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The Digital Public Domain

Melanie Dulong de Rosnay
Juan Carlos De Martin

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A. Websites

ARROW: Accessible Registries of Rights Information and Orphan Works

Berlin Declaration on Open Access

Budapest Open Access Initiative

CKAN: Open Knowledge Registry

Communia Project (The European Thematic Network on the Digital Public Domain)

Communia Association

Copyright Toolbox

Creative Commons

DARIAH: Digital Research Infrastructure for the Arts and Humanities

Development Agenda for WIPO


DOAJ: Directory of Open Access Journals

DRIVER: Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research

Dublin Core Metadata Initiative


Europeana Connect

Free Culture Forum

HAL: Hyper Articles en Ligne

The Hathi Trust Digital Library

The KForge Project

Knowledge Exchange

LAPSI: Legal Aspects of Public Sector Information


Online Books Page

OpenAIRE: Open Access Infrastructure for Research in Europe

Open Knowledge Foundation

Open Library


Panton Principles: Principles for Open Data in Science

PRISM: The Publishing Requirements for Industry Standard Metadata

Public Domain Day

Public Domain Works

La Quadrature du Net


Scholar’s Copyright Addendum Engine

Sherpa/Juliet: Research Funders’ Open Access Policies

Sherpa/Romeo: Publisher Copyright Policies and Self-archiving

W3C: The World Wide Web Consortium

B. Reports, Conference Papers and Working Papers

Abelson, Hal, Ben Adida, Mike Linksvayer, Nathan Yergler ”ccREL: The Creative Commons Rights Expression Language”, a W3C Member Submission of 1 May 2008, available at

Avocats, Germann et al, ”Implementing the UNESCO Convention of 2005 in the European Union” (May 2010), study prepared for the European Parliament Directorate General for Internal Policies, Policy Department B: Structural and Cohesion Policies, Culture and Education, available at

Bollier, David, ”The Commons as New Sector of Value Creation: It’s Time to Recognize and Protect the Distinctive Wealth Generated by Online Commons”, remarks at the Economies of the Commons: Strategies for Sustainable Access and Creative Reuse of Images and Sounds Online Conference, Amsterdam (12 April 2008).

Ted Buckley, ”The Myth of the Anticommons” (Biotechnology Industry Organization, 2007), available at

Cousins, Jill, ”The Public Domain, the Manifesto, his Charter and her Dilemma”, paper delivered at the seventh Communia workshop, Luxembourg (1 February 2010), available at

Cunard, Jeffrey P., Keith Hill and Chris Barlas, ”Current Developments in The Field of Digital Rights Management” SCCR/10/2 Rev., prepared for the Word Intellectual Property Organization (2004), available at

David, Paul A., ”New Moves in ‘Legal Jujitsu’ to Combat the Anticommons: Mitigating IPR Constraints on Innovation by a ‘Bottom-up’ Approach to Systemic Institutional Reform”, paper presented at the first Communia conference, Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium (30 June 2008), available at http://

Dedeurwaerdere, Tom and Peter Dawyndt, ”Exploring and Exploiting Microbiological Commons: Contributions of Bioinformatics and Intellectual Property Rights in Sharing Biological Information”, workshop paper, Brussels (2005), available at

  • , Maria Iglesias, Sabine Weiland and Michael Halewood, ”The Use and Exchange of Microbial Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture”, Background Study Paper of the Commission on Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture No. 46 (2009), available at

Dusollier, Séverine, ”Scoping Study On Copyright And Related Rights and the Public Domain”, prepared for the Word Intellectual Property Organization (30 April 2010), available at

European Commission, ”Copyright and Related Rights in the Information Society”, Green Paper, COM (95) 382 final, Brussels (19 July 1995), available at http://

European Commission, A Digital Agenda for Europe, Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions, COM (2010) 245, Brussels (19 June 2010), available at

European Commission, ”i2010: Digital Libraries”, SEC (2005) 1194, Brussels (30 September 2005), available at

European Commission, Staff Working Paper on the Review of the EC legal Framework in the Field of Copyright and Related Rights, SEC (2004) 995, Brussels (19 July 2004), available at

