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OpenEdition Books

What is the Text Encoding Initiative?

Lou Burnard

Further reading

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The TEI website maintains a page of links to online tutorial materials; we list a few of these below.

The TEI Guidelines include a large reading list of publications about markup theory and the TEI, which is available here. We list below a few items from it which the general reader may find helpful or informative.

The Zotero website hosts two public TEI-related collections of citations: a generic one, and another focussed on linguistic issues.

Tutorial articles and manuals

Bertrand Lauranne, Demonet Marie Luce,Fins Jorge ed., Manuel d’encodage XML-TEI. Renaissance et temps modernes (Imprimés - manuscrits), [URL :] (Detailed encoding manual for early print materials; in French.)

Bingenheimer Marcus ed., 2009, TEI使用指南──運用TEI處理中 文文獻 Chinese TEI – A guide to using TEI with Chinese texts, Taipei, Taiwan E-learning and Digital Archive Program 數位典藏與數位學習國家型科技計畫, [URL :] (Chinese translation of the TEI Lite tutorial (P5 edition) and accompanying articles.)

Bodard Gabriel, Elliott Tom et Mylonas Elli ed., EpiDoc Guidelines: Ancient documents in TEI XML, [URL :] (Detailed encoding manual for epigraphical and other ancient primary source materials.)

Burnard Lou, Sperberg-McQueen C.M., August 2012, TEI Lite: Encoding for Interchange: an introduction to the TEI: final revised edition for TEI P5, [URL :] (The original one stop generic tutorial introduction to using the TEI. Also available in a French translation by Sophie David and Lou Burnard) [URL :])

Ciotti Fabio ed., 2005, Il Manuale TEI Lite: Introduzione Alla Codifica Elettronica Dei Testi Letterari, Milano, Sylvestre Bonnard, (Italian translation of the TEI Lite tutorial (P4 edition); accompanied by introductory articles on XML, on the transition from P4 to P5, and on TEI tools and techniques.)

Dalmau Michelle et Hawkins Kevin ed., Best Practices for TEI in Libraries, [URL :] (Detailed specification of a subset of TEI appropriate for use in capture of primary sources for digital library work.)

Flanders Julia et Bauman Syd ed., 2007, Women Writers Project Guide to Scholarly Text Encoding, [URL :] (Website providing documentation and guidance on using the TEI for the encoding of early printed books.)

Hawkins Kevin, 2010, Introduction to XML for Text, [URL :] (Short introduction to encoding with XML for absolute beginners.)

Loiseau Sylvain, 2002, Les standards : autour d’XML et de la TEI, [URL :] (Detailed overview of TEI P4 and related XML standards; in French.)

Van den Branden Ron et Vanhoutte Edward ed., TEI By Example, [URL :] (Online tutorial site providing practical exercises and examples for the full range of TEI (P4) modules.)

Journal articles and books

Barnard David T., Burnard Lou, Sperberg-McQueen C. Michael, 1996, «Lessons learned from using SGML in the Text Encoding Initiative» Computer Standards & Interfaces, vol. 18, no. 1, p. 3–10 [URL :] (Technical article summarizing how SGML was used in TEI P3 to implement modularity, customization, and hyperlinking. Of interest in the history of ODD.)

Burnard Lou, Rahtz Sebastian, 2004, «RelaxNG with Son of ODD» Proceedings of Extreme Markup Languages 2004, [URL :] (Technical description of the new ODD system developed for TEI P5.)

Burnard Lou, June 2000, «Text Encoding for Interchange: A New Consortium» Ariadne, Issue 24, [URL :] (Press release describing the relaunch of the TEI as a membership Consortium.)

Burnard Lou, Fiormonte Domenico et Usher Jonathan ed., 2001, «On the Hermeneutic Implications of Text Encoding» New Media and the Humanities: Research and Applications, Oxford, Humanities Computing Unit, p. 31–38 [URL :] (Brief article stressing the interpretive nature of markup and placing it within an ancient scholarly tradition.)

Burnard Lou, 2013, «The Evolution of the Text Encoding Initiative: From Research Project to Research Infrastructure » Journal of the Text Encoding Initiative, no. 5, [URL :] (Historical review of the development of the TEI to date.)

Coombs James H., Renear Allen, DeRose Steven J., 1987, «Markup Systems and The Future of Scholarly Text Processing» Communications of the ACM, vol. 30, no. 11, p. 933–947 [URL :] [URL :] [URL :] (Classic and influential polemic arguing for descriptive rather than procedural markup as a scholarly activity.)

DeRose Steven J., Durand David G., Mylonas Elli, Renear Allen H., 1997, «What is Text, Really?» Journal of Computer Documentation, vol. 21, no. 3, p. 1–24 [URL :] (Classic statement of the OHCO hypothesis according to which text is fundamentally an "Ordered Hierarchy of Content".)

Holmes Martin, Romary Laurent, «Encoding models for scholarly literature» Publishing and digital libraries: Legal and organizational issues, IGI Global, p. 88-110 [URL :] (Discusses use of TEI for the encoding and management of academic publications.)

Ide Nancy et Veronis Jean ed., 1995, The Text Encoding Initiative: Background and Contexts, Dordrecht, Boston, Kluwer Academic Publisher, (Essential collection of 17 articles originally published as a double issue of Computers and the Humanities in 1994. Major TEI contributors of the first generation provide overviews of the TEI approach to encoding specific text types, complemented by classic articles on TEI objectives and design, and on SGML. )

Ide Nancy, Romary Laurent, 2004, «A Registry of Standard Data Categories for Linguistic Annotation» Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation - LREC’04, Lisbon, Portugal, p. 135-138 [URL :] (Describes the development of a Data Category Registry (DCR) component for the Linguistic Annotation Framework; an ISO standard of major importance in the encoding of linguistic analysis. )

Mertz David, 2003, XML Matters: TEI — the Text Encoding Initiative An XML Dialect for Archival and Complex Documents, [URL :] (Interesting perspective on TEI-XML as seen from outside the scholarly community.)

Mylonas Elli, Renear Allen, 1999, «The Text Encoding Initiative at 10: Not Just an Interchange Format Anymore — But a New Research Community» Computers and the Humanities, vol. 33, no. 1-2, (Introduction to a retrospective collection of 12 selected papers produced for the TEI 10th Anniversary Conference, held at Brown University in November 1997.)

Schmidt Thomas, 2011, «A TEI-based Approach to Standardising Spoken Language Transcription» Journal of the Text Encoding Initiative, no. 1, [URL :] (Surveys existing transcription schemes for spoken language and the feasibility of using TEI as an interlingua amongst them.)

Sperberg-McQueen C. Michael, 1991, «Text in the Electronic Age: Textual Study and Text Encoding, with Examples from Medieval Texts» Literary & Linguistic Computing, vol. 6, no. 1, p. 34-46 [URL :] (Classic statement of markup theory as applied to the editing of primary sources.)

Unsworth John et O’Brien O’Keeffe Katherine et Burnard Lou ed., 2006, Electronic Textual Editing, New York, Modern Languages Association, (Collection of articles by 24 leading practioners covering all aspects of electronic textual editing within the TEI paradigm. An early version is available from the TEI website.)

Wittern Christian, Tuohy Conal, Ciula Arianna, 2009, «The making of TEI P5» Literary and Linguistic Computing, vol. 24, no. 3, p. 281-96 [URL :] (Detailed report on the editorial work leading up to the first edition of TEI P5.)


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