Wroclaw bourgeois Caspar Wilhelm Scultetus in 1731,22 which represents a list of 162 different species of citrus plants, divided into three groups: 35 ‘Citronate’, 85 ‘Citronien, Limonien and Lumien’ and 42 ‘Pomeranzen’.23 Apart from the above mentioned exception most archives mention only ‘Orangen’ or ‘Pomeran(t)zen’.24 This leads to the phenomenon that in most of the historical gardens, despite a presumably much larger number of species and varieties, the reintroduction of citrus plants is restricted to C. x aurantium.

15In recent years, many projects have been started to reintroduce citrus plants in historical gardens or to supplement existing collections. Two methods can be used to rebuild collections:

16The first method requires the purchase of large numbers of plants from south European nurseries. The benefits are that collections can be re-established in a very short time. However, experience tells us, that it is often difficult to obtain the desired quantity at a satisfactory quality, the risk of introducing plant diseases is high, the acclimatization process can be long and difficult and the high investment costs cannot be covered by normal budgets.

  • 25 Swientek 2014.

17Since the demands of plants of equal size, trunk height, tree top and healthy roots differ for the cultivation of potted citrus plants in northern climates from cultivation in Mediterranean gardens, it may be difficult to obtain appropriate plants. For example, at New Garden in Potsdam it took three years and several journeys to Spanish and Italian nurseries to acquire 40 appropriate Citrus x aurantium.25

18The second method involves cultivating rootstocks and grafting the desired varieties on site. The benefits are that the rootstocks can be grafted exactly at the desired height of the trunk, the plants do not suffer from acclimatization problems and the introduction of diseases can be avoided. Also, thanks to citrus gardener networks, a collection may be rebuilt with limited financial resources. On the other hand, it needs long-term planning and takes substantial time to rebuild a collection.

19A few examples of historical gardens in which citrus plant collections have been rebuilt in recent years, primarily using the first method, are mentioned below:

  • 26 Seidel 2015

20The orangery at Belvedere, Weimar, is one of the few properties with an uninterrupted history of citrus cultivation for almost 300 years.26 In 2005, the gardeners ordered 25 C. x aurantium ‘Bigardia’ from a nursery in Italy, with a circumference of 14-16 cm and a height of 190-200 cm, and another 25 with a circumference of 8-10 cm and a height of 160-180 cm. By 2007 the nursery had only delivered 15 of the bigger trees (fig. 3).

Fig. 3 - Part of the citrus collection in Belvedere, Weimar (photograph Klassik Stiftung Weimar, 2010).

Fig. 3 - Part of the citrus collection in Belvedere, Weimar (photograph Klassik Stiftung Weimar, 2010).
  • 27 Schelter 1992.
  • 28 Schelter 2007.
  • 29 Herzog 2014.

21At Schloss Seehof, near Bamberg (Bavaria), a property of the Prince Bishops Schönborn and Seinsheim, the first orangery buildings date back to around 1730. Although they still exist, the orangery parterre and the plants were lost in the course of secularization in 1803. Part of the collection remained until an auction in 1830. In the 1990s the orangery buildings were restored and plans were made to rebuild the parterre and the citrus collection.27 On the occasion of the ICOMOS congress ‘Orangeries in Europe’ in 2005, 28 citrus plants were placed in the former orangery parterre, with archive research and archaeological excavations serving as a basis for the reconstruction.28 In 2006/2007, a further 90 C. x aurantium were bought and then finally, in 2010, a further 50 C. x sinensis. After many years of intensive research the orangery parterre was fully restored. It was reopened on the occasion of the Bavarian State Horticultural Show in Bamberg in 2012 (fig. 4).29

Fig. 4 - The orangery parterre and the two orangeries in Seehof, Bamberg (photograph G. Ehberger, 2013).

Fig. 4 - The orangery parterre and the two orangeries in Seehof, Bamberg (photograph G. Ehberger, 2013).
  • 30 Zwinger 2012.
  • 31 Puppe 1999; 2002; Staatliche Schlösser Sachsen 2011.
  • 32 Balsam 2011: 5.
  • 33 Puppe 2002: 13-17.
  • 34 Puppe 2002: 19.
  • 35 Puppe 2002: 21.
  • 36 Friebel 2015.
  • 37 Pohle 2002: 46.