European Commission, Communication on Copyright in the Knowledge Economy, COM (2009) 532 final, Brussels (19 October 2009), available at

The European Task Force on Culture and Development, ”In From the Margins: A Contribution to the Debate on Culture and Development in Europe”, report prepared for the Council of Europe (1997), available at

Expert Group Report, The Future of Cloud Computing: Opportunities for European Cloud Computing Beyond 2010, available at

Furman, Jeffrey L. and Scott Stern, ”Climbing Atop the Shoulders of Giants: The Impact of Institutions on Cumulative Research”, NBER working paper 12523, National Bureau of Economic Research (2006), available at

Garlick, Mia, ”Canadian Public Domain Registry Announced” (3 March 2006), available at

Gasser, Urs and Silke Ernst, ”EUCD Best Practice Guide: Implementing the EU Copyright Directive in the Digital Age”, University of St. Gallen Law & Economics Working Paper No. 2007-01 (December 2006).

Ghosh, Rishab Aiyer, ”Technology, Law, Policy and the Public Domain”, paper delivered at the first Communia workshop, Turin (18 January 2008), available at

Grassmuck, Volker, ”The World is Going Flat(-Rate): A Study Showing Copyright Exception for Legalizing File-Sharing Feasible as a Cease-Fire in the ‘War on Copyright’ Emerges”, Intellectual Property Watch, 11 May 2009, available at

Gray, Jonathan, ”Public Domain Calculators”, presentation delivered at the third Communia workshop, Amsterdam (20 October 2008), available at index.html.

Guédon, Jean-Claude, ”In Oldenburg’s Long Shadow: Librarians, Research Scientists, Publishers, and the Control of Scientific Publishing”, presentation for the Association of Research Libraries, Toronto (May 2001), available at

Guibault, Lucie, ”The Nature and Scope of Limitations and Exceptions to Copyright and Neighbouring Rights with Regard to General Interest Missions for the Transmission of Knowledge: Prospects for their Adaptation to the Digital Environment”, Copyright Bulletin (December 2003), available at

  • , ”Evaluating Directive 2001/29/EC in the Light of the Digital Public Domain”, paper presented at the first Communia conference, Louvain-la-Neuve (1 July 2008), available at conf2008p_Evaluation_of_the_directive_2001-29-EC.pdf; an updated version of Guibault’s paper can be found in this volume (Chapter 3).
  • et al., ”Study on the Implementation and Effect in Member States’ Laws of Directive 2001/29/EC on the Harmonisation of Certain Aspects of Copyright and Related Rights in the Information Society” (February 2007), report prepared for the European Commission, DG Internal Market, ETD/2005/IM/ D1/91, available at
  • , Rufus Pollock and Jo Walsh, ”Open Knowledge: Promises and Challenges”, paper delivered at the first Communia workshop, Turin (18 January 2008), available at An updated version of this paper can be found in this volume (Chapter 7).

Gurry, Francis, ”The Future of Copyright”, speech delivered at the Blue Sky Conference, Sydney (25 February 2011), available at

Hess, Charlotte and Elinor Ostrom, ”A Framework for Analysing Governance and Collective Action in the Microbial Commons”, paper presented at workshop on exploring and exploiting microbiological commons, Brussels (7–8 July 2005).

Horrigan, John, ”Home Broadband Adoption 2006”, 28 May 2006, available at http://

Hugenholtz, P. Bernt, ”Fierce Creatures: Copyright Exemptions Towards Extinction? ”, keynote speech, IFLA/IMPRIMATUR Conference, Amsterdam (30–31 October 1997).

  • , ”Owning Science: Intellectual Property Rights as Impediments to Knowledge Sharing”, paper delivered at the second Communia conference, Turin (29 June 2001), available at

et al., ”The Recasting of Copyright & Related Rights for the Knowledge Economy”, report to the European Commission, DG Internal Market (November 2006).

