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Nécropoles et sociétés antiques (Grèce, Italie, Languedoc)

The cemeteries of Abdera

Chaido Koukouli-Chrysanthaki

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  • 1 Herod., I, 168; Plut., Mor., 812 A; Euseb., Χπον., II, 8, 6; Solinus, X, 10.

1During the second Greek colonization a series of Greek colonies were founded on the coast of Aegean Thrace between the Strymon and Hebros rivers. One of them was Abdera, on the coast between the mouth of the Nestos river and the lagoon of Vistonis (fig. 1). According to the literary evidence Abdera was first founded in the middle of the 7th century B.C. by Clazomenian colonists1. However the life of this first colony is said to have beenvery short. It has been supposed that after the death of their oikistis Timesias, killed in a battle against the local tribes, the colony was deserted (Herod., I, 168).

  • 2 Herod., I, 168; Strab., XIV, 1, 30.

2A hundred years later refugees from Teos, after the capture of their city by the Persians, refounded the colony of Abdera in 545 B.C.2.

  • 3 Anacreon, ap. Strab., XIV, I, 30.
  • 4 Πόλις ἐν ταῖς δυνατωτάταις τῶν ἐπί Θρᾴκης (Diod. XIII, 72, 2).
  • 5 Diod., XXX, 6; Liv., XLIII, 4, 8.

3The καλὴ Τηίων ἀποικία, as Abdera was called by the Teian poet Anakreon3, developed into a very important city-state4, which together with the neighbouring city of Maroneia, and the Island of Thasos, formed an important center of Greek culture on the coast of Thrace until the Roman occupation. The city survived after a great devastation by the Roman legion of Hortensius in 170 B.C.5, but after that there was a continuous decline until the beginning of the Byzantine period. In the 9th century B.C. the city was reorganized as a fortress and renamed Polystylon (Bakirtzis 1989, 45-46).

  • 6 Munzer 1912; May 1966. See also Isaac 1986, 73-108.

4The site of the ancient city was identified by the Austrian archaeologist W. Regel, who visited the area and published the first report in 1887 (Regel 1887, 161 sqq). After Regel, in the first half of this century archaeologists and historians studied chance finds from the site especially inscriptions (Feyel 1942-43, 172, n. 2) and coins of the city6.

Fig. 1 - The colonization of Abdera.

Fig. 2 - Abdera. South Circuit of walls-west Gate.

5However, it was the excavations of D. Lazaridis, in 1952, which began the systematic approach to the archaeological study of Abdera (Lazaridis 1950).

6In the first period of the excavations at Abdera under D. Lazaridis, the remains of the city walls and the extent of the city, as well as its two harbours, were located. Mainly the western part of the city was systematically researched. A part of the western walls was uncovered with a gate and two towers on either side (fig. 2).

  • 7 Lazaridis 1971; Hoepfner/Schwandner 1986, 197-204, fig. 194.

7In this area inside the western gate, houses were also uncovered confirming the use of Hippodameian town planning in this part of the city (fig. 3)7. The single public building located was the theatre (Lazaridis 1966).

Fig. 3 - Abdera. South Circuit of Wall-Hippodameian City. According to Hoepfner/Schwandler 1986, fig. 194.

  • 8 Bakirtzis 1982, 18-26; Bakirtzis 1984.

8In 1981 a new impetus was given to the archaeological research in Abdera. The new excavation programme at Abdera apart from the excavations in the ancient city and its cemeteries also includes excavations in the Byzantine fortress of Polystylon8. The recent excavations at the ancient city of Abdera have brought to light for the first time the remains of the archaic city.

  • 9 A. Psilovikos, Department of Geography, University of Thessaloniki; Cf. Koukouli-Chrysanthaki 1988, (...)

9To the north of the city walls, known from ι the excavations of D. Lazaridis, another enceinte of walls has been located (fig. 4). Excavations at the northwestern corner of this second enceinte uncovered remains of the archaic city, mainly the walls of two phases (fig. 5). Geomorphological research9 confirmed the penetration by the sea and the formation of a bay to the west of the north circuit of walls (fig. 4).

10Thus the region where the first colonists settled, surrounded as it was by the sea, lagoons and marshes and protected by a chain of hills to the north, was reasonably safe from attacks by local tribes from the north, while the gulf west of the walls provided free access to the Aegean Sea.

11The excavations in the cemeteries are still limited but we can summarize the information given by the recent excavations about the society and the culture of ancient Abdera as follows: five cemeteries represent five great periods of Abdera from the 7th century B.C. to the 14th century A.D.

Fig. 4 - Abdera. The two circuits of walls. Cemeteries.

Fig. 5 - Abdera. North circuit of walls. Walls of two phases.

1. The Clazomenian Colony and its Cemeteries

  • 10 See Koukouli-Chrysanthaki 1988, 74.

12As has already been said, remains of the first colony of Clazomenians were located in the north enceinte of walls10 (fig. 4-5).

13The walls of the 7th century B.C. are made of small local stones and show an extraordinary thickness, reaching in some parts four and a half meters (fig. 5). Inside the walls remains of houses of the Clazomenian colony dated to the end of the 7th century have been revealed (fig. 6). They are of megaron type sometimes with apsidal ends. Their destruction can be dated by the Wild Goat style pottery (fig. 7), found in them from the end of the 7th-beginning of the 6th century B.C. (Walter-Karydi 1973, 77, fig. 106, nr. 881). More evidence, however, about the Clazomenian colony was provided by the excavations in the cemeteries.

Fig. 6 - Abdera. North circuit of walls. Part of a 7th century house inside the walls.

Fig. 7 - Abdera. The Clazomenian city. Wild Goat pottery. (Scale: 1/2).

14Cemeteries of the first colony of Clazomenians at Abdera have been located at three sites (fig. 4):

    • 11 Scarlatidou 1987, 422-429; Scarlatidou 1985, 99-108.

    A flat cemetery a small distance to the north of the north walls of the archaic city (fig. 4, section K); 281 graves have been excavated by E. Scarlatidou11 (fig. 8).

  1. A second site is located at a distance of about 1 km northwest of the city (fig. 4, section P). L. Kranioti has found 22 graves dating from the second half of the 7th to the beginning of the 6th century B.C. under a tumulus with graves of the beginning of the 5th century B.C. (Kranioti, 1987, 431-435) (fig. 9).

    • 12 Koukouli-Chrysanthaki 1988, n. 15, 53-54, fig. 70, 22-23.

    Outside the southeastern corner of the north enceinte of walls a single pithos grave was found dated by its vases - a bird bowl and a mug - to the end of the 7th century B.C.12 (fig. 10).

Fig. 8 - Abdera. Cemetery of the Clazomenian city. Section Κ.

Fig. 9 - Abdera. Cemetery of the Clazomenian city. Section P.

Fig. 10 - Abdera. Cemetery of the Clazomenian city. Pithos grave in Section G.

