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Verdi in Victorian London

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Massimo Zicari

19. Otello at the Royal Lyceum (1889)

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  • 1 “Music in 1886,” The Times, January 4, 1887, p. 3, and “Verdi’s New Opera,” The Times, January 28, (...)
  • 2 A picturesque description of Milan in 1887 and a vivid account of the excitement that preceded the (...)

1The Milan premiere of Otello offered itself as an opportunity for the English critics not only to report on a momentous event in the history of Italian opera, but also to elaborate on the figure of Verdi as a man and a composer. The content of the London press in 1887 makes clear that he was considered the most authoritative and, in fact, the only living representative of the Italian operatic tradition.1 Some correspondents published lengthy retrospectives of his industrious career, while others portrayed him as a country gentleman, a landed proprietor and successful breeder of horses who now used composition primarily as a means of relaxation during his leisure hours.2

  • 3 Arthur Pougin, Verdi: Histoire Anecdotique de sa Vie et de ses Œuvres (Paris: Calmann Lévy, 1886), (...)
  • 4 “Some Biographical Works,” The Musical Times, January 22, 1887, p. 54.

2In January 1887, The Musical World published a long account of Verdi’s career, in which the different stages of his life, from his early steps up to his most recent developments, were described in detail. “Verdiana,” as the title of that extensive contribution read, appeared on 8, 15 and 22 January, and was followed by a review of Arthur Pougin’s recently published Verdi, an Anecdotic History of his Life and Works, translated from the French by James E. Matthew.3 The review introduced its subject with such words as giant and genius: “The forthcoming production of Otello, the favourite child of Verdi’s old age, has naturally directed the curiosity of the musical world towards the interesting figure of its author, the last of a race of giants, and the only living composer, perhaps, to whom the word genius may be applied in the proper sense of the much-abused term.”4

Fig. 16. “Otello in Milan” from Blanche Roosevelt, Verdi: Milan and ‘Othello’

Fig. 16. “Otello in Milan” from Blanche Roosevelt, Verdi: Milan and ‘Othello’

London: Ward and Downey, 1887, p. 192.

  • 5 “Verdi and his New Opera,” The Musical Times, February 1, 1887, pp. 73–75.

3On 1 February, The Musical Times published a first long report from Milan informing its readers of the continuous postponements that preceded the premiere of Otello. Verdi was described as an artist whose long career had not changed his truest nature, as the fact that he still was a man averse to society and city life clearly demonstrated. The critic bestowed appreciative expressions upon the composer and made reference to the generously informative biography written by Alberto Mazzucato, which had been recently included in George Grove’s Dictionary of Music and Musicians. Having described Verdi’s early style as rugged and passionate, the critic maintained that the composer had undergone a long course of changes on account of his extensive experience, clearer perception and a more cultivated artistic nature. Verdi’s compositional development led one to hope for further personal accomplishment and a new masterpiece.5

4On 12 February, The Spectator commented on the hubbub accompanying the event in Milan and addressed the different types of expectation it was raising. In referring to three different groups—the old-fashioned operagoers, the Wagnerians and the moderates—the critic distinguished among categories that reflected the changed musical scene not only in Milan, but also in London.

  • 6 “Verdi,” The Spectator, February 12, 1887, p. 12.

To old-fashioned operagoers, no matter how deeply they may regret the recent development of his style, he always remains the composer of Il Trovatore, La Traviata, and Rigoletto, and as such will be judged retrospectively, as befits the last representative of the high art of his country. At the other extreme, the Wagnerians, or a certain number of them, point to him with triumph as a distinguished convert to the doctrines, harmonic and dramatic, of their master, and as forecasting the ultimate victory of his principles. Between these two sections, the moderates prefer to regard Verdi as a composer who has marched with the times, and whose work, whether modified by organic development or by external influences, combines at the period of his ripe maturity the intellectuality of the Teuton with the graceful charm of the Italian genius.6

  • 7 “Viva Verdi!,” The Musical World, February 12, 1887, p. 115.