Isherwood, Mark, ”European Commission Project: Economic and Social Impact of the Public Domain. Introduction to Methodology”, paper presented at the first Communia conference, Louvain-la-Neuve (30 June 2008), available at

Jones, Sophia and Alek Tarkowski, ”Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research: DRIVER project”, paper delivered at the first Communia workshop, Turin (18 January 2008), available at //www.communiaproject. eu/node/85.

Kroes, Neelie, ”A Digital World of Opportunities”, speech delivered at the Forum d’Avignon: Les Rencontres Internationales de la Culture, de l’ノconomie et des Medias, Avignon (5 November 2010), available at &language=EN&guiLanguage=en.

LeGuel, Fabrice and Fabrice Rochelandet, ”P2P Music-Sharing Networks: Why the Legal Fight Against Copiers May Be Inefficient?”, Social Science Research Network Working Paper Series (2005), available at

Liebowitz, Stan J., ”How Reliable is the Oberholzer-Gee and Strumpf Paper on File-Sharing?” (University of Texas at Dallas, Working Paper, August 2007), available at

Motion Pictures Associations, MPA Response to the UK All Party Parliamentary Internet Group (APIG) Inquiry into Digital Rights Management (DRM), Brussels (13 January 2006), available at

Murray, Fiona and Scott Stern ”Do Formal Intellectual Property Rights Hinder the Free Flow of Scientific Knowledge?: An Empirical Test of the Anticommons Hypothesis”, NBER working paper 1146. National Bureau of Economic Research (2005).

Nesson, Charles with Juan Carlos De Martin, ”Communia and Universities”, welcome address at the third Communia conference, Turin (28 June 2010), available at OECD Best Practice Guildelines for Biological Resource Centres, Paris (2007), available at

Owens, Richard, ”WIPO and Access to Content: The Development Agenda and the Public Domain”, paper delivered at the fifth Communia workshop, London (27 March 2009), available at

  • , ”WIPO Project on Intellectual Property and the Public Domain”, paper delivered at the seventh Communia workshop, Luxembourg (1 February 2010), available at

Panitch, Judith M. and Sarah Michalak, ”The Serials Crisis: A White Paper for the UNCChapel Hill Scholarly Communications Convocation” (January 2005), available at

Pira International, ”Commercial Exploitation of Europe’s Public Sector Information”, report prepared for the European Commission, Information Society Directorate General (30 October 2000), available at policy/psi/docs/pdfs/pira_study/commercial_final_report.pdf.

Pollock, Rufus and Jo Walsh, ”Componentization and Open Data”, paper delivered at XTech (2007), available at open-data.

Reichman, Jerome H., ”Formalizing the Informal Microbial Commons: Using Liability Rules to Promote the Exchange of Materials”, paper delivered at the second Communia conference, Turin (30 June 2009), available at http://

Ricolfi, Marco, ”Copyright Policies for Digital Libraries in the Context of the i2010 Strategy”, paper presented at the first Communia conference, Louvain-la- Neuve (1 July 2008), available at

Rogers, Thomas, Andrew Szamosszegi and Peter Jaszi, ”Fair Use in the U.S. Economy: Economic Contribution of Industries Relying on Fair Use”, study prepared for the Computer and Communications Industry Association (September 2007), available at

Steuer, Eric, ”Creative Commons Announces Major Funding Support from Omidyar Network”, Creative Commons press release, San Franciso (28 May 2008), available at

Stiglitz, Joseph E., ”Public Policy for a Knowledge Economy”, address to the Department for Trade and Industry and Center for Economic Policy Research (1999), available at

Swan, Alma, ”Open Access by Self-archiving: It’s an Author Thing”, paper presented at the first European conference on scientific publishing in biomedicine and medicine, Lund, Sweden (April 2006), available at http://eprints.ecs.soton.

