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La céramique grecque ou de tradition grecque au VIIIe siècle en Italie centrale et méridionale

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Centre Jean Bérard

The eighth century pottery at Pithekoussai: An interim report

(Pl. 12-16)

David Ridgway

Texte intégral

I) Pottery and personal ornaments: Notes on the social organization at Pithekoussai in the eighth century1

  • 1 A version of Part I was incorporated in a paper read to A. Momigliano’s Economic History seminar at (...)
  • 1 Sequences in prehistoric remains, in J. Anthropological Institute, XXIX, 1899, p. 300.

«The responsibility of those who excavate is tenfold increased, as the extent of their care and exactitude will more than ever restore or ruin the history of the past»
W. M. Flinders Petrie
1

  • 2 The science of rubbish, in The Spectator, 9-4-1965, p. 483.

«We attempt our works of synthesis because we must from time to time try to understand our material and accommodate it within reasonable working hypotheses, but we all know, if we are honest with ourselves, that we are working on inadequate samples of information rather than on a valid totality or near totality: obviously, too, this debars usfrom considering the application of statistical means which might prove rewarding».
Stuart Piggott
2

  • 3 Archaeology and History, in Daedalus, 100, 1971, p. 179; reprinted most recently in id., The Use an (...)

«What ancient historians now require of archaeologists is... a far greater consciousness of the value of statistics, for which pencil and paper and elementary numeracy are on the whole sufficient, though a simple computer would do no harm».
M. I. Finley
3

  • 4 Economies et sociétés en Grèce ancienne, 2nd ed., Paris, 1972, p. 23.

«L’artisan est pourtant le héros de l’histoire grecque, mais c’est un héros secret».
Michel Austin and Pierre Vidal-Naquet4

  • 5 Giorgio Buchner e David Ridgway, Pithekoussai, Scavi della Soprintendenza alle Antichità di Napoli, (...)
  • 6 G. Buchner, Nuovi aspetti e problemi posti dagli scavi di Pitecusa con particolari considerazioni s (...)
  • 7 F. Zevi and G. Colonna, in Civiltà del Lazio primitivo, Rome, 1976, respectively p. 216 and p. 372- (...)
  • 8 G. Bartoloni and F. Delpino, in St. Etr XLIII, 1975, p. 11 ff. (especially the statement in note 32 (...)
  • 9 «... la possibilità di costruire precise statistiche... i relativi risultati quantitativi», etc.: C (...)

1The compilation of the Analytical Index to the volume Pithekoussai I5 enables me to add some elementary quantitative information to G. Buchner’s remarks6 on the social structure visible in the cemetery of this key site. I do so in the spirit recommended by M. I. Finley (above), conscious of the pitfalls described by Piggott (above) — but secure in the knowledge that at Pithekoussai Petrie’s condition (above) has been complied with: there is no risk that the strange story of the Manios fibula7 will be repeated in an Ischian setting, nor yet that Pithekoussan corredi will go the same way as Tarquinia, Monterozzi 66 (and all that it was supposed to mean for the chronology of early Rome)8. The following really does no more than outline the practical implications of some suggestions recently made by Professor Lepore9. I hope, too, that it is not inappropriate to continue the dialogue concerning the context (cf. Austin and Vidal-Naquet, above) of the eighth century Greek pottery in the oldest Western establishment.

  • 10 L[ate] G[eometrical I, ca. 750-725; LG II, ca. 725-700 (= E[arly] P[roto]-C[orinthian]): cf. Buchne (...)

2The Pithekoussai I tombs and their contents are distributed over the period of interest10 to the Colloque in the manner shown in Table 1 A. If the LG I-II tombs and «schede» (Catalogue entries) are divided equally between LG I and LG II, and if half the LG II-M[iddle] P[roto-] C[orinthian] tombs are assigned to LG II, the result is that shown in Table 1 B — the information in which is expressed graphically, in percentage terms, on Figs. 1 A (tombs) and 1 Β (contents).

  • 11 Id., ibid., p. 69 f.

3It will be recalled that, on the basis of skeleton-length and dental age-determination, cremation graves may generally be identified as those of adults (male and female), inhumation graves with goods generally belong to children, inhumation graves without goods contain adults («di infimo rango sociale» — «slaves»/«servants») and enchytrismoi are babies’ graves11. The status of the cremations without goods is not clear; but there are very few of them (fewer, in proportion, in LG II than in LG I) — and this, incidentally, is the only type of grave that does not continue into the next and much depleted MPC period. In addition, the distinction between inhumation with and without grave-goods is blurred by the existence of a substantial number of inhumations with only a very few, or with «working class», grave-goods: a factor that calls for complex and hazardous value-judgements concerning «wealth», «status» etc. For the moment, I prefer merely to illustrate this particular problem by tabulating the appearance of Ceramica di Impasto and of Arnesi di Lavoro (Table 2, where two out of the seven LG II cremations with impasto vases are accounted for by the tazzina [168-26] associated with the «Nestor Cup» and by the well-known anforetta a spirali [159-3] imported from Etruria).

  • 12 Taking 1977 as the possible publication date of Pithekoussai I, and supposing that the present rate (...)
  • 13 Buchner, ibid., p. 69 and pl. ii.
  • 14 Id., ibid., p. 72.

4It would be extremely dangerous to base any far-reaching hypotheses on Fig. 1 A, which shows the successive LG 1 and LG II percentages of the various types of tomb: the sample on which it is based consists of the 493 chronologically relevant tombs out of the 723 excavated 1952-61. This is only a fraction (ca. 2,5%)12 of the whole cemetery — and it is already clear, for example, that in the second fraction (excavated 1965 onwards) the proportion of LG I (the «Aetos 666» period) graves to those of LG II (the EPC globular aryballos period) is not the same. Nevertheless, Fig. 1 Β shows that in both periods cremations attract just under 25% of the available grave-goods (all kinds), while inhumations attract just over 70%. It seems reasonable to regard this as systematic, and so worthy of further qualitative (and not just quantitative) investigation: after all, the family plots («appezzamenti familiari»)13, in which these types of tomb occur, are capable of beginning in LG I and ending in LG II14.

  • 15 Ceramica di pasta figulina: Part , Section A, below, lists the 951 pieces found in the 8th-6th. c (...)

5Easily the largest categories of grave-goods are Ceramica di pasta figulina and Ornamenti personali15. The pottery may be divided into «locally made» and «importeded», the personal ornaments into «bronze and iron» and «exotica». Overall (ie in all three types of LG I and II tombs con corredo: Fig. I B), these four crude divisions are represented as follows:

6LG I: 70.7% of the pottery is local, and 29.3% is imported; 55% of the personal ornaments are made of bronze or iron, and 45% of «exotic» substances.

7LG II: 48% of the much larger quantity of pottery is local, and 52% is imported; 73% of the much larger quantity of personal ornaments is made of bronze or iron, and 27% of «exotic» substances.

  • 16 See Part II, below: A 16 (ii), EPC and (x), KW (with bibliography in Part III. s.v.).
  • 17 G. Buchner and J. Boardman, Seals from Ischia and the Lyre-Player Group, in JDAI, 81, 1966, p. 1-62 (...)
  • 18 S. Bosticco, Scarabei egiziani delta necropoli di Pithecusa nell’isola d’Ischia, in Par. Pass., XII (...)

8It is, I repeat, dangerous to generalize from such a small sample. It may just be a statistical accident that, on the evidence soon to be published in Pithekoussai I, the proportion of fine imported pottery deposited (for whatever reason) in tombs has risen from just over 29% of all LG I fine pottery in this sample to 52% in LG II: the rise is partly (but not wholly) provoked by the flood of EPC and K[reis-und]W[ellenbandstil] aryballoi in LG II16. On the face of it, however, there is no such ready explanation for the contemporary fall in the proportion of «exotica» — seals17, scarabs18, various glass pastes, bone and above all precious metals (principally silver): from 45% of all LG I personal ornaments to 27% in LG II.

  • 19 Certain minor categories, which contributed to the overall percentages mentioned in the preceding p (...)

9The qualitative differences between the LG I and LG II assemblages are illustrated in Figs. 2 A-B (LG I) and 3 A-B (LG II). These two pairs of Figs. are based on a count of the principal categories of imported Ceramica di pasta figulina (Figs. 2 A, 3 A) and of Ornamenti personali (Figs. 2 B, 3 B) found in tombs of the tumulus cremation and fossa inhumation types only (ie not including the enchytrismoi)19. I have been at some pains to show not only the numbers and percentages of the individual fabrics and materials (s.v. «Pezzi»), but also (s.v. «Corredi») the numbers and percentages of the tombs, for each period, in which they occur. The actual figures involved are shown in percentage terms on Figs. 2 A-B (LG I) and 3 A-B (LG II), and are set out in Tables 3 A (LG I) and 3 Β (LG II). In all six cases, the double columns show the «scores» for cremations on the left [cols. (1), (2)] and for inhumations on the right [cols. (3), (4)]; in each double column the figures and percentages for the artefacts themselves are shown on the left [s.v. «Pezzi», cols. (1), (3)] and those for the tombs in which they occur on the right [s.v. «Corredi», cols. (2), (4)].