15The excavations in the cemeteries of the archaic city of Abdera are not yet completed, but a lot of evidence concerning the topography, history and culture of the early colony has been provided by the excavated graves.

16There is not yet any clear horizontal stratigraphy available in the early archaic cemeteries. There are early graves close to the walls (sections Κ and G) as well as others (section P) further away from the city walls (fig. 4).

17There is also not yet any evidence for the existence of tumuli on the graves, which seem to be organized in flat cemeteries (fig. 8).

18Concerning the burial customs inhumation and cremation coexist.

  • 13 Scarlatidou 1985, 101, 480, fig. 8; Scarlatidou 1987, 8423, fig. 3, 8.

19There does not seem to be any difference between men and women, between adults and children. The adults were usually burnt, while the children were mainly buried in pots. There are, however, cremation burials of children burnt with their mothers, as well as simple inhumation of adults in the earth13. A simultaneous inhumation of a mother with her baby has been found in the cemetery of section K: the skull of a very young woman was turned towards a burial urn deposited on her legs, which contained the bones of an infant (fig. 8). Vases have been used as ash urns for the adults (Scarlatidou 1985, 101) and as burial pots in child inhumation (figs. 8, 11).

20The burial pots were often deposited in groups without any particular attention to position or orientation. Most of the vases are household wares, like amphoras or pithoi (fig. 10, 13). Decorated vases (Kranioti 1987, 434) have also been found used as ash urns. The mouths of the pots were closed with a stone (figs. 12, 13) or with big fragments of vases. Often one or more stones have been found on the pot. Some pots were also surrounded by stones. The high percentage of infant graves in the cemetery of section Κ seems to indicate a separate infant cemetery like others in the north Aegean (Vokotopoulou 1989, 414-415), but for final conclusions we have to wait for the completed publication of the cemetery. The grave offerings were mainly vases. The jewellery was hung on the clothes of the dead. Vases of different shapes, open like the bird bowl kylikes (fig. 14), or closed small perfume vases such as the Protocorinthian aryballoi were put in the burial pots (fig. 15). A special grave offering for children were knuckle bones.

Fig. 11 - Abdera. Burial amphoras. Section P.

Fig. 12 - Abdera. Burial amphora in section P.

Fig. 13 - Abdera. Burial pithos. Section P.

Fig. 14 - Abdera. Cemeteries of the Clazomenian city. Section P. Bird Bowl. (Scale: 1/2).

Fig. 15 - Abdera. Cemeteries of the Clazomenian city. Section P. Protocorinthian aryballos. (Scale: 1/2).

21Grave monuments are missing and even cist graves are very few (Scarlatidou 1985, 101-102).

22The absence of grave monuments, as well as the limited number of grave offerings, could be related to the difficult conditions of life in the new colony, but could also be connected with the burial customs themselves.

23The standards of living seem not to have been very low. The colonists had connections with their own mother city as well as with other cities of the east Aegean Islands (fig. 16).

  • 14 Scarlatidou 1985, fig. 18-19; Kranioti 1987, 438, fig. 5.
  • 15 Kranioti 1987, 434, fig. 6 (Chian?); Boardman 1967.

24The presence of Protocorinthian aryballoi (fig. 15), points to early Corinthian commerce in the 7th century as far away as the coast of Thrace14, while the absence of Cycladic pottery seems to exclude direct connections with the Parian colony of Thasos to the north. There are also vases which seem to come from Chian (?) workshops15 (fig. 16). Although the presence of imported vases cannot be denied, the existence of local workshops should not be excluded (fig. 17).

  • 16 Salviat 1978, 87-92; Walter-Karidy 1973, 74-76.
  • 17 See the rosette cups found in Sardis (dated to 550 B.C.), Greenewalt 1972, 121, pl. 6, 2-3.
  • 18 For local pottery at Abdera imitating Clazomenian pottery see Koukouli-Chrysanthaki 1970, 356-360.
  • 19 PAAE, 1966, pl. 64; AD, 22, 1967, 434.

25We are used to speaking about East Greek pottery but we continue to ignore the local clays and the local workshops imitating the imports. The example of the Thasian Cycladic and pseudo-Chian pottery16 is a good model for looking for a local production of the so called “bird cups” and other sorts of the supposed East Greek pottery17. There are certainly local vases, but I would not be surprised if comparative analyses of the local clays at Abdera prove that there was also at Abdera a very early production of East Greek bird cups too18. There is a kind of cups with banded decoration, which could be considered as a survival of the Ionian bird cups in Abdera and which lasts till the beginning of the 4th century B.C.19 (fig. 18). At any rate the conditions of life must have been very hard in this marshy area. The high infant mortality is a usual phenomenon in ancient cemeteries, but the geomorphological research has proved the existence of marshes in the area, in some cases even inside the city walls of the archaic Abdera. Furthermore the osteopathological research of N. Agelarakis at the Columbia University has highlighted the extensive presence of malaria. Considering this evidence E. Scarlatidou was led to connect the decline of the Clazomenian colony with an epidemic of malaria (Scarlatidou 1985, 105-106).

Fig. 16 - Abdera. Cemeteries of the Clazomenian city. Section P. Chian (?) mug. (Scale: 1/2).

Fig. 17 - Abdera. Cemeteries of the Clazomenian city. Section P. Rosette cup. (Scale: 1/2).

Fig. 18 - Abdera. Fragments of banded cups. 6th-4th century B.C. (Scale: 1/2).

  • 20 Ghiouris 1965, 447-451; Ghiouris 1969, 349-351.

26Apart from the isolated pithos grave in section G, the two other cemeteries are found in the sandy seashore areas. This is a usual choice found also in the colonies of Oesyme20, Acanthos (Trakasopoulou 1987, 296-304) and Mende (Vokotopoulou 1989).

27The flat cemeteries, which were cemeteries common for the whole community, needed extensive areas; the seashores were a good choice for the colonists and spared the productive land near the walls of their city.

  • 21 Τόργον τῆςρχαιολογικῆςταιρείας, 1991 (in press).

28The existence of organized cemeteries to the north duration of these cemeteries from the middle of the 7th to the beginning of the 6th century B.C. does not conform to the literary evidence, which describes the destruction and the abandonment of the Clazomenian colony immediately after its foundation. The number of the graves and the length of time the cemeteries were in use proves the existence of a considerable population, which certainly lived in the area more than fifty years. On the other hand the evidence from the early archaic houses points to a destruction at the beginning of the 6th century21.

2. The Teian Colony and its cemeteries

2. 1. The archaic and classical city

29Solinus speaks about the foundation of the Teian colony in Abdera after a long period of abandonment (C. Jul. Solinus, X, 9-10) but it cannot be excluded that the Teian colony founded in 545 B.C. continued the life of the Clazomenian colony without any total interruption.