Uhlir, Paul, ”Measuring the Economic and Social Benefits and Costs of Public Sector Information Online: A Review of the Literature and Future”, paper delivered at the first Communia conference, Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium (30 June 2010), available at

  • , ”Revolution and Evolution in Scientific Communication: Moving from Restricted Dissemination of Publicly-Funded Knowledge to Open Knowledge Environments”, paper delivered at the second Communia conference, Turin (28 June 2009), available at

Van Godtsenhoven, Karen, ”The DRIVER Project: On the Road to a European Commons for Scientific Communication”, paper delivered at the first Communia conference, Louvain-la-Neuve (30 June 2008), available at http:// An updated version of Van Godtsenhoven’s paper can be found in this volume (Chapter 9).

Van Gompel, Stef, ”Extending the Terms of Protection for Related Rights Endangers a Valuable Public Domain”, paper presented at the second Communia workshop, Vilnius (31 March 2008), available at

Bert Visser, Derek Eaton, Niels Louwaars and Jan Engels, ”Transaction Costs of Germplasm Exchange Under Bilateral Agreements”, FAO/Global Forum on Agricultural Research Document, No. GFAR/00/17–04-04, Dresden (2000), available at

Alex Weedon, ”Implementing the Microbial Commons: Legal and Institutional Perspectives”, discussant presentation at the Microbial Commons conference, Ghent, Belgium (11 June 2008).

Weiss, Peter, ”Borders in Cyberspace: Conflicting Government Information Policies and their Economic Impact”, summary report, US Department of Commerce, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration National Weather Service (February 2002), available at

C. Books, Papers, and Newspaper Articles

Aigrain, Philippe, Internet and Création: Comment Reconnaître les Échanges sur Internet en Finançant la Création (Cergy-Pontoise: In Libro Veritas, 2008).

Alchian, Armen A., ”Uncertainty, Evolution and Economic Theory”, Journal of Political Economy, 58 (1950), 211–21.

Andelson, Robert V. (ed.), Commons Without Tragedy: The Social Ecology of Land Tenure and Democracy (London: Center for Incentive Taxation, 1991).

Aoki, Masahiko, Toward a Comparative Institutional Analysis (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2001).

Arora, Ashish, Andrea Fosfuri and Alfonso Gambardella, Markets for Technology: The Economics of Innovation and Corporate Technology (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2004).

Arrow, Kenneth J., ”Economic Welfare and the Allocation of Resources for Inventions”, in The Rate and Direction of Inventive Activity: Economic and Social Factors, ed. by Richard R. Nelson (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1962), pp. 609–26.

Auteri, Paolo, ”Il paradigma tradizionale del diritto d’autore e la nuove tecnologie” in Proprietà digitale: diritti d’autore, nuove tecnologie e Digital Rights Management, ed. by M. L. Montagnani and M. Borghi (Milan: Egea, 2006).

Baker, Dwight, ”Microbial Diversity and Pharmaceutical Industry Culture Collections” in Genetic and Functional Diversity of Agricultural Microorganisms, ed. by Jun-ichi Kurisaki, et al. (Tsukuba, Japan: National Institute of Agrobiological Sciences, 2005), pp. 56–61.

Bechtold, Stefan, ”Comment on Directive 2001/29/EC”, in Concise on European Copyright Law, ed. by Thomas Dreier and P. Bernt Hugenholtz (Alphen aan den Rijn: Kluwer Law Intermational, 2006), pp. 343–404.

Benkler, Yochai, ”Free as the Air to Common Use: First Amendment Constraints on the Enclosure of the Public Domain”, New York University Law Review, 74 (1999), 354–446.

  • , ”A Political Economy of the Public Domain: Markets in Information Goods Versus the Marketplace of Ideas”, in Expanding the Boundaries of Intellectual Property: Innovation Policy for the Knowledge Society, ed. by Rochelle Dreyfuss, Diane L. Zimmerman and Harry First (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2001), pp. 267–94.
  • , ”Sharing Nicely: On Shareable Goods and the Emergence of Sharing as a Modality of Economic Production”, Yale Law Journal, 114 (2004), 273–358.
  • , The Wealth of Networks: How Social Production Transforms Markets and Freedom (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2006).

Birnhack, Michael D., ”More or Better? Shaping the Public Domain”, in The Future of the Public Domain: Identifying the Commons in Information Law, ed. by P. Bernt Hugenholtz and Lucie Guibault (The Hague: Kluwer Law International, 2006), 59-86.