  • 20 Ca. 10% of the amphoras employed for LG II enchytrismos burials, not used in this exercise, are Ori (...)
  • 21 Buchner and Boardman, Seals from Ischia, cit., p. 22 f.; p. 59, note 79. See also the relative prop (...)

10The percentages of grave-goods (Table I Β and Fig. 1 B) assigned respectively to cremations and inhumations now appear in a different light. There is a clear «preference» by cremations for personal ornaments of silver («G»), and by inhumations for personal ornaments of bronze («F»): and although the proportion of silver ornaments in the cremation repertoire of LG I [69.1%: Fig. 2 B, col. (1), «G»] is substantially higher than that of LG II [52.1%: Fig. 3 B, col. (1), «G»], the proportion of the tombs in which silver ornaments occur remains reasonably constant: 38.3% in LG I [Fig. 2 B, col. (2), «G»] and 40% in LG II [Fig. 3 B, col. (2), «G»]. On the imported pottery front, Corinthian («A») is taking over in LG II and KW («Β») has to a large extent supplanted the rarer imported fabrics — imported (as distinct from local) Euboean («C»), A[rgive] M[onochrome] («D») and Oriental («E»)20. The proportions of LG II cremations and inhumations in which KW occurs are not very different — 20.2% [Fig. 3 A, col (2), «Β»]: 18% [Fig. 3 A, col. (4), «Β»]; for Corinthian, the gap has narrowed from 21.3% [Fig. 2 A, col. (2), «Α»]: 6.6% [Fig. 2 A, col. (4), «A»] in LG I to 48.5% [Fig. 3 A, col. (2), «A»]: 36.7% [Fig. 3 A, col. (4), «A»] in LG II. A larger proportion of scarabs and (Lyre-Player Group) seals are found in inhumations (children) than in cremations (adults), and in a larger proportion of LG I than of LG II graves [Figs. 2 B, 3 B, cols. (2), (4), «Η»]: we already knew this21.

11It seems to me that any attempt to interpret the qualitative differences between LG I and LG II, illustrated above, must take account of the following three points (among others):

  • 22 Buchner, Contribution, cit., p. 65 and pl. i.

12(i) all the areas of known archaeological interest at Pithekoussai were functioning in LG I22;

  • 23 Id., ibid., p. 66 f.; cf. D. Ridgway, The First Western Greeks: Companion coasts and southern Etrur (...)
  • 24 G. Colonna, Ceramica geometrica dell’Italia meridionale nell’area etrusca, in Aspetti e problemi, c (...)

13(ii) pointless though it is to speculate on the possibility of finding earlier, «preLG I», material — e.g. chevron skyphoi — at Pithekoussai, an additional indication to the contrary has recently been added to those normally discussed23. The distribution pattern of South Italian pottery exports in Etruria is the same as that of the contemporary chevron skyphoi there; and Colonna suggests that «si tratta invero di una situazione concorrenziale difficilmente immaginabile dopo la fondazione di Pithecusa, data l’azione monopolizzatrice esercitata da quel centro verso i commerci del Tirreno...»24.
In other words, if Pithekoussai was a going concern at the time of the chevron skyphoi, the trickle of contemporary Oenotrian Geometric into Southern Etruria would have been blocked. Perhaps (but only perhaps), therefore, it is now more likely that the LG I graves contain the first (colonial) Euboeans in the West;

  • 25 R. L. Beaumont, Greek influence in the Adriatic before the 4th cent. B.C., in JHS, LVI, p. 164 ff.; (...)
  • 26 Ridgway, First Western Greeks, cit., p. 16 f.

14(iii) surely the most significant fact to emerge from the laborious exercise represented by Figs. 2 and 3 is the high proportion of silver among the personal ornaments in adult graves: and the proportion is higher in LG I than in LG II. Could there be any conceivable correlation between this and the well-known 8th century Euboean interest in Southern Illyria, rich in silver25? To the West, I have commented elsewhere on the Pithekoussan parallels for Oriental material found in the excavation of the remains of a Phoenician or Phoenicianizing community of silver miners at Riotinto in Spain26.

  • 27 S. Shennan, The social organization at Branč, in Antiquity, XLIX, 1975, p. 279-88.
  • 28 C. Crumley, Celtic social structure: the generation of archaeologically testable hypotheses from li (...)
  • 29 A. Mele, I caratteri della società eretriese arcaica, in Contribution, cit., p. 15-26.
  • 30 C. Ampolo, Su alcuni mutamenti sociali nel Lazio tra l’VIII e il V secolo, in Dial. di Archeol., IV (...)
  • 31 M. J. Rowlands, The archaeological interpretation of prehistoric metalworking, in World Archaeology (...)
  • 32 P. J. Ucko. Ethnography and the archaeological interpretation of funerary remains, ibid., I, 1969-7 (...)
  • 33 A. Momigliano, An interim report on the origins of Rome, in JRS, LIII, 1963, p. 98.

15Detailed sociological interpretation of the material crudely classified on Figs. 1, 2 and 3 is still a long way away. More sophisticated sorting techniques would no doubt bring to light repeated (and so perhaps «socially significant») patterns at tomb-and plot-level: an interesting example of the possibilities has been provided by a recent analysis of an Early Bronze Age cemetery in Czechoslovakia27. But it is not easy to propose a «model» from the literary evidence, on the lines of a recent approach to the Celts28. «Evoluzione político-militare»29 at home and social change on the Italian mainland30 are both worlds apart from the peaceful «middle class» in this commercial and industrial centre. It seems excessive to fall back on parallels concerning the position of the smith in modern ethnographic situations31 — though they might help us to realize what is possible32. It remains true that «no necropolis, however rich, can ever replace the living tradition of a nation»33.

II) Pithekoussai I: Analytical index of the 8th, 7th and 6th cent. Pottery

16Notes

17Within the various categories, the abbreviations on the left — LG I, LG II etc. — indicate the period to which the tomb-groups (corredi) immediately following have been assigned.

18Numbers thus, «168», are the «new», definitive, numbers of the tombs which will be used in Pithekoussai I. Numbers thus, «-3», refer to the internal numbering of the elements in the individual corredi. Items numbered thus, «505 (LG II)-°1», refer to objects which are sporadic in so far as they cannot be considered part of the corredo indicated (of the period shown), but which nevertheless stand in some significant relation to it — sherds found in the interstices of the stones forming a tumulus over a cremation, for example.

19Tombs 132-243 are cremations (all periods); tombs 244-723 are inhumations (all periods), of the a fossa and enchytrismos types. The containers — ANFORA, OLLA etc., with their lids — used in the enchytrismos rite are classified in Section C of the following; their ceramic contents appear in Sections A and B.

20In Pithekoussai 7, there will be a separate Analytical Index for the contents of the 5th cent., Hellenistic and Roman tombs 1-131; and the three Sections reproduced here will be followed by D (Ornamenti personali), Ε (Arnesi di lavoro) and F (non classificabile).

21The following abbreviations have been used throughout:

22AM Argive Monochrome

23C Corinthian

24EPC Early Protocorinthian

25KW Kreis-und Wellenbandstil

26LG Late Geometric

27LPC Late Protocorinthian

28MPC Middle Protocorinthian

29S Sporadic.

(A) Ceramica di pasta figulina

1. — Cratere

30(i) locale

31LG II: 168-3,-4

32Sporadici: S 1/1; S 1/2; S 1/3; S 1/4; S 1/5; S 1/6; S 1/7; S 1/8

33(ii) euboico

34LG II: 168-1 (?),-2 (?)

35Sporadici: S 1/9; S 1/10 (7)

2. — Oinochoe

36(i) locale

37LG I: 161-1; 167-1,-2; 184-1; 199-1,-2; 201-1; 205-1; 216-1; 222-1; 223-1; 227-1; 228-1; 235-1; 414-1; 422-1; 433-1; 434-1; 435-1; 436-1; 438-1 (piccola); 459-1; 469-1; 490-1; 491-1; 519-1; 549-1; (?) 570-1; 571-1; 574-1; 581-1; 585-1; 586-1; 591-1; 593-1; 599-1; 600-1; 608-1; 609-1; (?) 632-1; 634-1; 662-1

38LG I-II: 175-1; 183-1; 225-1; 653-1

39LG II: 148-1; 149-1; 150-1; 152-2; 154-1; 156-1; 158 A-l, B-l; 159-1; 160-1; 162-1; 164-1; 165-1; 168-5; 169-1 (7); 170-1; 171-1; 178-1; 180-1; 181-1; 186-1; 203-1; 209-2; 215-1; 232-1; 238-1; 239-1; 284 Sup-1; 298-1; 309 A-l; 310-1; 325-1; 328-1; 335-1; 354-1; 355-1; 364-1; 389-1; 454-1; 474-1; 483-2; 495-1; 498-1; 501-1; 509-1; 538-1; 539-1; 553-1; 556-1; 573-1; 623-1; 626-1; 643-1; 648-1; 649-1; 654-1; (?)664-1; 689-1; 699-1; 709-1,-2; 715-1 (piccola); 718-1

40LG II tardo: 147-1 (e coperchio,-2)

41MPC: 136-3,-4; 138-1; 187-1; 188-1; 196-1; 197-1; 198-1; 258-1; 259-1; 271-2; 308-1; 470-1; 530-1; 536-1; 565-1; 566-1

42MPC-LPC: 135-1; 260-1; 262-1; 303-1

43LPC: 250-1; 266-1

44LPC-C: 294-1

45C: 132-1; 133-1,-2; 189-1,-3; 190-1; 191-1; 192-1; 193-1; 194-1; 195-1; 245-1; 253-1; 254-1; 255-1,-2; 286-1; 293-1; 295-1; 562-1

46inoltre: 505 (LG II)-°1; 525 (LG II)-°2; 654 (LG II)-°1 (?)