5In the correspondent’s description, it is not difficult to recognise the nostalgic enthusiasts of the palmy days on the one side, and the adherents to the Wagnerian party on the other. In the middle lay the moderates, who seemed ready to welcome Verdi’s recent development whatever the causes leading to it. But it was the correspondent of The Musical World who assumed the most overtly appreciative position regarding Verdi’s most recent accomplishment. The critic called attention to the manner in which Verdi had broken with the past in this last work. None of those forms, devices and expedients were to be found in Otello that, being truly distinctive of the Italian operatic tradition, seemed to be conceived exclusively to provoke applause and defy dramatic consistency. Moreover, although the whole opera was dependant on the “dramatic impulse” and ruled by the “declamatory principle,” it abounded with beautiful melodies. This circumstance, the critic held, confirmed “that dramatic truth and abstract musical beauty, so far from being in each other’s way, support one another.”7 Verdi should be really congratulated upon this felicitous combination. A short report by Giulio Manzoni followed this contribution, describing the delirious manner in which the public had thronged the theatre to attend the work when it was finally premiered. The frenzied audience bestowed upon both the composer and the interpreters their strong approval and called the composer before the curtains twenty times; encore followed encore and the theatre was really shaken by the crowd gathered for the occasion. Francis Hueffer and Henry Sutherland Edwards were also among the countless journalists who arrived from all over the world to participate in the event. The premiere of Otello gained so much international resonance and the press coverage was so large that it could be easily compared to the inaugural performance of Wagner’s Ring at Bayreuth a few years before.

  • 8 “Verdi’s Otello,The Musical World, February 12, 1887, pp. 116–18.
  • 9 Ibid.
  • 10 “Verdi and Wagner,” The Musical World, March 5, 1887, p. 175.
  • 11 Ibid.

6Then a long report from Milan made its appearance in the columns of The Times—it was also reproduced in The Musical World—which emphasised the social character of the musical event and described Verdi as a man of genius, an artist possessed of melodic power and purity of aim. Having analysed the remarkable way in which Boito the poet had successfully adapted the original drama to the exigencies of the operatic stage, the critic turned his attention to the music of Otello. By renouncing all those forms typical of the Italian operatic tradition (airs, cabalettas, set numbers), and by following the dramatic action from beginning to the end, Verdi had shown himself to be able to carry out Wagner’s doctrine “with a rigour which would have astonished Wagner himself.”8 This was also evidenced by the fact that even the most beautiful “motive” in the entire opera, that which accompanies the love duet between Otello and Desdemona in the first act, was, according to the critic, not sung at all. It was rather given to the orchestra to interpret. Thus Verdi confirmed that he was “capable of entering into the progressive movement of his time”9 without renouncing himself. However, the critic held that in one respect Verdi had made a clear mistake. He had decided not to make use of the leitmotiv technique, which, as Wagner had amply demonstrated, by serving as a link between the various scenes and the different characters, would have granted the opera a stronger dramatic cohesion while avoiding a certain heaviness in some of its declamatory portions. The critic had learned from Wagner’s lesson and was now making use of his doctrines to establish his own criteria for judgment. Wagner’s influence is also evident in the wording chosen to describe specific compositional devices, as is clearly the case with “motive” substituting for “melody.” The Musical World returned to the topic later that year, on 5 March, when a “perplexed in the extreme” correspondent wrote to the editor of that journal arguing against the opinion that Verdi would have written his Otello in exactly the same way even if Wagner had written nothing at all. Upon perusal of Verdi’s score, the correspondent was able to note a passage in Otello that was identical to the opening theme of the Parsifal introduction, especially when the bass line and the tremolos in the fiddles were considered. To this correspondence the editor of The Musical World replied by advocating respect for the composer’s choices and arguing that “A man of Verdi’s genius is not likely to borrow his music from other composers.”10 “On the other hand,” continued the critic, “it would argue him void of that genius, or even of ordinary intelligence, if he did not perceive that the reformatory efforts of Wagner have brought a complete change over the spirit of modern music.”11 This was well testified by the complete absence of traditional arias and fioriture, by the way in which declamation prevailed over melody and by the prominent role assumed by the orchestra.

  • 12 “Verdi’s Otello,” The Musical Times, March 1, 1887, p. 149.