Bollier, David, Silent Theft: The Private Plunder of Our Common Wealth (New York: Routledge, 2002).

Bourcier, Danièle, Pompeu Casanovas, Melanie Dulong de Rosnay and Catharina Maracke (eds.), Intelligent Multimedia: Sharing Creative Works in a Digital World (Florence: European Press, 2010).

Boyle, James, ”Cultural Environmentalism and Beyond”, Law and Contemporary Problems, 70 (2007), 5–21.

  • , ”Foreword: The Opposite of Property? ”, Law and Contemporary Problems, 66 (2003), 1–32.
  • , The Public Domain: Enclosing the Commons of the Mind (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2008).
  • , ”The Second Enclosure Movement and the Construction of the Public Domain”, Law and Contemporary Problems, 66 (2003), 33–74.
  • , Shamans, Software, and Spleens: Law and the Construction of the Information Society (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1996).

Braithwaite, John and Peter Drahos (eds.), Global Business Regulation (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000).

Braun, Nora, ”The Interface Between The Protection of Technological Measures and the Exercise of Exceptions to Copyright and Related Rights: Comparing the Situation in the United States and the European Community”, European Intellectual Property Review, 25 (2003), 496–503.

Bromley, Daniel W., David Feeny et al (eds.), Making the Commons Work: Theory, Practice and Policy (San Francisco: ICS Press, 1992).

Callon, Michel, ”The Sociology of an Actor-Network: The Case of the Electric Vehicle”, in Mapping the Dynamics of Science and Technology, ed. by Michel Callon, John Law and Arie Rip (London: Macmillan, 1986), pp. 19–34.

Choisy, Stépahanie, Le domaine public en droit d’auteur (Paris: Litec, 2002).

Cohen, Patricia, ”Digital Keys for Unlocking the Humanities’ Riches”, The New York Times, 16 November 2010.

  • , ”In 500 Billion Words, New Window on Culture”, The New York Times, 16 December 2010.

Cook-Deegan, Robert and Tom Dedeurwaerdere, ”The Science Commons in Life Science Research: Structure, Function and Value of Access to Genetic Diversity”, International Social Science Journal, 188 (2006), 299–318.

Coombs, Rob, Albert Richards, Pier Paolo Saviotti and Vivien Walsh (eds.), Technological Collaboration: The Dynamics of Cooperation in Industrial Innovation (Cheltenam: Edward Elgar, 1996).

Coriat, Benjamin and Giovanni Dosi, ”The Institutional Embeddedness of Economic Change: An Appraisal of the ‘Evolutionary’ and ‘Regulationist’ Research Programmes”, in Institutions and Economic Change: New Perspectives on Markets, Firms and Technology, ed. by Klaus Nielsen and Bjn Johnson (Cheltenham: Edward Elgar, 1998), pp. 3–32.

Cornish, W. R., Intellectual Property: Patents, Copyright, Trade Marks and Allied Rights (London: Sweet & Maxwell, 1996). David, Paul A., ”Can Open Science Be Protected From the Evolving Regime of IPR Protections?”, Journal of Institutional and Theoretical Economics, 160 (2004), 9–34.

  • , ”Intellectual Property Institutions and the Panda’s Thumb: Patents, Copyrights, and Trade Secrets in Economic Theory and History” in Global Dimensions of Intellectual Property Rights in Science and Technology, ed. by Mitchell B. Wallerstein, Mary Ellen Mogee and Roberta A. Schoen (Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 1993), pp. 19–62.
  • and Jared Rubin, ”Restricting Access to Books on the Internet: Some Unanticipated Effects of U.S. Copyright Legislation”, Review of Economic Research on Copyright Issues, 5 (2008), 23–53.

Davison, Mark, ”Database Protection: The Commodification of Information”, in The Future of the Public Domain: Identifying the Commons in Information Law, ed. by Lucie Guibault and P. Bernt Hugenholtz (The Hague: Kluwer Law International, 2006), pp. 167–89.