30The literary evidence does not exclude such a continuity. Herodotus himself speaks only about the death of Timesias and not about the total destruction of the colony (Herod., I, 168). Furthermore the veneration of the Clazomenian oikistes Timesias by the Teian colony, referred to by Herodotus, is not suggestive of an antagonistic climate, very common within Greek colonization, and could indicate a strong Clazomenian presence in the Teian colony.

31Although archaeological finds well dated to the second quarter of the 6th century B.C. are still missing, personally I would not be surprised if the future excavations in the archaic city and its cemeteries should bring to light finds dated to the crucial second quarter of the 6th century, the missing link in the chain (Scarlatidou 1985, 103-105, fig. 19).

  • 22 Τόργον τῆςρχαιολογικῆςταιρείας, 1991 (in press).

32During the first phase of their colony the Teians settled in the same place as the Clazomenians, possibly used their walls and built later walls on the earlier Clazomenian ones (fig. 5). Very little is yet known from the 6th and the 5th century city of the Teians. Very few buildings of the archaic phase of the city of Abdera have been located at the north enceinte of the walls up to now. The north wall, which protected the ancient harbour from the north belongs to the Teian colony, as well as the ship sheds recently found in the ancient harbour22 (fig. 5).

  • 23 PAAE, 1982, 8-10; PAAE, 1983, 5-7.
  • 24 PAAE, 1982, 8-10, pl. 10-13; Τόργον τῆςρχαιολογικῆςταιρείας, 1989, 103-105, fig. 98-99; Τόρ (...)

33Outside the north walls of the colony, possibly near an entrance in the walls, an open air sanctuary of a goddess was erected in the second half of the 6th century B.C.23. Inside the north enceinte of walls remains of houses of the 6th and 5th centuries B.C. have been located under the last building period of the 4th century B.C.24.

Fig. 19 - Abdera. Tumuli on the north cemetery. Excavated tumulus 79.

  • 25 Lazaridis 1971, fig. 19; Koukouli-Chrysanthaki 988.

34Much more evidence, however, has been provided by the excavations in the cemetery of the Teian colony: to the north of the walls of the archaic city lies a great cemetery of tumuli (figs. 4, 19). More than 500 tumuli have been located up to now not including the ones destroyed intentionally to loot antiquities or unwittingly by the cultivation of the land. This is the cemetery of the Teian colony dating from the end of the 6th century to the early 3rd century B.C.25 (fig. 20).

Fig. 20 - Abdera. Northcemetery. Section B. Tumulus 7.

35The horizontal stratigraphy of this extensive cemetery, if there ever was one, is no longer well defined. The Teians used the seashores to bury their dead, as their Clazomenian predecessors did. At the site of Paliochora, two tumuli dated to the beginning of 5th century B.C. have been erected above graves of the 7th century B.C. (Kranioti 1987, 431-435) (fig. 9). The idea of continuity of the same family is very attractive, although not well documented for the moment (fig. 9).

36However, the large population of the flourishing Teian colony needed more space for funerary use. Therefore they had to expand the cemetery beyond the sandy seashore. Many tumuli were erected in the salty land to the northeast of the walls, but there are many others which have been erected, in the fertile agricultural land, the ἀμπελόεσσα and εὔκαρπος γαῖα (Pind., Παιάν, II, 17, 60) of the ancient and of the modern Abderites.

37How this extended cemetery was organised in antiquity in relation to the cultivation of the land is an interesting question. There is no satisfactory archaeological evidence to prove the existence of any state control of the organisation of the cemetery in Abdera. There is still no archaeological evidence for roads around the city. It is possible that some of the tumuli could be related to the road referred to by Thucydides (Thuc., II, 98), which connected Abdera with inner Thrace and the Danube, but no research work has been done yet ancient to locate it. Many of the tumuli however must have belonged to private cultivated land.

  • 26 AD, 19 B, 1964, 377-378; AD, 20 B, 1965, 460; AD, 29 B, 1973-74, 809; AD, 30 B, 1975, 297-298; AD, (...)
  • 27 PAAE, 1982, 1317.
  • 28 PAAE, 1982, 11-12.
  • 29 PAAE, 1984, 8-11. See also Kranioti 1987.
  • 30 Tό ἀρχαιολογικό ἔργο στη Μακεδονία και στη Θράκη, III, 1991 (in press).

38The extensive excavations of some of the tumuli carried out earlier by D. Lazaridis and K. Romiopoulou26 and recently by S. Samartzidou27 K. Persisten28 L. Kranioti29 and D. Kallintzi30 confirmed that the tumuli were family graves. All the graves, whether inhumations or cremations, were dug into the natural soil and covered by earth (fig. 20). Cremations and inhumations coexist in tumuli (fig. 21).

Fig. 21 - Abdera. Northwest cemetery. Section B. Tumulus 7.

39The inhumations are found in cist graves (figs. 20, 22), stone sarcophagi, or clay sarcophagi (fig. 23), as well as pithoi (fig. 24). Simple inhumation in pit graves have also been found (fig. 25). Anthropological research on the skeletons of the cemetery in section Ρ has found that the people in the clay sarcophagi were better nourished than the people found in the pit graves (Kranioti 1987, 432).

40The tile graves appear in the late 4th century and become a very common type of inhumation grave in the Hellenistic period (Samiou 1988, 471-488) (fig. 21).

Fig. 22 - Abdera. Cemetery in Section P. Cist grave.

Fig. 23 - Abdera. Cemetery in Section P. Clay sarcophagus.

Fig. 24 - Abdera. North Cemetery. Section Β. Tumulus. Pithos grave.

Fig. 25 - Abdera. North Cemetery. Section B. Tumulus 7. Pit graves and cremation graves.

41In the inhumation graves the legs are extended but there is no strict rule for the placing of the hands (fig. 26).

Fig. 26 - Abdera. Pit grave of a woman.

42Mainly during the 5th century B.C. the most common type of burial for adults was cremation in a pit where the body was burnt together with its grave offerings (figs. 20, 27).

  • 31 Anacr ., 149 (Lyrica Graeca, et. II, 21).
  • 32 Φιλόγελως Ιεροκλέους και Φιλαγρίου, ed. Thierfelder, 123.
  • 33 PAAE, 1982, 13-14, fig. 6; 5th century B.C. See also AD, 37 B, 1982, 334, pl. 222 a.

43Literary evidence refers to these burial fires at Abdera: an epigram attributed to Anakreon31 speaks about the fire in the cremation of an Abderite and a joke of Philogelos32 refers to a cremation burial at Abdera. Near the burials have been found the typical pyrae with broken vases33 (figs. 28, 29). Animal bones have been found in these fires. The grave offerings are typical ones: jewellery for the women, weapons for men, and vases, and figurines for men, women, and children. The latter, usually, have toys, and very often knuckle bones.

Fig. 27 - Abdera. North Cemetery. Section A. Tumulus 79. Cremation graves.

Fig. 28 - Abdera. North Cemetery. Section A. Tumulus 79. Sacrifice.

Fig. 29 - Abdera. North Cemetery. Section A. Tumulus 79. Vases of the sacrifice. (Scale: 1/2).