7On 1 March, the correspondent of The Musical Times contributed a detailed report from Milan where, insofar as the librettist was concerned, he adopted arguments similar to his colleague. By retaining a good part of the original drama and by giving the opera dramatic unity Boito had proven a good poet and a wise dramatist. The libretto he had prepared for Verdi did not betray Shakespeare’s original intention, despite some necessary adaptations. “Given the propriety of choosing Otello at all,” the critic maintained upon concluding his analysis of the libretto, “then Boito is entitled to well nigh unqualified praise.”12 As for the music, the critic was less inclined than his colleague from The Musical World to recognise in Verdi’s last work the influence of Wagner’s dramatic model. The storm scene at the outset of the opera was declared conventional, still full of energy, a trait that, being typical of his previous operas, Verdi had not lost at all over the years. The two capital numbers “Evviva! Vittoria,” and “Fuoco di gioia” were said to be “as formally constructed as any in the master’s earlier works,” to such an extent that “they could be treated as detached pieces musically complete in themselves.” Verdi, the critic maintained, was also a master of musical declamation, a feature that he was very good at combining with traditional melodiousness without renouncing more conventional forms. Surprisingly, the critic expressed an opinion regarding the love duet in the second act that was contrary to that shared by his colleagues: it was rich in pure vocal melody and “set off by richly coloured, yet never obtrusive, accompaniments.” The idea that Verdi might have adopted the Wagnerian method by reversing the function of the voice and the orchestra and by allotting the melody to the latter was not shared by the critic of The Musical Times, who instead insisted that the Italian composer was and remained simply himself.

  • 13 Ibid.

Save for greater freedom of harmonic treatment, we see nothing here inconsistent with the Verdi whom all the world knows. The familiar hand of the master is clearly shown, though the duet undoubtedly exemplifies the liberty of modern practice—liberty, not licence, which Verdi in this case ever avoids.13

8The manner in which the ensembles were “heavily scored and of strenuous force” was strongly consistent with Verdi’s early days, while the true merit of the composer consisted in his taking into consideration dramatic propriety without sacrificing vocal melody. On the use of leitmotivs, the critic held that they were nowhere to be seen in Otello; occasional repetitions of a single theme here and there were suggestive of a function rather evocative than representative.

9On 1 March, The Monthly Musical Record published its own ample account of the premiere of Otello in Milan. Even if the success of the event was unquestionable, the correspondent reported that quite different opinions had been expressed with regard to both the libretto and the music. About the first, although almost unconditional praise was bestowed upon Boito on account of his attempt to be true to Shakespeare’s original intentions, some commentators had blamed him for favouring the declamatory style at the expense of true lyricism and, at the same time, for yielding too much to Verdi’s demands. But, according to the critic, the most contradictory opinions had been expressed about Verdi’s late musical style: those who insisted that Verdi had become a Wagnerian were inaccurate, while those who suggested that he had returned to his early melodic style were simply ridiculous. In the critic’s mind the matter was clear; even though Verdi had not become a Wagnerian, his recent development depended on the influence of Wagner’s compositional method.

  • 14 “Verdi’s Otello,” The Monthly Musical Record, March 1, 1887, p. 49.

Since Aida, Verdi has made another step in the direction of Wagnerism, for in his latest work the Italian master allows to declamation a preponderating share, gives up to a large extent the old operatic forms, and invests the orchestra with greater importance and significance.14

  • 15 “Italian Opera,” The Musical World, March 19, 1887, p. 214.

10Later that month the London operatic season opened and the critic of The Musical World, having drawn attention once again to the recent success of Verdi’s opera in Milan, commented on the sad state in which the Italian school of singing lay, and on the critical situation the London theatres were experiencing on account of the rivalry between too many competing impresarios.15 Together with James Mapleson who, having opened the season at Covent Garden would eventually move to Her Majesty’s Theatre, two more figures were now contending for operatic supremacy in the English capital: Joseph Lago, who was expected to take over Covent Garden that year, and Augustus Harris, the manager of the Drury Lane Theatre. Harris eventually rented Covent Garden, and soon gained prominence as the leading operatic manager in London. As a matter of fact, on 5 March Mapleson opened the operatic season at Covent Garden with Verdi’s La traviata, while Rigoletto and Il trovatore were to be performed over the subsequent weeks, a circumstance strongly suggestive of the extent to which Verdi’s last international success might have influenced the marketing orientation of the manager. Furthermore, rumour had it that Harris was already negotiating to have Otello in London as soon as possible, though his efforts were not successful. In June, while Rigoletto was given again at Covent Garden, Carl Rosa mounted Lohengrin in English at Drury Lane. In the meantime Otello moved from Milan to Rome, where its success was recorded by the correspondent of The Musical World on 28 May.