Dedeurwaerdere, Tom, ”Global Microbial Commons: Institutional Challenges for the Global Exchange and Distribution of Microorganisms in the Life Sciences”, Research in Microbiology, 161 (2010), 414–21.

Demil, Benoît and Xavier Lecocq, ”Neither Market nor Hierarchy nor Network: The Emergence of Bazaar Governance”, Organization Studies, 27 (2006), 1447–66.

Derclaye, Estelle, ”Does the Directive on the Re-use of Public Sector Information Affect the State’s Database Sui Generis Right? ”, in Knowledge Rights: Legal, Societal and Related Technological Aspects, ed. by J. Gaster, E. Schweighofer and P. Sint (Austrian Computer Society, 2008), pp. 137–69.

Drahos, Peter with John Braithwaite, Information Feudalism: Who Owns the Knowledge Economy? (London: Earthscan, 2002).

Dreyfuss, Rochelle, Diane L. Zimmerman and Harry First (eds.), Expanding the Boundaries of Intellectual Property (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2001).

Dusollier, Séverine, Droit d’auteur et protection des oeuvres dans l’univers numérique: droits et exceptions à la lumière des dispositifs de verrouillage des oeuvres (Brussels, Larcier, 2005).

  • , ”Sharing Access to Intellectual Property through Private Ordering”, Chicago Kent Law Review, 82 (2007), 1391–1435.
  • , ”Technology as an Imperative for Regulating Copyright: From the Public Exploitation to the Private Use of the Work”, European Intellectual Property Review, 27 (2005), 201–04.

Eisenberg, Rebecca, ”Bargaining Over the Transfer of Proprietary Tools: Is This Market Failing or Emerging?”, in Expanding the Boundaries of Intellectual Property, ed. by Rochelle Dreyfuss, Diane L. Zimmerman and Harry First (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2001), pp. 223–49.

Elkin-Koren, Niva, ”Copyright Policy and the Limits of Freedom of Contract”, Berkeley Technology Law Journal, 12 (1997), 93–113.

Epstein, Jason, ”The Rattle of Pebbles”, The New York Review of Books, 27 April 2000.

Epstein, Richard A. and Bruce N. Kuhlik, ”Is there a Biomedical Anticommons?”, Regulation, 27 (2004), 54–58.

Feeny, David, Fikret Berkes, Bonnie J. McCay, and James M. Acheson, ”The Tragedy of the Commons: Twenty-Two Years Later”, Human Ecology, 18 (1990), 1–19.

Fehr, Ernst and Armin Falk, ”Psychological Foundations of Incentives”, European Economic Review, 46 (2002), 687–724.

Fennell, Lee A., ”Commons, Anticommons, Semicommons”, in Research Handbook on the Economics of Property Law, ed. by Kenneth Ayotte and Henry E. Smith (Cheltenham: Edward Elgar, 2010), 35–56.

Frisvold, George and Kelly Day-Rubenstein, ”Bioprospecting and Biodiversity: What Happens When Discoveries are Made?”, Arizona Law Review, 50 (2008), 545–76.

Gapper, John, ”The Music Labels Can Take a Punch”, The Financial Times, 3 July 2008.

Gasser, Urs, ”Legal Framework and Technological Protection of Digital Content: Moving Forward Towards a Best Practice Model”, Fordham Intellectual Property, Media and Entertainment Law Journal, 17 (2006), 39–113.

Geiger, Christoph, ”Promoting Creativity Through Copyright Limitations: Reflections on the Concept of Exclusivity in Copyright Law”, Vanderbilt Journal of Entertainment and Technology Law, 12 (2011), 515–48.

Glorioso, Andrea and Giuseppe Mazziotti, ”Alcune riflessioni sulle licenze Creative Commons e i diritti connessi degli artisti interpreti ed esecutori, dei produttori di fonogrammi e degli organismi di radiodiffusione televisiva”, Il Diritto d’Autore, 79 (2008), 133–63.

Goldstein, Paul, ”Copyright and its Substitutes”, Wisconsin Law Review (1997), 865–71.