22The Saxonian gardens of Dresden, Großsedlitz and Pillnitz, are also examples of outstanding citrus and orangery culture. In April 2012 the public was informed by the gardens’ director of ‘Palaces, castles and gardens in Saxony’ that orange trees would blossom again in the courtyard of the Zwinger in Dresden.30 Today the Zwinger is well known as a museum complex near the palace and opera, although the building was actually constructed for the hibernation of citrus plants. In Dresden, citrus plants have been cultivated since at least 1575, when four Citrus x aurantium were sent by Emperor Maximilian II (1572-1576) as a special gift to August, Elector of Saxony (1526-1586).31 During the reign of August II the Strong, Elector of Saxony (1670-1733) the orangery buildings and the collection of citrus plants obtained an exceptional importance as the insignia of permanent sovereignty and as a sign of political power.32 In 1709/10, August II the Strong and his architect Matthäus Daniel Pöppelmann started building the Zwinger in Dresden, which was originally an orangery building and the place where the orange trees were presented during the summer. In 1728 the oranges had to hibernate in the nearby Herzogin Garten, but still remained in the Zwinger courtyard during the summer.33 In 1734, one year after August’s death, 1159 Citrus x aurantium were listed in an inventory of the Herzogin Garten in Dresden. Political changes after the Seven Years’ War (1756-1763) and a loss of interest caused a rapid reduction in the number of orange plants. By 1779, only 460 orange and citron trees remained in the Herzogin Garten orangery building.34 And in 1879/80, the last orange trees were relocated to Pillnitz and Großsedlitz.35 Fortunately, today, six Citrus x aurantium out of the 126 original ‘Zwinger oranges’ still exist at Pillnitz. These 250 to 300-year-old trees are among the oldest potted Citrus x aurantium cultivated north of the Alps (fig. 5).36 Unfortunately, the orange trees which were transported from to Großsedlitz, were lost due to frost in the winter of 1928.37

Fig. 5 - The repotting of the 300-year-old Citrus x aurantium in Pillnitz is a very difficult and responsible task (photographs W. Friebel, 2015).

Fig. 5 - The repotting of the 300-year-old Citrus x aurantium in Pillnitz is a very difficult and responsible task (photographs W. Friebel, 2015).
  • 38 Puppe, Pitzschel 2015.

23Due to the use of the Zwinger building for museum purposes, it cannot be restored to its original 18th century purpose. Hence, the conservators decided to acquire a smaller number of orange trees for the courtyard to revitalize and reflect its original use. In 2013, 82 C. x aurantium were bought from an Italian nursery with a trunk height of 180 cm. For acclimatization reasons and in order to create the desired crown they are still being cultivated at Großsedlitz (fig. 6). The gardeners presented these orange trees to the Zwinger in the summer of 2017.38

Fig. 6 - Future Zwinger oranges being cultivated in the nursery of Großsedlitz (photograph F. Pitzschel, 2015).

Fig. 6 - Future Zwinger oranges being cultivated in the nursery of Großsedlitz (photograph F. Pitzschel, 2015).
  • 39 Pohle 2002: 50.

24Großsedlitz has also enhanced its own collection of Citrus trees with the purchase in 1996 of 150 C. x aurantium. These are displayed during the summer in the parterres in front of the two orangery buildings (fig. 7).39

Fig. 7 - Citrus x aurantium in front of the upper orangery in Großsedlitz (photograph C. Gröschel, 2014).

Fig. 7 - Citrus x aurantium in front of the upper orangery in Großsedlitz (photograph C. Gröschel, 2014).
  • 40 Friebel 2015.

25Pillnitz also re-established its collection in the 1980s with 40 sweet oranges which were donated as a gift from Cuba to its socialist sister state GDR.40

26In other orangeries, the gardeners have also tried to re-establish the collections. From the late 1990s, the focus has been on researching the collections and the restoration of the orangery buildings as well as the parterres, where the plants are displayed during summer.

27In all of these examples the acclimatization process lasts several years. As a first step, the plants have to be taken out of the pots and the soil controlled as often the soil used by Mediterranean nurseries has a high clay content. If the plants are to be cultivated in pots in orangeries north of the Alps – where the summers are short, humid, and the plants have to stay indoors for around seven months – this type of soil will cause serious problems. Hence, the soil has to be changed, the roots cut, and, as a result, the canopies have to be pruned and built up into the desired shape. Therefore, before the plants can be displayed in their final location in the orangery parterre, they have to be cultivated for several years.