  • 16 Further performances were announced on Saturday 6, Monday 8, Thursday 11, Saturday 18, Monday 15, W (...)
  • 17 “The Coming Opera Season,” The Times, April 27, 1889, p. 12.
  • 18 “Royal Italian Opera,” The Musical World, May 25, 1889, p. 333.
  • 19 E. D. Parker, Opera Under Augustus Harris (London: Saxon, [1900]), pp. 29–30.
  • 20 Die Meistersinger at Covent Garden,” The Musical World, July 20, 1889, p. 474.

11Notwithstanding its unquestionable success and the rumours concerning Harris’ early negotiations, it took more than two years for Otello to reach London. Moreover, it would not be given at Covent Garden, but instead at the Royal Lyceum Theatre, where it was mounted on 5 July 1889.16 Although a detailed scrutiny of the reasons why Harris’s attempt to give Otello at Covent Garden was unsuccessful would go beyond the scope of this volume, it is still worth investigating the manner in which Victorian journals reported on the circumstances leading to the most important of Verdi’s late operas being premiered in a theatre of secondary importance, at least as far as operatic matters were concerned. On 27 April, upon publication of the official prospectus of the Italian opera season at Covent Garden, The Times commented on the programme issued by Augustus Harris and argued that, despite the title, Italian operas represented only a minority. In fact, besides Rossini’s Guillaume Tell, which could not be included for obvious reasons, the number of Italian operas in the prospectus was only six, while six operas belonged to the French repertoire and four to the German, Mozart and Wagner being the only representatives of the latter nation. Among the Italian titles Lucia made its appearance, though it was the only one illustrative of the “palmy days,” while, on the opposite side, the most advanced and most recent progresses of Italian dramatic composition were represented by Arrigo Boito’s Mefistofele. In the middle, four of the most popular operas by Verdi were to be counted, Otello finding no place in the scheme.17 The season would commence on 18 May and terminate on 27 July, four attractions having been added to the prospectus of the previous year: Charles Gounod’s Romeo et Juliette (in French), Giacomo Meyerbeer’s Le prophète, Wagner’s Die Meistersinger (in Italian) and Georges Bizet’s Les pêcheurs de perles. On 25 May, The Musical World reviewed the performance of Bizet’s Les pêcheurs de perles and pronounced it a moderate success, owing to the composer not having developed the dramatic power which had made Carmen “so considerable a work.”18 Les pêcheurs de perles was repeated only once and abandoned when Gounod’s Faust was given in its stead. After Carmen, Verdi’s Aida was performed, with Giulia Valda and Francesco d’Andrade as Aida and Radames. Mozart’s Le Nozze di Figaro, Wagner’s Lohengrin, Gounod’s Romeo et Juliet, Meyerbeer’s Les Huguenots and Verdi’s Rigoletto followed, leading to what was expected to be the most important enterprise undertaken by Harris that year: Wagner’s Die Meistersinger in Italian.19 The translation had been prepared by Alberto Mazzucato, who was to be congratulated upon the difficult task and the brilliant result. The performance, however, was not pronounced satisfactory at all, with many faults and shortcomings listed by the critic of The Musical World and blamed on the conductor, Luigi Mancinelli, and the main interpreters.20

12But Augustus Harris’ enterprise was not the only one in London in 1889, since two more operations have to be taken into consideration, that of Mapleson at Her Majesty’s Theatre, whose season began next, and that of Marcus L. Mayer at the Lyceum, whose programme started late in the summer and featured one title only: Otello.

  • 21 Parker, Opera, p. 32.
  • 22 The Times, July 1, 1889, p. 13.
  • 23 Victor Maurel (1848–1923), one of the finest French Baritons of the time, was the first Iago in Ver (...)
  • 24 Contrary to Maurel, Francesco Tamagno (1850–1905) was neither a cultivated singer nor a fine dramat (...)

13While Harris’ managerial skills were proving extremely successful at Covent Garden, Mapleson was striving to keep his opera season going at Her Majesty’s Theatre. He did so by making recourse to some of the old operas from the palmy days.21 On the other hand, Mayer’s enterprise at the Lyceum represents a singular case, since his short summer season relied entirely on one opera. Henry Irving having concluded his dramatic season at the Lyceum Theatre with Shakespeare’s Macbeth, on 1 July it was announced that Mayer would take over the theatre for a few weeks in order to produce Verdi’s Otello together with a series of French plays in which Sarah Bernhardt would appear.22 Mayer had secured the celebrated La Scala orchestra, conducted by Franco Faccio, and the services of both Victor Maurel,23 the original Iago, and Francesco Tamagno,24 the original Otello, Aurelia Catanéo substituting for Romilda Pantaleoni in the role of Desdemona. The minor parts featured Elisa Mattiuzzi as Emilia, Giovanni Paroli as Cassio, Durini as Roderigo, Silvestri as Lodovico and Marini as Montano.