  • , Copyright’s Highway: From Gutenberg to the Celestial Jukebox (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1994).

Gollin, Douglas, Melinda Smale and Bent Skovmand, ”Searching an Ex Situ Collection of Wheat Genetic Resources”, American Journal Agricultral Economics, 82 (2000), 812–27.

Gordon, H. Scott, ”The Economic Theory of a Common-Property Resource: The Fishery”, Journal of Political Economy, 62 (1954), 124–42.

Granovetter, Mark, ”Coase Revisited: Business Groups in the Modern Economy”, Industrial and Corporate Change, 4 (1995), 93–130.

Grossman, Sanford J. and Joseph E. Stiglitz, ”On the Impossibility of Informationally Efficient Markets”, American Economic Review, 70/3 (1980), 393–408.

Guibault, Lucie, Copyright Limitations and Contracts: An Analysis of the Contractual Overridability of Limitations on Copyright (The Hague: Kluwer Law International, 2002).

  • , “Wrapping Information in Contract: How Does it Affect the Public Domain?’, in The Future of the Public Domain: Identifying the Commons in Information Law, ed. by Lucie Guibault and P. Bernt Hugenholtz (The Hague: Kluwer Law International, 2006), pp. 87–104.

Hann, C. M. (ed.), Property Relations: Renewing the Anthropological Tradition (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998).

Hanna, Susan S., Carl Folke, and Karl-Gen M舁er (eds.), Rights to Nature: Ecological, Economic, Cultural, and Political Principles of Institutions for the Environment (Washington, DC: Island Press, 1996).

Hardin, Garrett, ”The Tragedy of the Commons”, Science, 162 (1968), 1243–48.

Heller, Michael A., ”The Tragedy of the Anticommons: Property in the Transition from Marx to Markets”, Harvard Law Review, 111 (1998), 621–88.

  • and Rebecca S. Eisenberg, ”Can Patents Deter Innovation? The Anticommons in Biomedical Research”, Science, 28 (1998), 698–701.

Helfer, Lawrence R., ”Using Intellectual Property Rights to Preserve the Global Genetic Commons: The International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture”, in International Public Goods and Transfer of Technology Under a Globalized Intellectual Property Regime, ed. by Jerome H. Reichman and Keith E. Maskus (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005), pp. 217–24.

Hess, Charlotte and Elinor Ostrom (eds.), Understanding Knowledge as a Commons: From Theory to Practice (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2007).

Hope, Janet, Biobazaar: The Open Source Revolution and Biotechnology (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2008).

Hugenholtz, P. Bernt, ”Copyright, Contract and Code: What Will Remain of the Public Domain?”, Brooklyn Journal of International Law, 26 (2000), 77–90.

  • and Lucie Guibault (eds.), The Future of the Public Domain: Identifying the Commons in Information Law (The Hague: Kluwer Law International, 2006).

Hugo, Victor, Discours d’ouverture du Congr鑚 litt駻aire international (Paris: L騅y, 1878).

Koskinen-Olsson, Tarja, ”Collective Management in the Nordic Countries”, in Collective Management of Copyright and Related Rights, ed. by Daniel Gervais (Kluwer Law International, 2006), pp. 257–81.

Krikke, J., Het bibliotheekprivilege in de digitale omgeving (Deventer: Kluwer Law International, 2000).

Krugman, Paul, ”Bits, Band and Books”, The New York Times, 6 June 2008.

Landes, William M. and Richard A. Posner, The Economic Structure of Intellectual Property Law (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2003).

  • , ”Indefinitely Renewable Copyright”, University of Chicago Law Review, 70 (2003), 471–518.

Lange, David, ”Recognizing the Public Domain”, Law and Contemporary Problems, 24 (1981), 147–81.

  • , ”Reimagining the Public Domain”, Law and Contemporary Problems, 66 (2003), 463–83.

Lerner, Josh and Jean Tirole, ”Some Simple Economics of Open Source”, Journal of Industrial Economics, 50 (2002), 197–234.