  • 41 Karner 2014.
  • 42 Ferrari 1646.
  • 43 Volkamer 1708 and 1714.

28Unlike the previous examples, at the Schönbrunn orangery the second method was put into practice. The citrus gardener at Schönbrunn indicates that there are three beneficial reasons for grafting citrus trees in his orangery: they are healthier, they grow better, and one can ensure varietal purity. The plants can be grafted exactly at the needed height, the desired shape of the crown can be built up, and the plants are adapted to the local climate from the beginning.41 In recent years the focus at Schönbrunn was for a larger diversity of historical varieties, previously described by Ferrari42 and Volkamer.43 Similarly, as in former centuries, networking and exchanges between gardeners became more and more important – the ‘hunt’ for rare historical varieties and their cultivation is a duty of good garden conservation (fig. 8).

Fig. 8 - a) Citrus x aurantium ‘Fasciata’; b) Citrus x aurantium ‘Distorto monstroso’; c) Citrus x aurantium ‘Bizzaria’; d) Citrus medica ‘Pera’; e) Citrus x limon ‘Melarosa’. Citrus collection of the Federal Gardens at Schönbrunn, Vienna (photographs C. Gröschel, 2010, 2014).

Fig. 8 - a) Citrus x aurantium ‘Fasciata’; b) Citrus x aurantium ‘Distorto monstroso’; c) Citrus x aurantium ‘Bizzaria’; d) Citrus medica ‘Pera’; e) Citrus x limon ‘Melarosa’. Citrus collection of the Federal Gardens at Schönbrunn, Vienna (photographs C. Gröschel, 2010, 2014).
  • 44 Seeger 2015.

29Garden conservation also includes enhancing public awareness. Today, oranges, lemons and other citrus fruits are offered year-round in every supermarket at low prices. Most people cannot imagine the value and the importance of citrus plants in former centuries and especially their value for European emperors, nobility and the rich bourgeois. For these reasons, the administrations of many historical gardens aim to inform visitors about citrus culture in various ways, such as with guided tours and special events. One such spectacle, which has been taking place every May since 2007, is when the orangery plants are transported from the orangery building to the garden parterre in Sanssouci at Potsdam. The gardeners, dressed in historical costumes, demonstrate the historical techniques for transporting huge citrus, palms, laurel and other orangery plants, and provide information about culture conditions and the special needs of these plants. Visitors can also purchase a Sanssouci orange plant in a wood vessel made by a specialist cooper, who will explain and demonstrate their craft.44

  • 45 Gröschel, Kalous 2014.
  • 46 Gröschel 2015b.
  • 47 Balsam 2015.

30Another special event, also at Schönbrunn, was established in 2000, when the Austrian Horticultural Society and the Austrian Federal Gardens organized the first Vienna Citrus Days in the orangery building to present the citrus collection, and to provide an opportunity for visitors to buy rare citrus plants. Starting with a small exhibition of the citrus plant collection at Schönbrunn, a limited number of exhibiting nurseries and a book shop,45 this event has constantly expanded. Since 2010, it has been supplemented by alternating exhibitions with different focuses, such as historical techniques, citrus and fine arts and historical varieties. A broad selection of guided tours, workshops and lectures are also offered, and recently, culinary aspects have become increasingly popular. After 17 years, the ‘Vienna Citrus Days’ is well established, nurseries requests for participation have grown, and the organization team has seen increasing interest in the event and citrus culture from the general public.46 Following this model, the Barockgarten Großsedlitz near Dresden organized a ‘Saxon Citrus Day’, in 2013, and due to its remarkable success the organizers decided to stage it every year.47

31It is clear to see that even today, citrus plants are still a great luxury, but politicians and responsible persons agree that the historical legacy of citrus cultivation in historical gardens must continue to be fully supported.

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Pohle 2002: C. Pohle, Neue Nutzungen der Orangerien in Großsedlitz, in Orangerien – von fürstlichem Vermögen und gärtnerischer Kunst, Dresden (Schriftenreihe des Arbeitskreis Orangerien in Deutschland e. V., 4), p. 45-50.

Puppe 1999: R. Puppe, Orangen und Orangerien am Sächsischen Hof, in Vorstand der Kulturstiftung Dessau-Wörlitz (ed.), Oranien – Orangen – Oranienbaum, München-Berlin, p. 111-120.