47(ii) importata, ΕPC originale

48LG II: 151-1; 152-1; 157-1; 163-1; 168-6; 172-1; 173-1; 178-2; 200-1; 208-1; 209-1; 224-1; 242-1; 243-1; 359-1; 360-1; 455-1; 456-1; 483-1; 504-1; 515-1; 548-1; 552-1; 557-1; 606-1; 622-1; 624-1; 651-1; 717-1

49LG II tardo: 472-1

50inoltre: 525 (LG II)-°1

51(iii) EPC d’imitazione locale

52LG II: 232-2; 329-1; 390-1; 656-1 (con coperchio,-2); 696-1

53(iv) MPC d’imitazione locale

54MPC: 136-1,-2; 140-1; 141-1; 142-1; 144-1; 271-1; 272-1,-2,-3; Sporadiche: S 3/1; S 3/2; S 3/3; S 3/4; S 3/5; S 3/6; S 3/7

55(v) importata, corinzia originale

56C: 276-1

57(vi) corinzia d’imitazione locale

58C: 189-2; 191-2

59(vii) importata, euboica

60LG I: 220-1 (?)

61LG II: 652-1 (?)

62(viii) importata, di tipo AM

63LG II: 182-1

64(ix) importata, di tipo fenicio-cipriota

65MPC: 139-1

66(x) di fabbrica incerta

67LG I-II: 210-1 (importata)

68LG II: 168-7; 312-1 (importata); 456-2 (miniaturistica); 463-1; 500-1 inoltre: 515 (LG II)-°1 (importata)

3. — Brocca

69(i) locale

70LG I-II: 598-2

71LG II: 242-2; 298-3 (miniaturistica); 315-1; 321-1; 322-1; 332-1; 623-4; 655-1

72MPC: 272-4

73C: 279-1; 528-1

74(ii) brocchetta locale

75LG I: (?)590-1

76LG II: 243-2; 684-3,-4

77C: 253-2

78(iii) brocchetta importata, di tipo AM

79LG Ι: 595-1 (brocca); 605-1 (brocea)

80LG II: 165-3; 298-2; 487-2; 513-2; 631-3; (?)723-1

4. — Skyphos

81(i) locale

82LG I: 212-6 (?); 240-1 (?); 549-2(?)

83LG II: 498-3; 525-1; 689-2,-3

84LG II tardo: 147-3

85MPC: 272-5,-6; 565-2

86Sporadici: S 4/5; S 4/6; S 4/7; S 4/9; S 4/10

87(ii) importato, LG corinzio originale (tipo «Thapsos» con pannello)

88LG I: 161-2; 204-1; 212-2

89LG II: 309 A-2

90Sporadici: S 4/1; S 4/2 (frr.: ca. una dozzina)

91(iii) LG corinzio d’imitazione locale (tipo «Thapsos» con pannello)

92Sporadico: S 4/3

93(iv) LG corinzio d’imitazione locale

94Sporadico: S 4/4

95(v) importato, EPC originale (tipo «Thapsos» senza pannello)

96LG II: 325-2; 454-3; 501-2; 533-1; 545-3; 696-2; 709-4

97(vi) EPC d’imitazione locale (tipo «Thapsos» senza pannello)

98LG II: 168-8; 243-3; 251-2; 291-2; 309 B-l,-2; 315-2; 323-2; 474-2; 498-2; 546-2; 678-3; 705-2; 709-5,-6; 715-2; 722-2

99Sporadico: S 4/8 (frr.: ca. una dozzina)

100(vii) importato, EPC originale

101LG II: 178-3,-4; 323-3

102LG II tardo: 472-3

103(viii) EPC d’imitazione locale

104LG II: 328-2

105(ix) importato, MPC originale

106MPC: 140-2; 141-2,-3; 198-2,-3,-4; 259-2; 271-3; 470-2; 529-1; 530-2; 536-2; 566-2

107inoltre: 276(C)-°2

108(x) importato, MPC-LPC originale

109MPC-LPC: 303-2

110(xi) MPC-LPC d’imitazione locale

111MPC-LPC: 303-3

112(xii) importato, corinzio originale

113C: 189-4; 193-2,-3; 254-2,-3; 279-2

114inoltre: 276(C)-°1

5. — Kotyle

115(i) locale

116LG II: 557-2; 622-2; 684-2

117(ii) importata, LG corinzia originale

118LG I: 201-2; 212-5; 331-1; 591-2

119Sporadiche: S 5/11; S 5/12; S 5/18; S 5/19; S 5/29

120(iii) importata, LG corinzia originale (del tipo «Aetos 666»)

121Sporadiche: S 5/1; S 5/2; S 5/3

122(iv) LG corinzia d’imitazione locale

123LG I: 320-1; 547-1; 572-1

124Sporadiche: S 5/13; S 5/14; S 5/15; S 5/16; S 5/17; S 5/20; S 5/22

125(v) LG corinzia d’imitazione locale (del tipo «Aetos 666»)

126LG I: 161-3; 469-2; 490-2; 550-2; 600-2

127inoltre: 229 (LG I)-°1

128Sporadiche: S 5/4; S 5/5; S 5/6; S 5/7; S 5/8; S 5/9; S 5/10

129(vi) importata, LG corinzia d’imitazione euboica

130Sporadica: S 5/21

131(vii) LG corinzia d’imitazione locale

132Sporadiche: S 5/23; S 5/24; S 5/25; S 5/26; S 5/27; S 5/28

133(viii) importata, EPC originale

134LG II: 152-5,-6,-7; 155-1; 157-2; 159-2; 160-2; 208-2; 238-2; 242-3,-4; 354-2; 390-2; 463-2; 483-3,-4,-5; 495-2; 573-2; 651-2; 654-2; 656-3,-4

135LG II tardo: 147-9 (frr.: almeno tre)

136Sporadica: S 5/30

137(ix) importata, MPC originale

138MPC: 136-5; 137-1,-2,-3 (almeno tre); 196-2; 271-4,-5; 272-7,-8; 470-3

139(x) MPC d’imitazione locale.

140MPC: 258-2,-3,-4

141MPC-LPC: 262-2

142Sporadiche: S 5/31;5/32

143(xi) importata, corinzia originale

144C: 189-5; 191-3,-4,-5,-6,-7,-8,-9,-10,-11,-12,-13; 193-4; 244-2; 254-4,-5; 255-3; 276-2,-3; 286-3,-4,-5; 293-3; 295-2; 555-2,-3,-4,-5; 562-2

145(xii) importata, kotylidion corinzio originale

146LPC-C: 290-2

147C: 193-5; 252-1; 253-3,-4,-5; 255-4; 276-4,-5,-6,-7,-8,-9.-10,-11; 286-6; 562-3,-4

148(xiii) importata, LG II rodia

149LG II: 168-9

6. — Kyathos

150(i) importato, LG corinzio originale

151LG I: 212-3,-4; 593-2; 662-2

152Sporadico: S 6/1

153(ii) LG corinzio d’imitazione locale

154Sporadici: S 6/2; S 6/3 (frr.: almeno tre)

155(iii) locale

156Sporadico: S 6/4

7. — Kantharos

157(i) locale

158Sporadico: S 11/3

159(ii) importato, LG corinzio originale

160LG I: 177-1

161(iii) importato, EPC originale

162LG II: 168-10; 171-2; 180-2; 200-2; 267-1; 284Inf-10; 355-2; 359-2; 363-1; 455-2 (monoansato); 456-3; 506-3; 509-2; 527-1; 553-2; 606-2,-3 (monoansato); 643-2

163(iv) EPC d’imitazione locale

164LG II: 148-2; 243-4; 309 A-3; 324-2; 382-1; 389-2; 515-2; 552-2; 556-3; 560-1; 622-3

165(v) importato, corinzio originale

166C: 191-14

167(vi) importato, di fabbrica incerta

168LG II: 398-2,-3

8. — Kylix

169(i) importala («Coppa ionica»)

170LPC: 263-1

171C: 189-6,-7; 528-2

172(ii) d’imitazione locale («Coppa ionica»)

173C: 293-2

9. — Tazza

174(i) locale (?), monoansata

175LG I: 550-3

176LG II: 310-2; 483-6; 617-2; 648-2

10. — Pisside con coperchio

177(i) locale

178Sporadica: S 8/2 (solo coperchio)

179(ii) importata, EPC originale

180LG II: 483-7

181LG II tardo: 147-11

182(iii) EPC d’imitazione locale

183LG II: 354-3

184Sporadica: S 8/1

185(iv) importata, MPC originale

186MPC: 326-1

187(v) MPC d’imitazione locale

188MPC: 271-6,-7,-8; 273-1,-2,-3

189(vi) importata, corinzia originale

190C: 191-30 (solo coperchio); 195-2; 244-3; 252-2

11. — Coppetta

191(i) importata, di fabbrica incerta

192LG II: 168-11

193(ii) su piede a stelo

194MPC: 137-4,-5,-6,-7,-8,-9 (tutte di fabbrica incerta); 271-9 (locale); 272-9 (locale)

195Sporadica: S 7/1 (locale)

196(iii) tripode

197LG II: 545-4 (di fabbrica incerta)

198Sporadica: S 7/2 (locale)

12. — Lekythos

199(i) locale

200LG I: 166-3; 167-3; 212-7; 217-1 (?)