  • 34 PAAE, 1952, 278, fig. 25.
  • 35 Koukouli-Chrysanthaki 1972, 72-79, pl. 26. See also Kavala Museum Inv. Λ 720, Λ 723, Λ 890 and Komo (...)
  • 36 AD, 37 B, 1982, 324. See also fragment in the Archaeological Museum Kavala, Inv. Λ 747.

44Grave steles were erected on graves, but there is not evidence about their exact place on the tumuli. All of them are chance finds during the cultivation of the land and none has been found in situ. They are simple inscribed stele34, palmette crowned stele35 (fig. 30), and steles decorated with reliefs36.

Fig. 30 - Abdera. Palmette crown of a grave stele. Inv. Mus. Kavala A 890. (Scale: 1/4).

  • 37 Archaeological Museum Kavala, Inv. Λ 1264.
  • 38 Archaeological Museum Kavala, Inv. Λ 809, end of the 6th century B.C.

45There are also inscribed columns (fig. 31) and a unique example of a phallos shaped stele37. The grave steles are usually made of local limestone from quarries not far to the north of ancient Abdera (Koukouli-Chrysanthaki 1985, 89). These limestone quarries were already in use at the end of the 6th century B.C. Their limestone was used for one of the earliest inscribed tombstones found at Abdera38, as well as for a series of palmette finials of grave steles (Koukouli-Chrysanthaki 1972, 78-79) (fig. 32).

Fig. 31 - Abdera. Inscribed grave column. Inv. Mus. Kavala Λ 902. (Scale: 1/4).

Fig. 32 - Abdera. Palmette crown of a grave stele. Inv. Mus. Kavala Λ 721-722. (Scale: 1/4).

  • 39 The Attic pottery dominates in the grave offerings: see red-figured hydria of the Christie Painter,(...)

46Bearing in mind the great number of limestone palmette finials found at Abdera, we can propose an Abderan origin for the limestone stele in the Komotini Museum published by G. Bakalakis (Bakalakis 1959, pl. la-lb) (fig. 33). The palmette finials of the grave stone as well as the figures in the relief-stele of Abdera belong to the Ionian art of the eastern Aegean islands and of the coast of Asia Minor opposite (Koukouli-Chrysanthaki 1972, 78-79). The connection of Abdera with the Ionian world can be firmly established not only in sculpture, well represented by these steles, but also by other finds from the cemetery: under the influence of the imported Clazomenian painted sarcophagi (Triantaphyllos 1973-74, 820-821), the local workshops of Abdera produced local painted sarcophagi of the same type (Koukouli-Chrysanthaki 1970, 327 sqq.) (fig. 34). The figurines also found in the graves belong to the same Ionian world (fig. 35). The grave offerings indicate also commercial and cultural relations with other cities of the Greek world39.

Fig. 33 - Archaeological Museum of Κomotini. Grave stele. Inv. Mus. Κomotini ΑΓΚ 19. (Scale: 1/4).

Fig. 34 - Abdera. Clazomenian sarcophagus. Inv. Mus. Kavala Δ 435.

Fig. 35 - Abdera. Clay figurine of a kore. Inv. Mus. Kavala Ε 1418. (Scale: 1/2).

  • 40 Fragment of a grave stele, Kavala Museum Inv. Λ 747.

47In the grave offerings of the 5th and 4th centuries B.C. at Abdera, as in all city-states of the Athenian Confederacy, the extensive influence of Attic culture can be seen40 (fig. 36).

  • 41 See figurines of the grave Τ 8 of the Hellenistic cemetery, Τό ἀρχαιολογικό ἔργο στη Μακεδονία και (...)

48Nevertheless, we must note that the cultural influence of Athens did not extinguish the local character of artistic production in the Abdera of classical times, which remained until the Hellenistic Period within the cultural sphere of the Ionian world of the Northeast Aegean41 (fig. 37).

Fig. 36 - Abdera. Attic hydria from the Christie Painter. Inv. Mus. Kavala A 1793. (Scale: 1/3).

Fig. 37 - Abdera. Hellenistic Cemetery (T8/1987). Clay figurine from a child grave in a pithos. (Scale: 1/2).

2. 2. The Late Classical-Hellenistic and Early Roman City

  • 42 Koukouli-Chrysanthaki 1988, see note 9.
  • 43 Graham 1972, 295 sqq.; Hoepfner/Schwandner 1986, 201-204.

49Excavations as well as an extensive survey inside the north enceinte of the walls have proved that this part of the city was destroyed and abandoned probably after the middle of the 4th c. B.C.42 Combining this evidence from the north with the appearance of the Hippodameian city in the south, which seems not to be earlier than the middle of the 4th century43, we have formulated the hypothesis that around the middle of the 4th century the town was moved from north to the south and a new Hippodameian city was planned together with a new circuit of walls. We cannot take this hypothesis further at present.

  • 44 Πολύαινος Στρατηγήματα, 4, 2, 22.
  • 45 See n. 10; Koukouli-Chrysanthaki 1988.

50Without neglecting historical events, such as the invasions of the Triballoi (Diod., XV, 36) or the conquest of the city by Philip the II44, which could possibly be connected with such radical changes in the city plan of Abdera, we must always bear in mind the possibility of natural disasters, like earthquakes, fires or floods. The recent excavations in the walls of the archaic town point to the last case45.

51The removal of the city to the south did not immediately change the site of its cemeteries. Graves dated to the early 3rd century have been excavated in the tumulus cemetery to the northwest of the city (Kalintzi 1990, 561-568).

52In the late 3rd and 2nd centuries B.C., however, a flat cemetery appears in the area of the north walls and inside them (Samiou 1988, 471 sqq.) (fig. 38).

Fig. 38 - Abdera. Graves of the hellenistic cemetery.

53This cemetery was probably not the only cemetery of the late Hellenistic city, because the graves are dispersed, but for the moment it is the only extended cemetery of Hellenistic Abdera. The cemetery extends into the ruins of the demolished walls of the archaic city (fig. 39), as well as to the sandy area of the archaic port (fig. 38), which was in the intervening period covered by the silt of the Nestos delta.

Fig. 39 - Abdera. Hellenistic cemetery. Grave on the demolished walls.

  • 46 Τό ἀρχαιολογικό ἔργο στη Μακεδονία και στη Θράκη, I, 1967, 412-413, figs. 15-16.

54Forty-five graves have been excavated up to now, but the cemetery seems greater and extends certainly towards the north and west. The graves are dated to the late 3rd and 2nd centuries B.C.46 They are found in the demolished and deserted walls of the city, as well as in the covered harbour installation (i.e. public or deserted land). There is still scant evidence for the existence of graves further to the east of the walls inside the area of the deserted archaic city. We must await the evidence of future excavations to find out, if the Abderites, who probably cultivated their private land in the deserted archaic city, built their family tumuli there. The covered area of the archaic harbour, however, was large enough to be used as the city cemetery. In the excavated cemetery the inhumation burials dominate. Cremation burials, though rare, do exist (fig. 40). The inhumations include cist graves (fig. 41), tile graves (figs. 38, 41), pithos graves, as well as pit graves in the sand. The majority of the graves are tile graves (fig. 42).