Puppe 2002: R. Puppe, Zur Geschichte der Orangerie-Garten-Kultur am sächsischen Hof, in Orangerien – von fürstlichem Vermögen und gärtnerischer Kunst, Dresden (Schriftenreihe des Arbeitskreis Orangerien in Deutschland e. V., 4), p. 6-28.

Puppe, Pitzschel 2015: R. Puppe, F. Pitzschel, Der Dresdner Zwinger als Orangerie – ein neuer Pomeranzenbestand für den Zwinger, in Orangeriekultur in Sachsen. Die Tradition der Pflanzenkultivierung, Berlin (Schriftenreihe des Arbeitskreis Orangerien in Deutschland e. V., 12), p. 47-52.

Risso, Poiteau 1818: A. Risso, A. Poiteau, Histoire naturelle des orangers, Paris.

Schelter 1992: A. Schelter, Der Garten von Seehof und seine Orangerien, in Arbeitskreis Orangerien in Deutschland (ed.), Tagungsbericht 1, Potsdam, p. 83-110.

Schelter 2007: A. Schelter, Das Orangerieparterre von Schloss Seehof – Die Entstehung der Parkanlage, in ICOMOS 2007, p. 51-58.

Scultetus 1731: C.W. Scultetus, Catalogus Aller derer Sorten Agrumi, oder Welschen Früchte, welche in unserem Lande Schlesien an Citronaten, Citronen und Pomerantzen befindlich, und davon die meisten in diesem Garten anzutreffen sind, Dresden.

Seeger 2015: T. Seeger, „Hinaus ins Freie!” – Das feierliche Ausfahren der Orangerie im Park Sanssouci, Zitrusblätter. Mitteilungen des Arbeitskreises Orangerien in Deutschland e. V., 10, p. 13-14.

Seidel 2015: C. Seidel, Die Orangerie im Schlosspark Belevedere in Weimar, Zitrusblätter. Mitteilungen des Arbeitskreises Orangerien in Deutschland e. V., 11, p. 1-4.

Stieler 1999: C. Stieler, Die Zitruskultur in Sachsen-Anhalt, in Vorstand der Kulturstiftung Dessau-Wörlitz (ed.), Oranien – Orangen – Oranienbaum, München-Berlin, p. 38-48.

Staatliche Schlösser Sachsen 2011: Staatliche Schlösser, Burgen und Gärten Sachsen (ed.), Das Gold des Herkules. Der Dresdner Zwinger als Orangerie, Passepartout. Ausstellungsjournal des Schlösserlandes Sachsen, 2.

Swientek 2014: S. Swientek, Der lange Weg zu einem neuen Zitrusbestand im Neuen Garten zu Potsdam, Orangeriekultur in Rheinland-Pfalz, Berlin (Schriftenreihe des Arbeitskreis Orangerien in Deutschland e. V., 11), p. 72-77.

Volkamer 1708: J.C. Volkamer, Nürnbergische Hesperides, Nürnberg.

Volkamer 1714: J.C. Volkamer, Continuation der Nürnbergischen Hesperidum, Nürnberg.

Wimmer 1999: C.A. Wimmer, Bemerkenswerte Zitrusliteratur vom 16. bis 19. Jahrhundert, in Vorstand der Kulturstiftung Dessau-Wörlitz (ed.), Oranien – Orangen – Oranienbaum, München-Berlin, p. 49-58.

Wimmer 2011: C.A. Wimmer, Volkamers Rezeption in Schlesien. Ein Breslauer Zitruskatalog von 1731, in Nürnbergische Hesperiden und Orangeriekultur in Franken, Petersberg (Schriftenreihe des Arbeitskreis Orangerien in Deutschland e. V., 7), p. 86-93.

Wimmer, Böhm 1999: C.A. Wimmer, B. Böhm, „Von Wartung der Pommeranzen-Bäume”, in Vorstand der Kulturstiftung Dessau-Wörlitz (ed.), Oranien – Orangen – Oranienbaum, München-Berlin, p. 59-81.

Zwinger 2012: Im Zwinger sollen Orangenbäume blühen, Zitrusblätter. Mitteilungen des Arbeitskreises Orangerien in Deutschland e. V., 5, p. 8.