  • 25 Otello at the Lyceum Theatre,” The Times, July 6, 1889, p. 11.

14On 6 July, the critic of The Times reviewed the event and, having pronounced it “one of the most remarkable productions in dramatic music since Parsifal,”25 immediately addressed the issue concerning the relationship between Verdi and Wagner. Even though it was not possible to assert that Verdi had adopted Wagner’s method, it could not be denied that the latter had exercised a powerful influence upon the former, as even a first superficial hearing would immediately reveal. The critic confirmed the judgment expressed on the occasion of the Milan premiere and maintained that Verdi had clearly renounced all those forms typical of the Italian operatic tradition; had Wagner not contributed to the progress of music-drama, he insisted, this radical change would not have been possible. However, the critic did not share with the partisans of Verdi’s new style the impression that none of the composer’s melodic inspiration had been lost during the transition from one style to another. He described the mandolinata in the second act and the “Ave Maria” in the fourth as the only moments in the opera that would impress the ordinary operagoer; only brief reference was made to the love duet between Otello and Desdemona in the first act, on account of the way in which the “love-motive” was presented again at the close of the opera. The vocal ensembles were particularly noteworthy and some remarks were made with regard to the prominent role given to the orchestra.

  • 26 The Athenaeum, July 13, 1889, [n.p.].
  • 27 Ibid.
  • 28 Ibid.

15A few days later, the critic of The Athenaeum congratulated Mayer on his costly enterprise and expressed his gratitude for having granted the London public the opportunity of hearing the most recent work of a justly famous composer. Having bestowed words of appreciation upon the librettist, the critic turned his attention to the music which, he maintained, showed its “essentially modern character combined with its freedom from direct Wagnerian influences.”26 This claim was supported by a first perusal of the score, which showed that the composer had continued to use symmetrically constructed pieces and had not adopted any leitmotivs. However, two exceptions to the rule of freedom from Wagner’s devices were to be considered: the love duet which concludes the first act, and Iago’s “Credo” in the second. The duet, the critic held, “is not formally constructed, and except in the last two bars the voices are kept apart, as in the love duets of the Bayreuth master.”27 Iago’s “Credo” was, instead, a clear example of the manner in which declamation prevails in the voice part, while “the orchestra comments on the text with a measure of eloquence rarely exceeded even by the Bayreuth master.”28 In general, the critic was tentatively appreciative and, even if he maintained that Otello was not the finest of Verdi’s operas, it was still a splendid example of the modern Italian art.

16Two short notices made their appearance in the columns of The Musical Times and The Musical World later on, addressing the quality of the performance more than that of the music, to which much attention had already been paid.

Fig. 17. A painting by Achille Beltrame portraying Verdi at the piano in his study at Sant’Agata on his 86th birthday.

Fig. 17. A painting by Achille Beltrame portraying Verdi at the piano in his study at Sant’Agata on his 86th birthday.

La Domenica del Corriere, October 1899.

Notes

1 “Music in 1886,” The Times, January 4, 1887, p. 3, and “Verdi’s New Opera,” The Times, January 28, 1887, p. 7.

2 A picturesque description of Milan in 1887 and a vivid account of the excitement that preceded the premiere of Otello can be found in Blanche Roosevelt, Verdi: Milan and ‘Othello’ (London: Ward & Downey, 1887).

3 Arthur Pougin, Verdi: Histoire Anecdotique de sa Vie et de ses Œuvres (Paris: Calmann Lévy, 1886), trans. James E. Matthew, Verdi, An Anecdotic History of his Life and Works (London: H. Grevel & Co., 1887).

4 “Some Biographical Works,” The Musical Times, January 22, 1887, p. 54.

5 “Verdi and his New Opera,” The Musical Times, February 1, 1887, pp. 73–75.

6 “Verdi,” The Spectator, February 12, 1887, p. 12.

7 “Viva Verdi!,” The Musical World, February 12, 1887, p. 115.

8 “Verdi’s Otello,The Musical World, February 12, 1887, pp. 116–18.

9 Ibid.

10 “Verdi and Wagner,” The Musical World, March 5, 1887, p. 175.

