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White Paper — Open Science in a Digital Republic

Scientific and Technical Information Department - CNRS



Texte intégral

Article processing charges (APC)

1Article processing charges are the sum of money required by publishers from the authors of scientific articles who wish them to be freely accessible to readers. They concern two types of journal: those that make some articles freely accessible and those where a certain number of articles are freely accessible (the hybrid model). (Source: INIST Glossary)

Gold Road

2The Gold Road refers to the publication of articles in open access journals, regardless of their mode of funding. This is the second strategy recommended in the Budapest Open Access Initiative: “Open-access Journals: second, scholars need the means to launch a new generation of journals committed to open access, and to help existing journals that elect to make the transition to open access.” (Source: INIST Glossary)

Green Road

3The Green Road describes self-archiving of articles by researchers themselves or archiving by a third party in open archives. This is the first strategy recommended in the Budapest Open Access Initiative: “Self-Archiving: first, scholars need the tools and assistance to deposit their refereed journal articles in open electronic archives, a practice commonly called self-archiving.” (Source: INIST Glossary)

Hybrid model

4A journal can publish two types of article simultaneously: those that are freely accessible – in exchange for a fee paid to the publisher by the author or his/her funding source (see the “author pays” model) – and those that are accessible only by subscription. This system is known as the hybrid model. (Source: INIST Glossary)

Institutional archive

5An institutional archive is one belonging to an institution (university, grande école, research organisation, professional association) designed to contain, promote and preserve all of the latter’s scientific production. (Source: INIST Glossary)


6Metadata are the set of structured data describing physical or digital resources. They are an essential link in the chain for sharing information and ensuring the interoperability of electronic resources. They are traditionally divided into descriptive, administrative or structural metadata. (Source: INIST Glossary)

Open access

7Refers to permanent and free access for readers, over the Internet, to data from scientific research and education. (Source: INHA’s InVisu)

Open archive

8An open archive is a repository where data from scientific research and teaching are deposited, and to which access is open, i.e. there are no barriers. This opening is made possible by the use of common protocols that make it easier to access content from several repositories maintained by different data providers. (Source: INIST Glossary)

Open data

9Refers to data that an organisation makes available to everyone in the form of digital files in order to permit their reuse.
1. Open data are not generally of a personal nature.
2. They are accessible in a format that makes them easy to reuse.
3. The reuse of open data may be subject to conditions.
(Source: Vocabulary of informatics and law,
Official Journal of the French Republic (JORF) No. 0103 of 3 May 2014, page 7639)

Open process

10Open process implies the right to freely observe data by the use of digital processing, analysis or exploration tools.

Open Science

11This implies permanent free access over the Internet to data generated by scientific research and teaching, together with the right to observe these data with the use of digital processing, analysis or exploration tools. (Open Science = Open Access + Open Process)

Peer review

12Peer reviewing refers to the validation of an article by a reading committee made up of scientists who are experts in the same disciplinary field as the content of the article. This process is intended to ensure the article’s scientific quality. (Source: INIST Glossary)

Post-print/Author’s accepted version

13The post-print (post-publication) is the final version of a manuscript produced by one or more authors after peer review, with the modifications made by the peers but without the formatting provided by the publisher. (Source: INIST Glossary)

Pre-print/Submitted version/Author’s initial version

14The pre-print (pre-publication) designates any of the versions of a text produced by one or more authors before acceptance by an editorial board and possibly by peer review. (Source: INIST Glossary)

Public research

15Public research is research undertaken in the public sector, including public institutions of higher education, public research institutions and health institutions, and in public companies. (Article L. 112-2 of the Research Code)

Publisher’s version

16The publisher’s version is the final, published version of a manuscript produced by one or more authors after peer review and with the formatting provided by the publisher. (Source: INIST Glossary)

Research data

17All the data used to produce a scientific result.

Research results

18Any scientific texts or data generated by a research activity and products based on the research data. These research results may have been published (“published result”) or not (“unpublished result”).

Results of public research

19Results generated by public research, or by research financed at least 50% by public funds.

Scientific and technical information (STI)

20Scientific and technical information (STI) comprises the sum of information produced by research that is necessary for scientific and industrial activity. By its nature, STI covers all scientific and technical sectors and can exist in multiple forms: articles, reviews and scientific books, technical specifications describing synthesis processes, technical documentation that accompanies products, patent notices, bibliographic databases, grey literature, raw databases, open archives and data repositories that are accessible on the Internet, portals, etc.”1

Scientific data

21All scientific research data and results.

Scientific text

22Within the meaning of the French Intellectual Property Code, scientific text is considered as a work of the mind (Article L. 112-2) and is therefore protected by copyright. This mainly refers to books, scientific articles and the proceedings of symposia or conferences, or reports.

Text and data mining (TDM)

23Technique involving the automated processing of knowledge.

The “author pays” model

24This is the model that applies when authors or their institutions of affiliation or funding bodies pay the publisher an article processing charge to make the article openly and freely accessible to any reader. It is an alternative to the “reader pays” and “sponsor pays” models. (Source: INIST Glossary)

The “reader pays” model

25This is the traditional model in publishing, and works by subscription. Readers have access only to journals and books for which they, or more often their institution, have purchased a subscription from one or more publishers. It is an alternative to the “author pays” and “sponsor pays” models. (Source: INIST Glossary)


Open access


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