201LG II: 168-12,-13,-14; 208-4,-5,-6,-7; 215-2; 301-1; 325-3; 389-3; 515-4; 622-5; 623-2,-3; 652-2

202MPC: 271-11 (piccola)

203inoltre: 174 (LG I-II)-°1; 209 (LG II)-°4

204Sporadica: S 9/21

205(ii) conica locale

206LG I: 161-4(?); 218-1

207LG II: 355-3; 515-3; 622-4; 624-2; 652-3

208inoltre: 505 (LG II)-°2

209Sporadiche: S 9/6; S 9/7; S 9/8; S 9/9; S 9/10; S 9/11; S 9/12; S 9/13 (solo ansa); S 9/14; S 9/15; S 9/16; S 9/17; S 9/18 (solo eolio); S 9/19; S 9/20

210(iii) importata, conica EPC originale

211LG II tardo: 145-1

212Sporadiche: S 9/1; S 9/2; S 9/3; S 9/4; S 9/5

213(iv) conica EPC d’imitazione locale

214LG II: 152-3,-4; 208-3; 354-4,-5,-6; 454-2

215LG II tardo: 145-2,-3; 146-1,-2,-3,-4; 147-4,-10 (almeno due); 472-2

216(ν) importata, conica corinzia originale

217C: 191-15,-16,-17,-18,-19; 193-6; 244-1; 286-7

218(vi) importata, euboica

219LG I: 212-1(7); 580-1 (7)

220(vii) importata, KW originale

221LG II: 168-15 (piccola); 651-3 (curva)

222Sporadica: S 11/2 (curva)

223(viii) KW d’imitazione locale

224MPC: 271-10 (curva)

225(ix) piccola lekythos importata, conica di tipo AM

226LG I: 166-4; 220-2; 469-3

227LG II: 325-5; 357-1

228inoltre: 184 (LG I)-°l

229(x) importata, di tipo fenicio

230LG II: 284Inf-9; 312-2; 545-2

231MPC: 272-12 (piccola)

232(xi) importata, di fabbrica incerta

233LG II: 208-8

234(xii) importata, conica di fabbrica incerta

235LG II: 651-4

13. — Alabastron

236(i) importato, LPC originale

237LPC: 263-4

238(ii) importato, corinzio originale

239C: 191-20,-21,-22,-23,-24,-25; 244-4; 276-12,-13,-14,-15; 286-8; 562-5,-6

240(iii) importato, fusiforme corinzio originale

241C: 191-26; 193-7

242(iv) importato, fusiforme ionico

243C: 191-27,-28,-29; 244-5,-6; 286-9

14. — Scodella

244(i) monoansata locale

245LG II: 309B-3,-4; 323-4; 328-3,-4; 525-2; 679-2; 689-4; 696-3

246inoltre: 525 (LG II)-°3,-°4

247(ii) scodellina locale

248MPC: 536-6

249LPC: 263-2

250(iii) importata, KW originale

251MPC: 272-10,-11; 273-4

15. — Piatto

252(i) locale

253LG I: (?) 590-3

254LG II: 151-2,-3

255MPC: 258-5; 536-3,-4,-5 (piattelli)

256C: 191-31,-32 (piattello)

257(ii) di fabbrica incerta

258MPC: 137.10,-11,-12,-13,-14,-15,-16,-17,-18,-19,-20,-21,-22,-23,-24,-25,-26,-27,-28

16. — Aryballos

259(i) locale

260LG I: 662-3

261LG II: 152-14 (grande); 160-3 (grande); 168-20,-21,-22,-23,-24; 179-1 (grande),-2; 208-9 (grande),-10,-11,-12,-13,-14; 215-3; 224-2; 251-3,-4; 267-2; 284 Sup-2; 328-5; 355-4; 364-2; 389-4; 390-3 (grande); 456-4; 483-16; 498-5,-6,-7,-8,-9; 501-4,-5,-6; 508-1; 515-7,-8,-9,-10; 533-2; 557-4,-5; 573-4; 606-4; 622-10,-11,-12; 624-3; 649-2; 651-10; 652-4 (grande),-5,-6; 654-8,-9,-10,-11; 655-2 (grande); 656-12,-13,-14,-15,-16,-17; 678-4; 709-7

262inoltre: 209 (LG II)-°3,-°5, 505 (LG II)-«3,-«4; 525 (LG II)-°5

263Sporadici: S 10/2; S 10/3; S 10/4

264(ii) importate, globulare EPC originale

265LG II: 149-2; 152-8,-9,-10,-11,-12,-13; 159-4; 160-4; 165-2; 168-16,-17,-18,-19; 173-2; 325-6,-7,-8; 359-3,-4,-5,-6,-7; 454-4; 474-3; 483-8,-9,-10,-11,-12 (tipo tardo),-13 (tipo tardo),-14 (tipo tardo),-15 (tipo tardo); 498-4; 501-3; 505-1; 509-3; 557-3; 573-3; 622-7,-8,-9; 623-5,-6,-7,-8; 626-2; 651-5,-6,-7,-8,-9; 654-3,-4,-5,-6,-7; 656-5,-6,-7,-8,-9,-10,-11; 673-1; 715-3

266LG II tardo: 145-4; 147-5; 349-1; 472-5 (tipo tardo)

267inoltre: 209 (LG II)-°2

268Sporadico: S 10/1

269(iii) globulare EPC d’imitazione locale

270LG II: 148-3; 515-5,-6

271LG II tardo: 147-6; 472-4 (tipo tardo); 567-1

272(iv) importato, ovoide MPC originale

273MPC: 140-3; 142-2,-3,-4; 198-5,-6,-7,-8,-9,-10,-11,-12; 258-6; 272-13,-14,-15,-16, -17,-18,-19,-20,-21,-22; 308-2,-3,-4,-5,-6; 326-2,-3; 470-4,-5,-6,-7,-8,-9; 536-7,-8

274(ν) importato, piriforme LPC originale

275LPC: 263-3; 266-2

276(vi) importato, anulare corinzio originale

277C: 245-2; 286-10

278(vii) importato, rotondo corinzio originale

279C: 189-8,-9; 191-33,-34,-35,-36; 195-3; 276-16; 286-11 (grande),-12,-13,-14,-15,-16,-17; 555-6; 562-7

280(viii) importato, italo-corinzio

281C: 254-6; 276-17; 292-1; 562-8,-9; 594-1

282(ix) importato, euboico

283LG II: 386-2(?); 455-3; 523-2; 622-6 (grande); 696-4

284(x) importato, KW originale

285LG II: 150-2; 159-5; 160-5,-6; 168-25; 173-3; 208-15,-16,-17,-18,-19,-20; 243-5; 284 Sup-3; 325-9; 353-1; 354-7,-8,-9,-10; 355-5; 389-5,-6; 390-4,-5,-6,-7; 456-5,-6; 474-4; 483-17,-18,-19,-20,-21,-22,-23,-24,-25; 507-1; 508-2,-3; 545-5,-6; 557-6; 573-5,-6,-7; 622-13,-14; 623-9; 624-4; 631-4; 651-11,-12, -13; 654-12; 656-18; 696-5

286LG II tardo; 145-5,-6,-7,-8,-9,-10,-11,-12,-13; 146-5,-6; 147-7,-8,-12 (numero non precisabile); 472-6,-7,-8,-9,-10,-11,-12

287MPC: 142-5,-6; 248-1; 271-12,-13,-14,-15,-16,-17; 272-23,-24; 326-4,-5; 470-10; 529-2; 530-4; 566-3

288inoltre: 505 (LG II)-°6,-°7

289(xi) KW d’imitazione locale

290LG II: 355-6; 652-7

291(xii) importato, «orientale»

292LG I: 166-5,-6,-7,-8; 167-4; 235-2; 662-4

293LG II: 215-4

294inoltre: 623 (LG II)-°1

295(xiii) importato, di fabbrica incerta

296LG II: 324-3

297inoltre: 505 (LG 11)-°5

17. — Poppatoio

298(i) locale

299LG I: (?)590-2

300LG II: 631-2

301(ii) importato, di tipo AM (?)