Notes

1 Lietzmann 2007: 74; Dobalová 2014: 115.

2 See also the article of H.E. Paulus in this volume.

3 Balsam 2010.

4 Hamann 2001: 43.

5 Stieler 1999: 46.

6 Martz 2014: 11.

7 Martz 2014: 14.

8 Hassmann 2004: 252-253.

9 Hassmann 2004: 257; Baumgartner 2003: 465-466.

10 Gröschel 2015a.

11 Ibidem.

12 Antrag der Nationalräte Max Winter, Karl Volkert, Schiegl, Simon Abraham und Genossen, betreffend die künftige Verwertung der auf dem deutschösterreichischen Staatsgebiete liegenden Krongüter. Provisorische Nationalversammlung. Beilage 105. Wien, 18. Dezember 1918, p. 2. Archive of the Austrian Horticultural Society, 3.5.5.

13 Gröschel 2007.

14 Balsam 2007.

15 Andersen 2007.

16 Fetterova 2007.

17 Fatsar 2014; Alföldy 2014.

18 Balsam 2014.

19 ICOMOS 2007.

20 Wimmer 1999; Wimmer, Böhm 1999.

21 Ferrari 1646; Volkamer 1708 and 1714; Risso, Poiteau 1818.

22 Scultetus 1731.

23 Wimmer 2011.

24 German words for C. x aurantium.

25 Swientek 2014.

26 Seidel 2015

27 Schelter 1992.

28 Schelter 2007.

29 Herzog 2014.

30 Zwinger 2012.

31 Puppe 1999; 2002; Staatliche Schlösser Sachsen 2011.

32 Balsam 2011: 5.

33 Puppe 2002: 13-17.

34 Puppe 2002: 19.

35 Puppe 2002: 21.

36 Friebel 2015.

37 Pohle 2002: 46.

38 Puppe, Pitzschel 2015.

39 Pohle 2002: 50.

40 Friebel 2015.

41 Karner 2014.

42 Ferrari 1646.

43 Volkamer 1708 and 1714.

44 Seeger 2015.

45 Gröschel, Kalous 2014.

46 Gröschel 2015b.

47 Balsam 2015.

Table des illustrations

Titre Fig. 1 - Citrus x aurantium in front of the 19th century orangery at Sanssouci, Potsdam (photograph C. Gröschel, 2015).
URL http://books.openedition.org/pcjb/docannexe/image/2201/img-1.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 2,9M
Titre Fig. 2 - One of about 40 remaining Citrus x aurantium which were probably bought in 1865 to enlarge the citrus collection at Schönbrunn, Vienna (photograph C. Gröschel, 2006).
URL http://books.openedition.org/pcjb/docannexe/image/2201/img-2.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 2,6M
Titre Fig. 3 - Part of the citrus collection in Belvedere, Weimar (photograph Klassik Stiftung Weimar, 2010).
URL http://books.openedition.org/pcjb/docannexe/image/2201/img-3.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 4,6M
Titre Fig. 4 - The orangery parterre and the two orangeries in Seehof, Bamberg (photograph G. Ehberger, 2013).
URL http://books.openedition.org/pcjb/docannexe/image/2201/img-4.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 5,9M
Titre Fig. 5 - The repotting of the 300-year-old Citrus x aurantium in Pillnitz is a very difficult and responsible task (photographs W. Friebel, 2015).
URL http://books.openedition.org/pcjb/docannexe/image/2201/img-5.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 992k
Titre Fig. 6 - Future Zwinger oranges being cultivated in the nursery of Großsedlitz (photograph F. Pitzschel, 2015).
URL http://books.openedition.org/pcjb/docannexe/image/2201/img-6.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 6,5M
Titre Fig. 7 - Citrus x aurantium in front of the upper orangery in Großsedlitz (photograph C. Gröschel, 2014).
URL http://books.openedition.org/pcjb/docannexe/image/2201/img-7.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 2,2M
Titre Fig. 8 - a) Citrus x aurantium ‘Fasciata’; b) Citrus x aurantium ‘Distorto monstroso’; c) Citrus x aurantium ‘Bizzaria’; d) Citrus medica ‘Pera’; e) Citrus x limon ‘Melarosa’. Citrus collection of the Federal Gardens at Schönbrunn, Vienna (photographs C. Gröschel, 2010, 2014).
URL http://books.openedition.org/pcjb/docannexe/image/2201/img-8.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 1,1M

Auteur

Arbeitskreis Orangerien in Deutschland e. V., Friedrichstraße 6b, D-99867 Gotha; info@orangeriekultur.de

© Publications du Centre Jean Bérard, 2017

Conditions d’utilisation : http://www.openedition.org/6540

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