Fig. 40 Abdera. Hydria used as urn in a cremation burial (Grave T29/1989). (Scale: 1/4).

Fig. 41 - Abdera. Hellenistic cemetery on and inside the archaic walls.

Fig. 42 - Abdera. Hellenistic Cemetery. Tile grave before opening.

  • 47 Samiou 1988, grave 23: 474, fig. 2; 484, figs. 8-10.

55The grave offerings are found inside or outside the grave (fig. 43). There are graves with very few and sometimes without offerings; there are others with rich jewellery and many offerings47 (figs. 41, 44). The cist grave containing the richest grave offerings is grave T23 of a young woman (figs. 44, 45).

Fig. 43 Abdera. Tile grave after opening.

Fig. 44 - Abdera. Hellenistic Cemetery. Cist grave of a woman (T23/1989).

Fig. 45 - Abdera. Hellenistic Cemetery. Cist grave of a woman (T23/1989).

Fig. 46 - Abdera. Hellenistic Cemetery. Pit grave of a man.

56The grave offerings are objects of daily life or objects of symbolic use. Weapons (fig. 46), mirrors, jewellery (fig. 45), figurines and vases (fig. 44). The great number of unguentaria (figs. 41, 44) must be considered as offerings given by relatives during the burial. A coin or δανάκη is usually found in the mouth of the dead.

57Only one stele, probably used for a second time, has been found in the Hellenistic cemetery.

  • 48 PAAE, 1983, 7, fig. 9 a.

58Of special interest is the inhumation (?) of a horse killed by an iron spear and buried in a pit cut into the archaic walls. There is not sufficient evidence however, to relate this horse to someone in the Hellenistic graves found nearby48 (fig. 47).

Fig. 47 - Abdera. A horse burial in the archaic walls.

2. 3. The Late Roman-Early Christian City

59Until the early Roman period the Hippodameian city kept its general plan and system of roads.

  • 49 AD, 21, 1965, 456. See also PAAE, 1976, 132, fig. 1.

60There is no clear evidence for the cemetery of the city in the Early Roman period. The graves found in a building (heroon?) outside the city walls49 (fig. 48) were probably Roman.

  • 50 AD, 21 B, 1965, 452-456; AD, 22 B, 1967, 430, fig. 6; PAAE, 1966, 59-63; PAAE, 1976, 136-137.

61In the 3rd-4th centuries A.D. however radical changes transformed the Hippodameian city: a great flood covered the west walls and the city in this area. The excavations brought to light houses built on the western walls50. Finally, possibly at the end of the 4th century A.D., the area of the western walls seems to be deserted.

  • 51 PAAE, 1976, 133-137; PAAE, 1978, 76-79, fig. 1; PAAE, 1979, 101-105, fig. 1.

62There is still very sparse evidence about the early Christian Abdera51, but the discovery of an early Christian church (Bakirtzis 1984, 13-17) on the acropolis testifies that the city of Abdera survived, possibly only as a fortified acropolis.

  • 52 See note 51 and Bakirtzis 1982, 18-25, figs. 1-2.

63The whole area of the west walls was used as a necropolis (fig. 49). More than 300 graves have been excavated so far and the excavation is far from being complete. They are mainly cist graves containing very often more than one inhumation. The pit graves with single inhumations are comparatively few52. The lack of grave offerings combined with the orientation of the graves dates the majority of those graves to the Christian period, from the Early Christian to the Early Byzantine times.

Fig. 48 - Abdera. The West Gate of the Classical city. Roman “heroon” and later cemeteries.

Fig. 49 - Abdera. The West Gate of the Classical city. Late Roman city on the classical walls and later cemeteries. (Scale: 1/250).

2. 4. The Byzantine Fortress of Polystylon

  • 53 Bakirtzis 1982, 23-25, Bakirtzis 1983, 13-19.

64In the early Byzantine times according to the finds of the recent excavations of Ch. Bakirtzis and N. Zekos53 the walls of the acropolis were rebuilt and the city of Abdera was reorganised and renamed Polystylon.

65The cemetery of early Byzantine Polystylon used the land of the cemetery of the late Roman city in the area of the west walls.

  • 54 Bakirtzis 1982, 18-23, fig. 1.

66An early Byzantine church must be connected with the cemetery of the Byzantine Polystylon54 (fig. 50).

  • 55 Bakirtzis 1982, 23-25, Bakirtzis 1983, 13-19, fig. 5.

67In the 13th century A.D. when Polystylon had been transformed into a strong fortress of the Byzantine Emperor, another cemetery appeared in the yard of a small chapel inside the Byzantine fortress. 64 pit graves with single inhumations in cist graves with wooden coffins have been excavated55 (fig. 51).

Fig. 50 - Abdera. The West Gate of the Classical city and Roman city with later cemeteries. Early Byzantine church.

Fig. 51 - Abdera. The fortress of Byzantine Polystylon. Byzantine chapel and cemetery.

68Comparative anthropological analyses of the skeletal remains from these two cemeteries has revealed marked differences in the nutritional standards of the inhabitants of the early Byzantine city compared with the residents of Polystylon in the late Byzantine Period (Agelarakis 1989, 9-26).

Bibliographie

Bibliographical abreviations

Agelarakis 1989: AGELARAKIS (An.), AGELARAKIS (Ar.), The Paleopathological Evidence at Polystyron, Abdera, Byzantine Thrace, Image and Character. Byz F, XIV, 1, 1989, 9-26.

Bakalakis 1959: BAKALAKIS (G.), Προανασκαφικές Ἐρευνες στη Θράκη. Thessaloniki, 1959.

Bakirtzis 1982: ΒAKIRTZIS (CH.), Ανασκαφή Πολυστύλον Αβδὴρων. ΡΑΑΕ, 1982, 18-26.

Bakirtzis 1983: BAKIRTZIS (CH.), Ανασκαφή Πολυστύλον Αβδὴρων. ΡΑΑΕ, 1983, 13-19.

Bakirtzis 1984: BAKIRTZIS (CH.), ΖΙKOS (CH.), Ανασκαφή Πολυστύλον Αβδὴρων. ΡΑΑΕ, 1984, 12-17.

Bakirtzis 1989: BAKIRTZIS (Ch.), Western Thrace in the Early Christian and Byzantine Periods. Results of Archaeological Research and the Prospects. ByzF, XIV, 1, 1989, 41-58.

Boardman 1967: BOARDMAN (J.), Excavations in Chios 1952-1955. Greek Emporio. London, 1967 (ABSA Suppl. VI).

Feyel 1942-43: FEYEL (M.), Nouvelles inscriptions d’Abdère et de Maronée. BCH, 66-67, 1942-43, 176-199.