302LG II: 694-1

303(iii) di fabbrica incerta

304C: 244-8

18. — Hapax legomena

305LG II: 325-4 (askos calabrese); 556-2 (lekane locale); 625-1 (anforetta locale); (?)665-1 (olletta locale)

306C: 244-7 (lydion ionico); 245-3 (unguentario a forma di civetta, ionico); 286-18 (unguentario a forma di aidoion, ionico?); 555-1 (olpe corinzia d’imitazione locale)

307inoltre: 232 (LG II)-°1 (frammento di vaso aperto locale, con epígrafe)

308Sporadico: S 11/1 (vaso geometrico dauno)

(Β) Ceramica di impasto

1. — Chytra

309LG I: 177-2; (?)579-1

310LG II: 160-7; 168-27; 169-2; 208-21; 284 Inf-11,-12 (miniaturistiche); 640-1; 643-3 (miniaturistica)

311LG II tardo: 147-13 (almeno quattro)

312MPC: 137-30; 141-4

313inoltre: 209 (LG II)-°1; 525 (LG Il)-°6; 589 (LG II)-°1 Sporadica: S 12/2

2. — Oinochoe

314LG I: 166-1; 550-1

315LG II: 251-1; 323-1; 324-1; 386-1; 506-1; 545-1; 678-1; 705-1

316LPC-C: 296-1

317C: 286-2

3. — Brocca

318LG II: 160-8; 322-2; 506-2; 641-1 (brocchetta); 692-2; 709-3

319C: 134-1; 189-10; 193-8; 195-4

4. — Scodella

320LG II: 243-6; 315-3 (scodellone); 323-5; 477-1; 678-2; (?)698-1; 705-3 (monoansata)

321LG II tardo: 147-14 (scodellone)

322MPC: 530-3

323Sporadica: S 12/3 (scodellone monoansato)

5. — Olla

324LG I: 235-3 (olletta); (?) 698-2 (?)

325LG II: 722-1

326inoltre: 647 (LG I?)-°1 (olletta)

6. — Anforetta

327LG I: 166-2 (importata); 436-2

328LG II: 159-3 (importata, a spirali); 309 A-4 (simile al tipo comune locale adibito a enchytrismos); 483-26 (importata, di tipo fenicio); 526-2; 631-1; 689-5

329Sporadica: S 12/1 (importata)

7. — Hapax legomena

330LG II: 168-26 (tazzina); 332-2 (ciotola); 699-2 (vaso chiuso); 705-4 (coperchio),-5 (piatto)

331inoltre: 227 (LG I)-°1 (ansa di piccolo vaso d’impasto)

(C) Vasi adibiti a enchytrismos

1. — Anfora

332(i) grezza, del tipo comune locale

333LG I: (non conservate: 576; 578)

334LG I-II: 419-1; 449-1; 450-1; (non conservate: 403; 597)

335LG II: 291-1; 330-1; 338-1; (?)340-1; (?)341-1; 343-1; 344-1; 351-1; 365-1 366-1 (variante); 369-1 (variante); 393-1; 394-1; (?) 425-1; (?)427-1 428-1; 443-1; 444-1; 484-1; 502-1; 526-1; (?) 628-1; (?) 629-1; 679-1 683-1; 691-1; 721-1; (non conservate: 356; 399; (?) 554; 559; 560; (?) 564 568; 607; (?) 619; (?) 620; (?) 627; 633; 635; 636; 641; 646; 659; 669 680; 682; 685; 694; 697; 703; 704)

336LG II-MPC: 461-1; 540-1 (piccola)

337MPC: 269-1; (?) 282-1

338(ii) grezza, del tardo tipo comune locale, con spalla sfuggente

339LPC-C: 274-1; 275-1; 277-1; 278-1; 280-1; 290-1; (?) 460-l; (?) 475-1; (?)534-1

340C: (?)281-1; 285-1; 287-1; 288-1; (?)289-1; (non conservate: 247; 302)

341(iii) grezza locale, con collo cilindrico

342LG I-II: 524-1; 660-1

343LG II: 430-1; 440-1; 546-1; (non conservata: 400)

344(iv) grezza locale: forme diverse

345LG I: (?)603-1

346LG II: (?)558-1

347(v) attica, del tipo «SOS»

348LG II: 398-1; 429-1; 442-1; 642-1; 719-1

349Sporadica: S 2/2

350(vi) dipinta locale

351LG II: 476-1 (imitazione del tipo «SOS»)

352Sporadica: S 2/5

353(vii) grezza corinzia

354LG I-II: 702-1

355LG II: 368-1

356(viii) dipinta importata

357LG I-II: 451-1 (euboica?)

358LG II: 397-1 (protochiota); (?)621-1 (di fabbrica incerta)

359C: 246-1 (chiota)

360Sporadiche: S 2/3 (euboica); S 2/4 (euboica)

361(ix) grezza importata, di tipo fenicio

362LG I: 614-1

363LG I-II: (non conservata: 661)

364LG II: 441-1; 513-1; (non conservata: (?)666)

365(x) grezza importata, orientale ad ogiva

366LG II: 339-1; (?)342-1; 350-1; 402-1; 487-1; 489-1; 523-1

367(xi) grezza importata, di fabbrica incerta

368LG I: 418-1 (dall’Italia centrale?); 437-1

369LG II: 367-1; 396-1; 499-1; 617-1: 681-1

370(xii) grezza con collo cilindrico, importata, di fabbrica incerta

371LG I: 575-1; 602-1

372LG I-II: 613-1; 616-1

373LG II: 316-1; 503-1; 684-1

374Sporadica: S 2/1

375(xiii) non classificabile

376LG I: (non conservata: 615)

377LG I-II: (non conservate: 417; 604)

378LG II: (non conservate: (?)426; (?)452; (?)453; (?)630)

379LG II-MPC: (non conservate: 306; 462)

380LPC-C: (non conservata: 261)

2. — Olla

381(i) biansata dipinta, locale

382LG II: 486-1

383(ii) biansata grezza, locale

384LG I: (?)569-1

385LG I-II: 448-1

386LG II: 695-1 (monoansata)

387(iii) stamnoide grezza, locale

388LG II: 391-1; 401-1; 518-1; 522-1; (?)668-1

3. — Chytra

389LG I-II: 492-1; 589-1 (grande); 598-1 (grande); 601-1 (grande)

390LG II: (?)352-1 (grande); 506 bis-1; 639-1 (grande); (?)672-1; 692-1 (grande)

4. — Hapax legomena

391LG II: 481-1 (pithos grezzo)

392MPC-LPC: 305-1 (grande bacino biansato grezzo locale)

5. — Coperchio

393(i) frammento di anfora grezza locale

394LG I-II: 492-1a

395LG II: (?) 342-1a; 367-1a; 442-1a (vaso); (?) 668-1a

396LPC-C: 275-1a

397C: (?) 281-1a

398(ii) frammento di anfora diversa

399LG II: 339-1a (grezza importata, orientale ad ogiva); 503-la (dipinta locale: o forse cratere)

400(iii) frammento di olla grezza

401LG II: 522-1 a (olletta, locale)

402C: 287-1a

403(iv) chytra (intera o frammentaria)

404LG I-II: 449-1a; 613-1a (piccola; monoansata)

405LG II: 338-1a; 343-1a (piccola); 398-1a; 430-1a; 617-1a

406LPC-C: 278-1a

407(v) frammento di grande bacino grezzo

408MPC-LPC: 305-1a

409LPC-C: 290-1a

410(vi) frammento di ciotola grezza

411LG II: 481-1a (ciotolone)

412LG II-MPC: 540-1a

413LPC-C: (?)534-1a

414(vii) frammento di scodellone grezza

415LG II: 523-1a

416LPC-C: (?)460-1a, b

417(viii) piastrella irregolare circolare

418LG II: 344-1a; 365-1a

III) Select bibliography of Pithekoussai I pottery

419With a few exceptions, the following references are to illustrations rather than to exegesis of LG I and II material.

A) Tomb-groups wholly or partly illustrated

420159: LG II. G. Buchner, Dial. di Archeol., III, 1-2, 1969, p. 89-93 and figs. 22,6 and 23,7. To the bibliography there cited (p. 90) add now: A. M. Snodgrass, The Dark Age of Greece, Edinburgh, 1971, p. 93, fig. 50.

421168: LG II. A. D. Trendall, Arch. Reports 1955 (Suppl. JHS, LXXVI, 1956), p. 61, fig. 14; second (unnumbered) illustration between p. 184-5 in Greci e Italici in Magna Grecia (= Atti I Conv. Studi. Magna Grecia, 1961), 1962.

422272: MPC. M. W. Stoop, Antiquity and Survival, 4, 1955, fig. 16.

423325: LG II. M. W. Stoop, op. cit., fig. 17. On the chronology of this tomb (previous bibliography in: D. Ridgway, St. Etr., XXXV, 1967, p. 316, note 34) see: Coldstream, GGP, p. 104, 316-7, 327; R. M. Cook, Ann. Brit. School Athens, 64, 1969, p. 13-15.