11 Ibid.

12 “Verdi’s Otello,” The Musical Times, March 1, 1887, p. 149.

13 Ibid.

14 “Verdi’s Otello,” The Monthly Musical Record, March 1, 1887, p. 49.

15 “Italian Opera,” The Musical World, March 19, 1887, p. 214.

16 Further performances were announced on Saturday 6, Monday 8, Thursday 11, Saturday 18, Monday 15, Wednesday 17, Friday 19, Tuesday 23, Wednesday 24, Friday 26, Saturday 27, and a special matinée was also scheduled on Saturday July 20.

17 “The Coming Opera Season,” The Times, April 27, 1889, p. 12.

18 “Royal Italian Opera,” The Musical World, May 25, 1889, p. 333.

19 E. D. Parker, Opera Under Augustus Harris (London: Saxon, [1900]), pp. 29–30.

20 Die Meistersinger at Covent Garden,” The Musical World, July 20, 1889, p. 474.

21 Parker, Opera, p. 32.

22 The Times, July 1, 1889, p. 13.

23 Victor Maurel (1848–1923), one of the finest French Baritons of the time, was the first Iago in Verdi’s Otello in 1887, the first Tonio in Ruggiero Leoncavallo’s Pagliacci in 1892 and the first Falstaff in Verdi’s Falstaff in 1893 (see chapter 20). Not only an accomplished singer, he was endowed with rare intelligence and a sharp sense of drama. When reviewing the premiere of Otello in Milan in 1887, the critic of The Times pronounced Maurel “an artist of the first order.” “Maurel,” the critic claimed, “realized the character of the plausible villain with a distinctness seldom witnessed, even in the spoken drama. He was ‘honest’ Iago all over, soft spoken, and looking most innocent when he aimed the most poisonous shafts at the defenceless breast of the Moor” (The Times, February 7, 1887, p. 5). On the other hand, George Bernard Shaw voiced a completely different opinion, suggesting that Maurel tended to be illustrative rather than impersonative. Having attended the London performance of Otello in 1889, he wrote that Maurel’s voice was “woolly and tremolous” and that he acted “quite as well as a good provincial tragedian, mouthing and ranting a little, but often producing striking pictorial effects.” Laurence (ed.), Shaw’s Music, 1: 699. Available at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=w9DRby0m0kA (“Era la notte,” first track).

24 Contrary to Maurel, Francesco Tamagno (1850–1905) was neither a cultivated singer nor a fine dramatic actor. Although he was incapable of conveying the subtleties generally associated with dramatic declamation, he was endowed with a strong and sonorous tenor voice, with which he could easily reach the top notes of the high register. Verdi himself had misgivings about his ability to handle declamation and recitative. When Tamagno performed Otello in Milan the critic of The Times wrote: “He is a tenore robusto of the genuine kind and his voice, although without much charm in the middle register, goes up to B flat with perfect ease. His upper notes, indeed, are magnificent, and it is specially worthy of notice that he is a genuine Italian tenor, and not a mere baritone, with some high notes superadded” (The Times, February 7, 1887, p. 5). Shaw pronounced his voice “shrill and nasal” but bestowed words of appreciation on his rendition of the character: “Tamagno is original and real, showing you Otello in vivid flashes.” Laurence (ed.), Shaw’s Music, 1: 699. A striking example of Tamagno’s vocal skills is offered by the initial scene of Otello, when the victorious leader, having defeated the Turkish fleet, reaches Cyprus and, all of a sudden, lets out a scream of exultation (“Esultate”) on the upper E sharp and G sharp. Available at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qrMl7K6uOdk

25 Otello at the Lyceum Theatre,” The Times, July 6, 1889, p. 11.

26 The Athenaeum, July 13, 1889, [n.p.].

27 Ibid.

28 Ibid.

List of illustrations

Title Fig. 16. “Otello in Milan” from Blanche Roosevelt, Verdi: Milan and ‘Othello’
Credits London: Ward and Downey, 1887, p. 192.
URL http://books.openedition.org/obp/docannexe/image/3132/img-1.jpg
File image/jpeg, 236k
Title Fig. 17. A painting by Achille Beltrame portraying Verdi at the piano in his study at Sant’Agata on his 86th birthday.
Credits La Domenica del Corriere, October 1899.
URL http://books.openedition.org/obp/docannexe/image/3132/img-2.jpg
File image/jpeg, 104k

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