Graham 1972: GRAHAM (J.W.), Notes on Houses and Housing Districts at Abdera and Himera. AJA, 76, 1972, 295-301.

Greenewalt 1972: GREENEWALT (C.H.), Two Lydian graves at Sardis. CSCA, V, 1972, 113-146.

Hepding 1910: HEPDING (H.),Die Arbeiten zu Pergamon 1908-1909. AM, XXXV, 1910,345-526.

Hoepfner/Schwandner 1986: HOEPFNER (W.), SCHWANDNER (E.L.), Haus und Stadt im Klassischen Griechenland. Berlin, 1986.

Isaac 1986: ISAAC (B.), The Greek Settlements in Thrace until the Macedonian Conquest. Leiden, 1986 (St. Dutch Archaeol. Hist. Soc., X).

Kalintzi 1990: KALINTZI (D.), Ανασκαφή ταφικού τύμβου στα Ἀβδηρα. Τό ἀρχαιολογικό ἔργο στη Μακεδονία και στη Θράκη, IV, 1990, 561-571.

Koukouli-Chrysanthaki 1970: KOUKOULI-CHRYSANTHAKI (Ch.), Sarcophages en terre cuite d’Abdère. BCH, 94, II, 1970, 327-360.

Koukouli-Chrysanthaki 1972: KOUKOULI-CHRYSANTHAKI (Ch.), Ανθεμωτή επίστεψη στήλης από τα Ἀβδηρα. Kernos, 1972, 72-79.

Koukouli-Chrysanthaki 1985: KOUKOULI-CHRYSANTHAKI (CH.), Abdera and the Thracians. Thracia Pontica, III, 1985, 89-98.

Koukouli-Chrysanthaki 1988: KOUKOULI-CHRYSANTHAKI (Ch.), Οι αρχαιολογικές έρευνες στα αρχαία Ἀβδηρα. Η Ιστορική, Λαογραφική και Ἀρχαιολογική Ἐρευνα για τη Θράκη, 1988, 39-74.

Kranioti 1987: KRANIOTI (L.), Τύμβος από τη ΒΔ Νεκροπόλη των Ἀβδήρων. Τό ἀρχαιολογικό ἔργο στη Μακεδονία και στη Θράκη, I, 1987, 431-435.

Lazaridis 1950: LAZARIDIS (D.), Ανασκαφή ἐν Αβδὴροις. ΡΑΑΕ, 1950, 293-3027 Lazaridis 1966: LAZARIDIS (D.), Αρχαιότητες και Μνημεὶα Ανατολικής Μακεδονίας. AD, 21, 1966, 359-365 (Ἀβδηρα).

Lazaridis 1971: LAZARIDIS (D.), Ἀβδηρα και Δίκαια. Ἀθήναι, 1971.

May 1966: MAY (J.M.F.), The Coinage of Abdera 540-340 B.C. London, 1966.

Munzer 1912: MUNZER (Fr.), STRACK (M.), Die antiken Münzen Νordgriechenlands, II. Berlin, 1912.

Regel 1887: REGEL, Abdera, AM. 12, 1887,161-167.

Salviat 1978: SALVIAT (F.), La céramique de style chiote à Thasos. In: Les céramiques de la Grèce de l’Est et leur diffusion en Occident, Actes du coll. intern. du CNRS (Naples 1976). Naples, 1978 (Coll. CJB, 4), 87-92.

Samiou 1988: SAMIOU (C.), Το Ελληνιστικό Νεκροταφείο των Ἀβδήρων. Τό ἀρχαιολογικό ἔργο στη Μακεδονία και στη Θράκη, II, 1988, 471-487.

Scarlatidou 1987: SCARLATIDOU (Ε.), Ανασκαφή στο αρχαϊκό νεκροταφείο Ἀβδήρων. Τό ἀρχαιολογικό ἔργο στη Μακεδονία και στη Θράκη, Ι, 1987, 421 - 429.

Scarlatidou 1985: SCARLATIDOU (Ε.), The Archaic Cemetery of Abdera. Thracia Pontica, III, 1985, 99-108.

Thompson 1963: THOMPSON (D.B.), The Terracotta Figurines of the Hellenistic Period. Princeton, 1963 (Troy, 3)

Trakosopoulou 1987: TRAKOSOPOULOU-SALAKIDOU (Ε.), Ακανθος. Αρχαία πόλη και νεκροταφείο. Τό ἀρχαιολογικό ἔργο στη Μακεδονία και στη Θράκη, Ι, 1987, 296-304.

Triantaphyllos 1973-1974: TRIANTA PHYLLOS (D.), Αρχαιότητες και Μνημεὶα Θράκης. AD, 29Β, 1973-74, 820-822 (Ἀβδηρα).

Vokotopoulou 1989: VOKOTOPOULOU (I.), Ανασκαφή Μένδες. Τό ἀρχαιολογικό ἔργο στη Μακεδονία και στη Θράκη, III, 1989, 409-423.

Walter-Karydi 1973: WALTER-KARYDI (Ε.), Samische Gefässe des 6. Jahr. v. Chr. Landschaftsstile ostgriechischer Gefässe. Bonn, 1973 (Dt. Archaol. Inst. Samos, VI, 1).

Youri 1965: YOURI (Ε.), Αρχαιότητες και Μνημεὶα Ανατολικής Μακεδονίας. AD, 20, 1965, 447-451 (Οίσύμη).

Youri 1969: YOURI (Ε.), KOUKOULICHRYSANTHAKI (CH.), Αρχαιότητες και Μνημεὶα Ανατολικής Μακεδονίας. AD, 24, 1969, 349-351 (Οἰσὺμη).

Notes

1 Herod., I, 168; Plut., Mor., 812 A; Euseb., Χπον., II, 8, 6; Solinus, X, 10.

2 Herod., I, 168; Strab., XIV, 1, 30.

3 Anacreon, ap. Strab., XIV, I, 30.

4 Πόλις ἐν ταῖς δυνατωτάταις τῶν ἐπί Θρᾴκης (Diod. XIII, 72, 2).

5 Diod., XXX, 6; Liv., XLIII, 4, 8.

6 Munzer 1912; May 1966. See also Isaac 1986, 73-108.

7 Lazaridis 1971; Hoepfner/Schwandner 1986, 197-204, fig. 194.

8 Bakirtzis 1982, 18-26; Bakirtzis 1984.

9 A. Psilovikos, Department of Geography, University of Thessaloniki; Cf. Koukouli-Chrysanthaki 1988, 39-74.

10 See Koukouli-Chrysanthaki 1988, 74.

11 Scarlatidou 1987, 422-429; Scarlatidou 1985, 99-108.

12 Koukouli-Chrysanthaki 1988, n. 15, 53-54, fig. 70, 22-23.

13 Scarlatidou 1985, 101, 480, fig. 8; Scarlatidou 1987, 8423, fig. 3, 8.

14 Scarlatidou 1985, fig. 18-19; Kranioti 1987, 438, fig. 5.

15 Kranioti 1987, 434, fig. 6 (Chian?); Boardman 1967.

16 Salviat 1978, 87-92; Walter-Karidy 1973, 74-76.

17 See the rosette cups found in Sardis (dated to 550 B.C.), Greenewalt 1972, 121, pl. 6, 2-3.

18 For local pottery at Abdera imitating Clazomenian pottery see Koukouli-Chrysanthaki 1970, 356-360.

19 PAAE, 1966, pl. 64; AD, 22, 1967, 434.

20 Ghiouris 1965, 447-451; Ghiouris 1969, 349-351.

21 Τόργον τῆςρχαιολογικῆςταιρείας, 1991 (in press).