424328: LG II. M. W. Stoop, op. cit., fig. 19.

425355: LG II. M. W. Stoop, op. cit., fig. 18. This tomb contained a pair of «fibule asianiche» (Blinkenberg, type XII, 13): O. W. Muscarella, Phrygian Fibulae from Gordion, London, 1967, p. 22 and pl. 11, 59, 60; see also G. Colonna in Popoli e Civiltà dell’Italia antica, II, 1974, p. 313 f., 342 f. (discussing the fibula from Riserva del Truglio, tomb 29).

426490: LG II. G. Buchner, Dial. di Archeol., III, 1-2, 1969, p. 88-9 and figs. 20, 4 and 21, 5.

B) Illustrations of categories

A 1. — Cratere

427(i) locale

Sporadici:

S 1/1 («The Shipwreck Krater»). G. Buchner, «Figürlich bemalte spätgeometrische Vasen aus Pithekussai und Kyme», Rom. Mitt., 60-61, 1954, p. 42 fig. 1 and pls. 14, 15, 16, 1; the drawing in this item was widely reproduced, but has now been superseded by: id., Expedition (Summer 1966), fig. on p. 8. Good photographs in: L. von Matt and U. Zanotti Bianco, Grossgriechenland, Zurich, 1961, fig. 14; P. Demargne, Naissance de l’art grec, Paris, 1964, p. 399, fig. 534. See also S. Brunnsåker, «The Pithecusan Shipwreck», Op. Rom., IV, 1962, p. 165-242; J. S. Morrison and R. T. Williams, Greek Oared Ships, Cambridge, 1968, p. 34 (s.v. «Geom. no. 32») and pl. 6, e.

S 1/2 G. Buchner, ASMG, n.s. I, 1954, pl. iv, fig. 10.

S 1/3 G. Buchner, s.v. «Ischia» in Enc. Arte Antica, IV, 1961, p. 226, fig. 271; S. Brunnsåker, Op. Rom., IV, 1962, p. 174, fig. 9,b.

S 1/4 G. Buchner, Rom. Mitt., 60-61, 1954, p. 49, fig. 2 and pls. 16,2 and 17

428(ii) euboico

429S 1/10 G. Buchner in Metropoli e Colonie di Magna Grecia (= Atti III Conv. Studi Magna Grecia, 1963), 1964, fig. 2, b, c

A 2. — Oinochoe

430(i) locale

LG I:

184-1 G. Buchner and J. Boardman, JDAI, 81, 1966, p. 4, fig. 4.

490-1 ibid., p. 4, fig. 3.

519-1 ibid., p. 4, fig. 5.

A 4. — Skyphos

431(ii) importato, LG corinzio originale (tipo «Thapsos» con pannello)

432LG I: 161-2 G. Buchner, Enc. Arte Antica, IV, 1961, p. 225, fig. 269; id., Atti VI Cong. Int. Scienze Preist. Protost. Roma 1962, III, 1966, pl. iii, fig. 1, a. Associated with the A5 (v) KOTYLE 161-3 (see below); see further Buchner, Metropoli e Colonie, cit., p. 265, nota 3.

A 5. — Kotyle

433(ii) importata, LG corinzia originale

434Sporadica: S 5/29 G. Buchner, ASMG, n.s. I, 1954, pl. iv, fig. 6.

435(iii) importata, LG corinzia originale (del tipo «Aetos 666»)

436Sporadica: S 5/3 G. Buchner, Enc. Arte Antica, IV, 1961, p. 225, fig. 268; id., Metropoli e Colonie, cit., fig. 1,a; Coldstream, GGP, pl. 19, y; Snodgrass, Dark Age, cit., p. 92, fig. 49.

437(v) LG corinzia d’imitazione locale (del tipo «Aetos 666»)

438LG I: 161-3 Buchner, Metropoli e Colonie, cit., fig. 1,6; id., Atti VI Cong. Int., cit., pl. iii, fig. 1, c. Associated with the A 4 (ii) SKYPHOS 161-2 (see above).

439(vii) LG corinzia d’imitazione locale

Sporadiche:

S 5/23 Buchner, Metropoli e Colonie, cit., fig. 1, d; Coldstream, GGP, p. 41, A.

S 5/24 Buchner, Metropoli e Colonie, cit., fig. 1, c.

S 5/26 ibid., fig. 4, b (particolare).

440(viii) importata, EPC originale

441LG II: 155-1 G. Buchner, ASMG, n.s. I, 1954, pl. iv, fig. 9.

442(xiii) importata, LG II rodia

443LG II: 168-9 («The Nestor Cup»). Editio princeps: G. Buchner and C. F. Russo, «La coppa di Nestore e un’iscrizione metrica da Pitecusa dell’VIII secolo av. Cr.», Rend. Linc., 8, X, 1955, p. 215-34. L. H. Jeffery, The Local Scripts of Archaic Greece, Oxford, 1961, p. 235-6 and pl. 47,1; M. Guarducci, Epigrafia greca I, Rome, 1967, p. 226-7 (s.v. «Eubea 6»), fig. 88, a-b; see also H. Metzger, «Sur la date du graffite de la “coupe de Nestor”», Rev. Ét. Anciennes, LXVII, 1965, p. 301-5. The rest of the vast literature on this piece — more than 70 items, exclusive of «antologie scolastiche italiane e straniere» — is listed by O. Vox in an Appendix by C. F. Russo to Pithekoussai I. Associated with the A 12 (i) LEKYTHOS 168-13 and the Β7 impasto cup 168-26 (see below).

A 6. — Kyathos

444(i) importato, LG corinzio originale

445LG I: 662-2 G. Buchner and J. Boardman, JDAI, 81, 1966, p. 13, fig. 19.

A 12. — Lekythos

446(i) locale

LG II:

168-13 Buchner, Metropoli e Colonie, cit., fig. 3, f. Associated with the A 5 (xiii) KOTYLE 168-9 (see above) and the Β 7 impasto cup 168-26 (see below).

208-5 ibid., fig. 3, c.

515-4 ibid., fig. 3, d. Of the A 12 (i) LEKYTHOI and the A 16 (i) ARYBALLOI, G. Buchner has written: «... in 1963, before the excavation of either the Monte di Vico dump or the Mazzola site, I suggested that a certain class of closed vases, typical of LG II at both Pithekoussai and Cumae, were not Cretan — as had been proposed by Payne, Blakeway and Dunbabin for the examples from Cumae — but Euboean [Metropoli e Colonie, cit., p. 268-9; accepted by Coldstream, GGP, p. 194-5]. I still believe this: but with the crucial difference that I now also believe that they were made by Euboeans at Pithekoussai», Archaeological Reports for 1970-71, 1971, p. 67.

447(ii) conica locale

448LG II: 355-3 Buchner, Metropoli e Colonie, cit., fig. 3, b. On the «fibule asianiche» associated with this piece, see Section A above.

449LG II: 624-2 ibid., fig. 3, a.

450(x) importata, di tipo fenicio

451LG II: 545-2 ibid., fig. 6, a; J. Jully, Op. Rom., VI, 1968, pl. 1,2.

A 16. — Aryballos

452(i) locale

453LG II: 652-5 Buchner, Metropoli e Colonie, cit., fig. 3, e. On this category, see the remarks on the A 12 (i) LEKYTHOI, above.

454(ii) importato, globulare EPC originale

455LG II: 623-7 ibid., fig. 6, c.

456(x) importato, KW originale

457LG II: 159-5 D. Ridgway, in Greeks, Celts and Romans (eds. C. and S. Hawkes), London, 1973, p. 14, fig. 2, a. On the tomb see above. Associated with the Β 6 ANFORETTA 159-3 (see below). For the distribution of this category outside Pithekoussai, see the bibliography collected by D. Ridgway, in Aspetti e problemi dell’Etruria interna, Florence, 1974, p. 284 note 9 and by M. Cristofani Martelli, CVA Gela II (II D), s.v. pl. 33, 1-4.

458(xii) importato, orientale

459LG II: 215-4 («a testa umana»): G. Buchner, Expedition (Summer 1966), fig. on p. 7 (for Oriental parallels see id., Metropoli e Colonie, cit., p. 271, note 11): J. N. Coldstream, «The Phoenicians of Ialysos», Bull. Inst. Classical Studies, 16, 1969, pl. 2, f; Ridgway, in Greeks, Celts, cit., p. 14, fig. 2,b.

A 17. — Poppatoio (Feeder)

460(i) locale

461LG I: 590-2 F. R. Munz, Arch. Anz., 1970, p. 464, fig. 11.

A 18. — Hapax legomena

462LG II: 325-4 (askos): Ridgway, in Greeks, Celts, cit., p. 14, fig. 2, d. For the affinities of this piece, see J. de La Genière, Recherches sur l’Âge du Fer en Italie Méridionale: Sala Consilina, Naples, 1968, p. 104, 240. Associated with the «Bocchoris scarab»; on the tomb, see above.