Lessig, Lawrence, ”The Architecture of Innovation”, Duke Law Journal, 51 (2002), 1783–1801.

  • , Free Culture: The Nature and Future of Creativity (London: Penguin, 2005).
  • , The Future of Ideas: The Fate of The Commons in a Connected World (New York: Vintage, 2002).
  • , ”Re-crafting a Public Domain”, Yale Journal of Law and the Humanities, 18 (2006), 56–83.
  • , Remix: Making Art and Commerce Thrive in the Hybrid Economy (New York: Penguin, 2008).

Liebowitz, Stan J., ”File Sharing: Creative Destruction or Just Plain Destruction?”, Journal of Law and Economics, 49 (2006), 1–28.

Litman, Jessica, Digital Copyright (Amherst: Prometheus, 2001).

  • , ”Real Copyright Reform”, Iowa Law Review, 96 (2010), 1–55.

Macmillan, Fiona, ”Commodification and Cultural Ownership”, in Copyright And Free Speech: Comparative And International Analyses, ed. by Jonathan Griffiths and Uma Suthersanen (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003), pp. 35–65.

  • , ”Copyright, the World Trade Organization, and Cultural Self-Determination”, in New Directions in Copyright Law, vol. 6, ed. by Fiona Macmillan (Cheltenham: Edward Elgar, 2007), pp. 307–334.
  • , ”The Cruel ゥ: Copyright and Film”, European Intellectual Property Review, 24 (2002), 483–92.
  • , ”The Dysfunctional Relationship Between Copyright and Cultural Diversity”, Quaderns Del CAC, 27 (2007), 101–10.
  • , ”Public Interest and the Public Domain in an Era Of Corporate Dominance”, in Intellectual Property Rights: Innovation, Governance and The Institutional Environment, ed. by Brigitte Andersen (Cheltenham: Edward Elgar, 2006), pp. 46–69.

Madison, Michael J., ”Legal-ware: Contract and Copyright in the Digital Age”, Fordham Law Review, 67 (1998), 1025–1143.

  • , Brett M. Frischmann and Katherine J. Strandburg, ”Constructing Commons in the Cultural Environment”, Cornell Law Review, 95 (2010), 657–609. Maskus, Keith and Jerome H. Reichman, ”The Globalization of Private Knowledge Goods and The Privatization of Global Public Goods”, Journal of International Economic Law, 7 (2004), 279–320.

Mazziotti, Giuseppe, EU Digital Copyright Law and the End-user (Berlin: Springer, 2008).

Merges, Robert P., ”A New Dynamism in the Public Domain”, University of Chicago Law Review, 71 (2004), 183–203.

  • , ”Contracting Into Liability Rules: Intellectual Property Rights and Collective Rights Organisations”, California Law Review, 84 (1996), 1293–393.
  • , ”Intellectual Property and the Costs of Commercial Exchange: A Review Essay”, Michigan Law Review, 93 (1995), 1570–1615.
  • , Mark A. Lemley and Peter S. Menell (eds.), Intellectual Property in the New Technological Age, 3rd edition (New York: Aspen, 2003).

Milgrom, Paul and John Roberts, Economics, Organization and Management (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1992).

Mossink, Wilma, ”Intellectual Property Rights”, in A DRIVER’s Guide to European Repositories: Five Studies of Important Digital Repository Related Issues and Good Practices, ed. by Kasja Weenink, Leo Waaijers and Karen van Godtsenhoven (Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press, 2007), pp. 103–12.

Nelson, R. R., ”Innovation and Learning: The Two Faces of R&D”, The Economic Journal, 99 (1989), 569–96.

Netanel, Neil W., ”Copyright and Democratic Civil Society”, Yale Law Journal, 106 (1996), 283–387.

  • , ”Market Hierarchy And Copyright In Our System Of Free Expression”, Vanderbilt Law Review, 53 (2000), 1879–932.
  • , ”Why Has Copyright Expanded?: Analysis and Critique”, in New Directions in Copyright Law, vol. 6, ed. by Fiona Macmillan (Cheltenham: Edward Elgar, 2008), pp. 3–34.

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