22 Τόργον τῆςρχαιολογικῆςταιρείας, 1991 (in press).

23 PAAE, 1982, 8-10; PAAE, 1983, 5-7.

24 PAAE, 1982, 8-10, pl. 10-13; Τόργον τῆςρχαιολογικῆςταιρείας, 1989, 103-105, fig. 98-99; Τόργον τῆςρχαιολογικῆςταιρείας, 1990, 104, fig. 144; Τόργον τῆςρχαιολογικῆςταιρείας, 1991 (in press).

25 Lazaridis 1971, fig. 19; Koukouli-Chrysanthaki 988.

26 AD, 19 B, 1964, 377-378; AD, 20 B, 1965, 460; AD, 29 B, 1973-74, 809; AD, 30 B, 1975, 297-298; AD, 32 B, 1977, 257-260; AD, 33 B, 1978, 302.

27 PAAE, 1982, 1317.

28 PAAE, 1982, 11-12.

29 PAAE, 1984, 8-11. See also Kranioti 1987.

30 Tό ἀρχαιολογικό ἔργο στη Μακεδονία και στη Θράκη, III, 1991 (in press).

31 Anacr ., 149 (Lyrica Graeca, et. II, 21).

32 Φιλόγελως Ιεροκλέους και Φιλαγρίου, ed. Thierfelder, 123.

33 PAAE, 1982, 13-14, fig. 6; 5th century B.C. See also AD, 37 B, 1982, 334, pl. 222 a.

34 PAAE, 1952, 278, fig. 25.

35 Koukouli-Chrysanthaki 1972, 72-79, pl. 26. See also Kavala Museum Inv. Λ 720, Λ 723, Λ 890 and Komotini Museum, AD, 29, 1973-74, 821, pl. 608 B.

36 AD, 37 B, 1982, 324. See also fragment in the Archaeological Museum Kavala, Inv. Λ 747.

37 Archaeological Museum Kavala, Inv. Λ 1264.

38 Archaeological Museum Kavala, Inv. Λ 809, end of the 6th century B.C.

39 The Attic pottery dominates in the grave offerings: see red-figured hydria of the Christie Painter, AD, 19 B, 1964, 377-378; Kavala Museum, Inv. A 1793.

40 Fragment of a grave stele, Kavala Museum Inv. Λ 747.

41 See figurines of the grave Τ 8 of the Hellenistic cemetery, Τό ἀρχαιολογικό ἔργο στη Μακεδονία και στη Θράκη, I, 1967, fig. Τ 18. This type of figure has been found in Asia Minor. Troy: cf. Thompson 1963, 96-97, pl. XX, nr. 72-74; Pergamon: Hepding 1910, 519-520, 70.

42 Koukouli-Chrysanthaki 1988, see note 9.

43 Graham 1972, 295 sqq.; Hoepfner/Schwandner 1986, 201-204.

44 Πολύαινος Στρατηγήματα, 4, 2, 22.

45 See n. 10; Koukouli-Chrysanthaki 1988.

46 Τό ἀρχαιολογικό ἔργο στη Μακεδονία και στη Θράκη, I, 1967, 412-413, figs. 15-16.