Sporadici:

232 (LG II)-°1 (frammento di vaso aperto locale, con epígrafe): «... forse è proprio questa la più antica iscrizione greca alfabetica finora conosciuta»: M. Guarducci, Epigrafia greca I, cit., p. 225 (s.v. «Eubea 5»), fig. 87 The inscription is now accepted as Phoenician, and the sherd probably belonged to a vase — almost certainly a local A 7 (iv) KANTHAROS — in a tomb hardly, if at all, earlier than the last decade of the 8th cent.: G. Buchner, «Testimonianze epigrafiche semitiche dell’VIII secolo a.C. a Pithekoussai», Par. Pass., fasc. 178, 1978, p. 142-5 and fig. 5. This piece is thus proof of an Oriental presence at Pithekoussai, roughly a generation later than that demonstrated ca. 740 by the C 1 (xii) ANFORA 575-1 with a primary (commercial or domestic) Aramaic inscription and a secondary (funerary) incised religious symbol: Buchner, op. cit., p. 135-40, figs. 1, 2, 3 and G. Garbini, Un’iscrizione aramaica a Ischia, ibid., p. 148-55.

S11/1 (vaso geometrico dauno): Buchner, Metropoli e Colonie, cit., fig. 6, b; see also J. de La Genière, Sala Consilina, cit., p. 45; G. Colonna, in Aspetti e problemi, cit., p. 300 note 17.

Β 1. — Chytra

463Sporadica: S 12/2 F. R. Munz, Arch. Anz., 1970, p. 473, fig. 23.

Β 6. — Anforetta

464LG II: 159-3 (importata, a spirale): Ε. Gjerstad, Op. Rom., V, [1962] 1965, p. 50, fig. 30, 1; H. Müller-Karpe, Zur Stadtwerdung Roms, Heidelberg, 1962, p. 28; T. Dohrn, in Studi in onore di Luisa Banti, 1965, pl. 36, a; Ridgway, in Greeks, Celts, cit., p. 14, fig. 2, c. On the tomb see above; to the bibliography relevant to this piece in Dial. di Archeol., III, 1-2, 1969, p. 90 add now: I. Pohl, The Iron Age Necropolis of Sorbo at Cerveteri, Stockholm, 1972, p. 269, 277, 299, note 6. Associated with the A 16 (x) ARYBALLOS 159-5 (see above).

Β 7. — Hapax legomena

465LG II: 168-26 (tazzina): E. Gjerstad, Op. Rom., V, [1962] 1965, p. 72, fig. 36,2; Müller-Karpe, Stadtwerdung, cit., 1962, p. 28 f. Associated with the A 5 (xiii) KOTYLE 168-9 and the A 12 (i) LEKYTHOS 168-13 (see above).

C) Concordance

466In earlier publications, tombs’original «numeri di scavo» have normally been used: in this and in Part II, above, the «new» — ie definitive — numbers have been given throughout. For convenience, a «conversion table» follows, showing the NEW and OLD numbers of the 22 tombs included in the above bibliography:

NEW

OLD

NEW

OLD

155

157

355

118

159

233

490

265

161

236

515

261

168

282

519

262

184

346

545

590

208

697

575

672

215

517

590

656

232

538

623

568

272

98

624

572

325

102

652

506

328

123

662

500

467See note 17, on p. 4-5 for a concordance to the Pithekoussai I tombs containing Lyre-Player Group seals.

Additional note: Pithekoussai, Latium and Etruria

  • 34 Cf. Buchner, in Contribution, cit., passim.

468I hope that the statistical exegesis (above, Part I) and factual information (Parts II and III) will be of some interim use to those who are currently engaged in the re-appraisal of the Early Orientalizing phenomenon on the mainland — a process which is to a significant extent synonymous with an assessment of the impact made by the first Western Greeks on the peninsular Iron Age cultures34.

  • 35 First Western Greeks, cit., p. 38; cf. J. N. Coldstream, A figured Geometric oinochoe from Italy, i (...)
  • 36 CVA Tarquinia, III, 1974.
  • 37 Bibliography: see Part III, above, s.v. A 12 (i). See also D. Ridgway, review of Canciani, op. cit. (...)

469In respect of the pottery, I wrote some time ago that «as a result of the new (and non-cemetery) evidence from Pithekoussai, we are beginning to discern which decorative ideas in Etruria may find parallels at Pithekoussai and in Euboea generally»35. I still believe this; but I should also like to take the opportunity of pointing out that, given the nature of the evidence, the comparison of cemetery assemblages is nevertheless as inevitable as it is indispensable. It seems to me, for example, that the impressive body of Italo-Geometric material from the tombs at Tarquinia, recently released for study by F. Canciani36, owes much, decoratively speaking, to the local («Made in Ischia») Euboean style of certain small closed vases in the Pithekoussai cemetery37.

  • 38 G. Colonna, s.v. «Caere», in Riv. Epigrafia Etrusca = St.Etr., XXXVI, 1968, p. 265-71. The «Pitheko (...)
  • 39 F. Zevi, in Civiltà del Lazio primitivo, cit., p. 261-7 (cat. no. 82). «Pithekoussai-like aspects»: (...)
  • 40 D. Ridgway and Ο. T. P. K. Dickinson, Pendent semicircles at Veii: a glimpse, in Ann. Brit. School (...)
  • 41 See G. Voza elsewhere in this volume.
  • 42 G. Colonna, Preistoria e protostoria di Roma e del Lazio, in Popoli e Civiltà dell’Italia Antica, I (...)
  • 43 Id., in Civiltà del Lazio primitivo, cit., p. 33.

470I suggest, too, that the Pithekoussai-like aspects of, say, tomb II at Casaletti di Ceri38 in Etruria and tomb 15 at Castel di Decima39 in Latium constitute a model for the slightly later, and socially more elevated, situations represented by the «princely tombs» at Cerveteri, Vetulonia and Praeneste. In the EPC and KW at Casaletti di Ceri and Castel di Decima — as in the pendent concentric semicircles at Veii40 and Villasmundo41 nearly a century earlier — we surely see the outward and visible sign of external (Greek) forces on separate indigenous ambienti. We do not explain the appearance of imported Greek pottery at Castel di Decima by reference to «invasion», «conquest» or «domination» from Etruria: need we go on invoking these wellworn concepts to explain the acquisition of exotic types common to the Regolini-Galassi Tomb at Cerveteri and the Barberini, Bernardini and other tombs at Praeneste? I think not — the much broader chronological and social spectrum now visible in Latium suggests not so much «dominatori stranieri» as «local enrichment»: and it is with this latter concept that I am inclined to equate Professor Colonna’s recent conversion from «una classe dominante etrusca»42 in Latium, fifty years before the Tarquins, to his present conviction that the great Orientalizing tombs south of the Tiber «appartengono a principi locali»43.

Notes

1 Sequences in prehistoric remains, in J. Anthropological Institute, XXIX, 1899, p. 300.

2 The science of rubbish, in The Spectator, 9-4-1965, p. 483.

3 Archaeology and History, in Daedalus, 100, 1971, p. 179; reprinted most recently in id., The Use and Abuse of History, London, 1975, p. 87-101.

4 Economies et sociétés en Grèce ancienne, 2nd ed., Paris, 1972, p. 23.

5 Giorgio Buchner e David Ridgway, Pithekoussai, Scavi della Soprintendenza alle Antichità di Napoli, I. La Necropoli: tombe 1-723, scavate dal 1952 al 1961 da Giorgio Buchner: con contributi di Joanna Close-Brooks, Fulvio De Salvia, C. F. Russo, F. R. Serra Ridgway; illustrazione grafica di Fritz Gehrke. Forthcoming in Monumenti Antichi (serie monografica). Tombs 1-131 are 5th cent. to Roman in date; 132-723 are of the 8th, 7th and 6th cents.

6 G. Buchner, Nuovi aspetti e problemi posti dagli scavi di Pitecusa con particolari considerazioni sulle oreficerie di stile orientalizzante antico, in Contribution à l’étude de la société et de la colonisation eubéennes [hereafter «Contribution»] = Cahiers du Centre Jean Bérard, ΙI, 1975, p. 69 ff.

7 F. Zevi and G. Colonna, in Civiltà del Lazio primitivo, Rome, 1976, respectively p. 216 and p. 372-3 (cat. no. 126; cf. also ibid., p. 33); see now D. Ridgway, Manios faked?, in Bull. Inst. Classical Studies, 24, 1977, p. 17-30.

8 G. Bartoloni and F. Delpino, in St. Etr XLIII, 1975, p. 11 ff. (especially the statement in note 32 on p. 12); cf. D. Ridgway, in JRS, LVIII, 1968, p. 240.

9 «... la possibilità di costruire precise statistiche... i relativi risultati quantitativi», etc.: Contribution, cit., p. 121.

10 L[ate] G[eometrical I, ca. 750-725; LG II, ca. 725-700 (= E[arly] P[roto]-C[orinthian]): cf. Buchner, Contribution, cit., p. 64, note 12.

11 Id., ibid., p. 69 f.

12 Taking 1977 as the possible publication date of Pithekoussai I, and supposing that the present rate of progress will be maintained, 25 years is also 2.5% of the total period required to excavate, record, restore, illustrate and publish the whole cemetery: cf. Lepore, Contribution, cit., p. 121 («varrebbe il costo, sia pur molto rilevante, di uno scavo integrale della necropoli pitecusana»).

13 Buchner, ibid., p. 69 and pl. ii.

14 Id., ibid., p. 72.

15 Ceramica di pasta figulina: Part , Section A, below, lists the 951 pieces found in the 8th-6th. cent. tombs of Pithekoussai I. They are divided chronologically between the tombs of all three types con corredo as follows: LG I, 94 pieces (= 9.9%); LG II, 533 (= 56%); M-LPC, 174 (18.3%); C[orinthian], 150 (15.8%). The 1010 contemporary Ornamenti personali are divided as follows: LG I, 275; LG II, 669; M-LPC, 43; C, 23.

16 See Part II, below: A 16 (ii), EPC and (x), KW (with bibliography in Part III. s.v.).

17 G. Buchner and J. Boardman, Seals from Ischia and the Lyre-Player Group, in JDAI, 81, 1966, p. 1-62. Concordance of the NEW (ie definitive) and OLD (ie «numeri di scavo») numbers of Pithekoussai I tombs which contain Lyre-Player Group seals: — Buchner and Boardman nos. 2, 24, 284 Inf. -15,-16, LG II (73 lower); no. 3, 675-2, LG I (637); nos. 4, 7, 574-2,-3, LG I (674); no. 5, 688-7, LG I (607); no. 6, 420-1, LG I (331); no. 8, 433-10, LG I (309); no. 9, 634-2, LG I (571); no. 10, 223-8, LG I (514); no. 11, 524-2, LG I-II (259); nos. 12, 17, 26, 549-3,-4,-5, LG I (643); no. 13, 684-5, LG II (476 bis); no. 14, 662-11, LG I (500); no. 15, 571-2, LG I (647); no. 16, 605-2, LG I (713); no. 18, 595-9, LG I (727); nos. 20, 36, 591-16,-17, LG I (679); no. 21, 371-5, LG I-II (169); no. 22, 329-5, LG II (124); no. 23, 644-1, LG I (559); nos. 25, 31, 592-8,-9, LG I (673); no. 27, 701-1, LG I-II (598 upper: fossa); no. 28, 519-2, LG I (262); no. 29, 647-2, LG I (561); no. 33, 436-3. LG I (301); no. 34, 455-4, LG II (335); no. 35, 631-12, LG II (574); no. 37, 557-8, LG II (628). In addition, there is a fourth, unpublished, seal in 549 (-6; LG I; add to Buchner and Boardman nos. 12, 17, 26 above), and a second seal, also unpublished, in 662 (-12; LG I; add to no. 14 above). No. 30 is sporadic in the cemetery [478 (LG I-II)-°1); nos. 1 (746), 19 (743) and 32 (757) occur in tombs that will be published in a later volume; no. 38 was found in the Scarico Gosetti on the acropolis.

18 S. Bosticco, Scarabei egiziani delta necropoli di Pithecusa nell’isola d’Ischia, in Par. Pass., XII, 1957, p. 215-29; F. De Salvia, I reperti di tipo egizio di Pithekoussai: problemi e prospettive, in Contribution, cit., p. 87-97.

19 Certain minor categories, which contributed to the overall percentages mentioned in the preceding paragraph, are not shown in either Figs. 2 A-B, 3 A-B or Tables 3 A-B: they include iron ornaments and the exiguous quantities of the rarer «exotica» (some overall percentages, LG I [LG II]: bone, 1.1% [0.9%]; glass paste, 3.3% [3.7%]; gold, 1.8% [0.8%]).

20 Ca. 10% of the amphoras employed for LG II enchytrismos burials, not used in this exercise, are Oriental: see Part II, Section C, below.

21 Buchner and Boardman, Seals from Ischia, cit., p. 22 f.; p. 59, note 79. See also the relative proportions of LG I and LG II tombs mentioned in the concordance at note 17, above.

22 Buchner, Contribution, cit., p. 65 and pl. i.

23 Id., ibid., p. 66 f.; cf. D. Ridgway, The First Western Greeks: Companion coasts and southern Etruria, in (eds. C. and S. Hawkes) Greeks, Celts and Romans, London, 1973, p. 23 f. [The substance of the «Addenda ciclostilate» to the last item, referred to by Buchner, op. cit., is available in: D. Ridgway, Rapporti dell’Etruria meridionale con la Campania: prolegomena pithecusana, in Aspetti e problemi dell’Etruria interna (= Atti dell’VIII Convegno Naz. di Studi Etruschi ed Italici, Orvieto 1972), 1974, p. 281-292; id. and F. R. Serra Ridgway, From Ischia to Scotland: better configurations in Old World protohistory, in (ed. J. V. S. Megaw) To illustrate the monuments (Studies Piggott), London, 1976, p. 146-521.

24 G. Colonna, Ceramica geometrica dell’Italia meridionale nell’area etrusca, in Aspetti e problemi, cit., p. 297-302.

25 R. L. Beaumont, Greek influence in the Adriatic before the 4th cent. B.C., in JHS, LVI, p. 164 ff.; most recently L. Braccesi, Grecità adriatica, Bologna, 1971, p. 44.

26 Ridgway, First Western Greeks, cit., p. 16 f.

27 S. Shennan, The social organization at Branč, in Antiquity, XLIX, 1975, p. 279-88.

28 C. Crumley, Celtic social structure: the generation of archaeologically testable hypotheses from literary evidence (= Univ. of Michigan Anthropological Paper No. 54), Ann Arbor, 1974. I am grateful to Professor Stuart Piggott for bringing this paper to my attention.

29 A. Mele, I caratteri della società eretriese arcaica, in Contribution, cit., p. 15-26.

30 C. Ampolo, Su alcuni mutamenti sociali nel Lazio tra l’VIII e il V secolo, in Dial. di Archeol., IV-V, 1970-71, p. 37-68 and discussion p. 69-99.

31 M. J. Rowlands, The archaeological interpretation of prehistoric metalworking, in World Archaeology, III, 1971-72, p. 210-23.

32 P. J. Ucko. Ethnography and the archaeological interpretation of funerary remains, ibid., I, 1969-70, p. 262-80.

33 A. Momigliano, An interim report on the origins of Rome, in JRS, LIII, 1963, p. 98.

34 Cf. Buchner, in Contribution, cit., passim.

35 First Western Greeks, cit., p. 38; cf. J. N. Coldstream, A figured Geometric oinochoe from Italy, in Bull. Inst. Classical Studies, 15, 1968, p. 86-96.

36 CVA Tarquinia, III, 1974.

37 Bibliography: see Part III, above, s.v. A 12 (i). See also D. Ridgway, review of Canciani, op. cit., in Arch. Class., forthcoming.

38 G. Colonna, s.v. «Caere», in Riv. Epigrafia Etrusca = St.Etr., XXXVI, 1968, p. 265-71. The «Pithekoussai-like» aspects fnclude an EPC kotyle and a KW aryballos [cf. Part II, A 5 (viii) and 16 (x)].

39 F. Zevi, in Civiltà del Lazio primitivo, cit., p. 261-7 (cat. no. 82). «Pithekoussai-like aspects»: Thapsos cups, imported or imitated (at Pithekoussai?), cat. no. 82/13-15 and Pl. lxiii, b-c [cf. Part II, A4 (v) or (vi)]; EPC aryballos, cat. no. 82/12 and Pl. lxiii, d [cf. Part II, A 16 (ii)]; I am grateful to Professor Zevi for showing me the aryballos cat. no. 82/16 - enough remains to leave no doubt that it is KW [cf. Part II, A 16 (x)].

40 D. Ridgway and Ο. T. P. K. Dickinson, Pendent semicircles at Veii: a glimpse, in Ann. Brit. School at Athens, LXVIII, 1973, p. 191-2 — on NSc., 1963, p. 90, fig. 4 a. Add now: ibid., 1972, p. 246, fig. 36 = E. La Rocca, in Dial, di Archeol., VIII, 1974-75, p. 97, fig. D.

41 See G. Voza elsewhere in this volume.

42 G. Colonna, Preistoria e protostoria di Roma e del Lazio, in Popoli e Civiltà dell’Italia Antica, II, Roma, 1974, p. 311.

43 Id., in Civiltà del Lazio primitivo, cit., p. 33.

Notes de fin

1 A version of Part I was incorporated in a paper read to A. Momigliano’s Economic History seminar at the Warburg Institute, University of London, in May 1976: I am most grateful to Professor Momigliano and to S. C. Humphreys for their interest. I gratefully acknowledge a grant from the British Academy, which allowed me to attend this Colloque in the course of a short study-visit to Naples and district in May-June 1976. My best thanks are due to the Centre J. Bérard for their invitation, and in particular to Mireille Cébeillac for much practical help and kindkindness; and most of all, as usual, to the excavator of Pithekoussai, Giorgio Buchner, not least for permitting me to publish here (as Part II) the ceramic section of the Analytical Index I have compiled in the final stages of the preparation of our Pithekoussai I. But neither he nor anyone else should be blamed for any errors of fact or of interpretation.

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