47 Samiou 1988, grave 23: 474, fig. 2; 484, figs. 8-10.

48 PAAE, 1983, 7, fig. 9 a.

49 AD, 21, 1965, 456. See also PAAE, 1976, 132, fig. 1.

50 AD, 21 B, 1965, 452-456; AD, 22 B, 1967, 430, fig. 6; PAAE, 1966, 59-63; PAAE, 1976, 136-137.

51 PAAE, 1976, 133-137; PAAE, 1978, 76-79, fig. 1; PAAE, 1979, 101-105, fig. 1.

52 See note 51 and Bakirtzis 1982, 18-25, figs. 1-2.

53 Bakirtzis 1982, 23-25, Bakirtzis 1983, 13-19.

54 Bakirtzis 1982, 18-23, fig. 1.

55 Bakirtzis 1982, 23-25, Bakirtzis 1983, 13-19, fig. 5.

Table des illustrations

Légende Fig. 1 - The colonization of Abdera.
URL http://books.openedition.org/pcjb/docannexe/image/1706/img-1.jpg
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Légende Fig. 2 - Abdera. South Circuit of walls-west Gate.
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Légende Fig. 3 - Abdera. South Circuit of Wall-Hippodameian City. According to Hoepfner/Schwandler 1986, fig. 194.
URL http://books.openedition.org/pcjb/docannexe/image/1706/img-3.jpg
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Légende Fig. 4 - Abdera. The two circuits of walls. Cemeteries.
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Légende Fig. 5 - Abdera. North circuit of walls. Walls of two phases.
URL http://books.openedition.org/pcjb/docannexe/image/1706/img-5.jpg
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Légende Fig. 6 - Abdera. North circuit of walls. Part of a 7th century house inside the walls.
URL http://books.openedition.org/pcjb/docannexe/image/1706/img-6.jpg
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Légende Fig. 7 - Abdera. The Clazomenian city. Wild Goat pottery. (Scale: 1/2).
URL http://books.openedition.org/pcjb/docannexe/image/1706/img-7.jpg
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Légende Fig. 8 - Abdera. Cemetery of the Clazomenian city. Section Κ.
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Légende Fig. 9 - Abdera. Cemetery of the Clazomenian city. Section P.
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Légende Fig. 10 - Abdera. Cemetery of the Clazomenian city. Pithos grave in Section G.
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Légende Fig. 11 - Abdera. Burial amphoras. Section P.
URL http://books.openedition.org/pcjb/docannexe/image/1706/img-11.jpg
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Légende Fig. 12 - Abdera. Burial amphora in section P.
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Légende Fig. 13 - Abdera. Burial pithos. Section P.
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Légende Fig. 14 - Abdera. Cemeteries of the Clazomenian city. Section P. Bird Bowl. (Scale: 1/2).
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Légende Fig. 15 - Abdera. Cemeteries of the Clazomenian city. Section P. Protocorinthian aryballos. (Scale: 1/2).
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Fichier image/jpeg, 60k
Légende Fig. 16 - Abdera. Cemeteries of the Clazomenian city. Section P. Chian (?) mug. (Scale: 1/2).
URL http://books.openedition.org/pcjb/docannexe/image/1706/img-16.jpg
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Légende Fig. 17 - Abdera. Cemeteries of the Clazomenian city. Section P. Rosette cup. (Scale: 1/2).
URL http://books.openedition.org/pcjb/docannexe/image/1706/img-17.jpg
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Légende Fig. 18 - Abdera. Fragments of banded cups. 6th-4th century B.C. (Scale: 1/2).
URL http://books.openedition.org/pcjb/docannexe/image/1706/img-18.jpg
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Légende Fig. 19 - Abdera. Tumuli on the north cemetery. Excavated tumulus 79.
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Légende Fig. 20 - Abdera. Northcemetery. Section B. Tumulus 7.
URL http://books.openedition.org/pcjb/docannexe/image/1706/img-20.jpg
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Légende Fig. 21 - Abdera. Northwest cemetery. Section B. Tumulus 7.
URL http://books.openedition.org/pcjb/docannexe/image/1706/img-21.jpg
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Légende Fig. 22 - Abdera. Cemetery in Section P. Cist grave.
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Légende Fig. 23 - Abdera. Cemetery in Section P. Clay sarcophagus.
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Légende Fig. 24 - Abdera. North Cemetery. Section Β. Tumulus. Pithos grave.
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Légende Fig. 25 - Abdera. North Cemetery. Section B. Tumulus 7. Pit graves and cremation graves.
URL http://books.openedition.org/pcjb/docannexe/image/1706/img-25.jpg
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Légende Fig. 26 - Abdera. Pit grave of a woman.
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Légende Fig. 27 - Abdera. North Cemetery. Section A. Tumulus 79. Cremation graves.
URL http://books.openedition.org/pcjb/docannexe/image/1706/img-27.jpg
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Légende Fig. 28 - Abdera. North Cemetery. Section A. Tumulus 79. Sacrifice.
URL http://books.openedition.org/pcjb/docannexe/image/1706/img-28.jpg
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Légende Fig. 29 - Abdera. North Cemetery. Section A. Tumulus 79. Vases of the sacrifice. (Scale: 1/2).
URL http://books.openedition.org/pcjb/docannexe/image/1706/img-29.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 168k
Légende Fig. 30 - Abdera. Palmette crown of a grave stele. Inv. Mus. Kavala A 890. (Scale: 1/4).
URL http://books.openedition.org/pcjb/docannexe/image/1706/img-30.jpg
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Légende Fig. 31 - Abdera. Inscribed grave column. Inv. Mus. Kavala Λ 902. (Scale: 1/4).
URL http://books.openedition.org/pcjb/docannexe/image/1706/img-31.jpg
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Légende Fig. 32 - Abdera. Palmette crown of a grave stele. Inv. Mus. Kavala Λ 721-722. (Scale: 1/4).
URL http://books.openedition.org/pcjb/docannexe/image/1706/img-32.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 660k
Légende Fig. 33 - Archaeological Museum of Κomotini. Grave stele. Inv. Mus. Κomotini ΑΓΚ 19. (Scale: 1/4).
URL http://books.openedition.org/pcjb/docannexe/image/1706/img-33.jpg
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Légende Fig. 34 - Abdera. Clazomenian sarcophagus. Inv. Mus. Kavala Δ 435.
URL http://books.openedition.org/pcjb/docannexe/image/1706/img-34.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 88k
Légende Fig. 35 - Abdera. Clay figurine of a kore. Inv. Mus. Kavala Ε 1418. (Scale: 1/2).
URL http://books.openedition.org/pcjb/docannexe/image/1706/img-35.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 160k
Légende Fig. 36 - Abdera. Attic hydria from the Christie Painter. Inv. Mus. Kavala A 1793. (Scale: 1/3).
URL http://books.openedition.org/pcjb/docannexe/image/1706/img-36.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 384k
Légende Fig. 37 - Abdera. Hellenistic Cemetery (T8/1987). Clay figurine from a child grave in a pithos. (Scale: 1/2).
URL http://books.openedition.org/pcjb/docannexe/image/1706/img-37.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 164k
Légende Fig. 38 - Abdera. Graves of the hellenistic cemetery.
URL http://books.openedition.org/pcjb/docannexe/image/1706/img-38.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 516k
Légende Fig. 39 - Abdera. Hellenistic cemetery. Grave on the demolished walls.
URL http://books.openedition.org/pcjb/docannexe/image/1706/img-39.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 876k
Légende Fig. 40 Abdera. Hydria used as urn in a cremation burial (Grave T29/1989). (Scale: 1/4).
URL http://books.openedition.org/pcjb/docannexe/image/1706/img-40.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 284k
Légende Fig. 41 - Abdera. Hellenistic cemetery on and inside the archaic walls.
URL http://books.openedition.org/pcjb/docannexe/image/1706/img-41.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 724k
Légende Fig. 42 - Abdera. Hellenistic Cemetery. Tile grave before opening.
URL http://books.openedition.org/pcjb/docannexe/image/1706/img-42.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 344k
Légende Fig. 43 Abdera. Tile grave after opening.
URL http://books.openedition.org/pcjb/docannexe/image/1706/img-43.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 772k
Légende Fig. 44 - Abdera. Hellenistic Cemetery. Cist grave of a woman (T23/1989).
URL http://books.openedition.org/pcjb/docannexe/image/1706/img-44.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 556k
Légende Fig. 45 - Abdera. Hellenistic Cemetery. Cist grave of a woman (T23/1989).
URL http://books.openedition.org/pcjb/docannexe/image/1706/img-45.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 504k
Légende Fig. 46 - Abdera. Hellenistic Cemetery. Pit grave of a man.
URL http://books.openedition.org/pcjb/docannexe/image/1706/img-46.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 784k
Légende Fig. 47 - Abdera. A horse burial in the archaic walls.
URL http://books.openedition.org/pcjb/docannexe/image/1706/img-47.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 840k
Légende Fig. 48 - Abdera. The West Gate of the Classical city. Roman “heroon” and later cemeteries.
URL http://books.openedition.org/pcjb/docannexe/image/1706/img-48.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 1004k
Légende Fig. 49 - Abdera. The West Gate of the Classical city. Late Roman city on the classical walls and later cemeteries. (Scale: 1/250).
URL http://books.openedition.org/pcjb/docannexe/image/1706/img-49.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 188k
Légende Fig. 50 - Abdera. The West Gate of the Classical city and Roman city with later cemeteries. Early Byzantine church.
URL http://books.openedition.org/pcjb/docannexe/image/1706/img-50.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 1,4M
Légende Fig. 51 - Abdera. The fortress of Byzantine Polystylon. Byzantine chapel and cemetery.
URL http://books.openedition.org/pcjb/docannexe/image/1706/img-51.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 1,3M

© Publications du Centre Jean Bérard, 1994

Conditions d’utilisation : http://www.openedition.org/6540