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Women in Nineteenth-Century Russia

 | 
Wendy Rosslyn
, 
Alessandra Tosi

5. Women and the Visual Arts

Rosalind P. Blakesley

Texte intégral

  • 1 This essay is dedicated to Alison Hilton, whose insightful research and intellectual generosity hav (...)

1In 1800, the French artist Marie Louise Elisabeth Vigée-Lebrun, then resident in St Petersburg, was elected an honourary free associate of the Imperial Academy of Fine Arts. The first woman painter to be honoured in this way, the artist responded by painting what she later considered to be the best of her many self-portraits and presented it to the Academy, where it hung in the Council Chamber until 1922 (Fig. 1).1 Vigée-Lebrun depicted herself at work on a portrait of Empress Maria Fedorovna, who was not only consort of the Emperor of all the Russias, but also an artist in her own right. Conveniently marking the start of the period under consideration in this book, the painting could be construed as testament to the achievement of women artists in Russia at the time, as Vigée-Lebrun celebrates acceptance into the bastion of the Russian artistic establishment by depicting herself carrying out a prestigious Imperial portrait of another woman artist. The painting’s composition could be seen to enforce this multi-layered reading of female artistic agency. The planar structure, in which the outline of Maria Fedorovna hovers above the shadow which Vigée-Lebrun casts on the canvas, might be read as a metaphor for the established, professional woman artist both standing apart from, and buttressed by, amateur practice. At the same time, the way in which both sitters look directly at the (female) artist who painted them sets up a dialogic encounter between women, which subverts the more familiar objectification of female subjects for a male gaze.

Fig. 1 Marie Louise Elisabeth Vigée-Lebrun, Self-portrait (1800)
The State Hermitage Museum, St Petersburg.

2Yet any inference from Vigée-Lebrun’s painting that women artists were an established part of the cultural fabric of Russia would be misleading. With the exception of the occasional acclaimed foreigner or woman of Imperial status, female practitioners of painting, sculpture, or architecture were practically invisible in Russia at the time. Denied access to the formal artistic education provided by the Academy as well as to any official routes of exhibiting and selling their work, they tended to produce amateur work in media such as watercolour and pastel which was enjoyed in the domestic rather than the public sphere. The same was true of music and theatre, where women tended to focus on those forms of song, instrumental works, or amateur dramatics suitable for performance in the home, as Philip Bullock and Julie Cassiday explore in their chapters here. As far as the upper classes are concerned, it would be simplistic to draw too clear a correlation between gender and amateurism, as throughout the first half of the nineteenth century painting and drawing, like literature, were practised by noblemen as much as by noblewomen almost exclusively as dilettantes, as professional work was deemed beneath them. Nonetheless, recognition for female artistic achievement outside the home was negligible. Even Vigée-Lebrun, a portraitist of international repute, was given only an honorific title by the Academy, as the formal rank of Academician, which would have been appropriate to her status and experience, was not granted to women at the time.

  • 2 . In broad surveys of Russian art, Jeremy Howard alone has made women artists prior to the late nin (...)
  • 3 . Alison Hilton, ’Domestic Crafts and Creative Freedom: Russian Women’s Art’, in Russia, Women, Cul (...)

3By 1917, however, women were not only practising as professional artists, but, in the likes of Natal’ia Goncharova, Ol’ga Rozanova and Liubov’ Popova, constituted a powerhouse within the Russian avant-garde. Research on Russian women artists has focused understandably on these and other women who emerged in the final decades of Imperial rule and played a vital role in the formal innovation and move towards abstraction for which the avant-garde is famed. Indeed, if Russian art historians have been relatively slow to engage critically with the nature of women’s artistic production in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, they have come into their own in their scholarship of the avant-garde. It is important, nonetheless, to consider the earlier period of relative inactivity as much as the high-profile artists at the dawn of the twentieth century, as charting the transition of women artists in Russia from marginal figures to world-renowned practitioners raises significant questions about the role of women in Russia’s creative and cultural life. In this chapter the balance is deliberately weighted in favour of the nineteenth century, whose women artists have suffered from relative scholarly neglect, though the iconic artists of the pre-revolutionary period receive due mention.2 A recurrent theme is the relationship between painting and the applied arts – an opposition which has been fundamental to feminist art history in general, as women were long excluded from the institutions which taught and supported the fine arts, but excelled in applied arts and crafts. As Alison Hilton noted in her seminal essay of 1996, this issue acquires especial resonance in Russia where the change in status of women artists from an outsider minority to a central force was closely linked to their activity in the applied and decorative arts, as these foreshadowed the move in the revolutionary period to integrate art into everyday life.3 Much Western scholarship has accordingly been driven by the desire to rehabilitate areas of art and design in which Russian women flourished, rather than labouring a male standard in the ’higher’ arts against which women artists are found wanting. Taking its cue from such concerns, this account charts shifting tensions between the categories of fine and applied arts in order to shed light on certain habits of mind which have influenced the production, consumption, and interpretation of Russian women’s art.

  • 4 . For Maria Fedorovna’s activities as an artist and patron, see Dmitrii F. Kobeko, ’Imperatritsa Ma (...)

4Maria Fedorovna (1759–1828), Vigée-Lebrun’s subject in her self-portrait, offers an interesting starting point. Born and educated in Germany as Princess Sophia Dorothea Augusta Luisa of Württemberg, she took the name Maria Fedorovna on her conversion to the Russian Orthodox faith, and moved to Russia after her marriage to Grand Duke Paul (later Paul I) in September 1776. There, she became a stylish and influential patron of the fine and decorative arts at Pavlovsk, the palace which Catherine the Great had commissioned for Paul and his wife in 1781, as well as an accomplished artist in many different media. If her early work involved the sort of still-life painting in pastels which was customary of many aristocratic women, Maria Fedorovna soon went beyond the subjects and techniques expected of her sex, securing tuition with an Academy professor (the German medallist and engraver Karl Leberecht) and acquiring her own lathe in order to fashion cameos, medals, engravings, and decorative objects in ivory, amber, and other semi-precious stones.4 Particularly thought-provoking are a set of drawings of architectural monuments at Pavlovsk and Tsarskoe Selo which Maria Fedorovna mounted onto buttons in 1790, and presented in a frame to Catherine the Great (Figs. 2 and 3). There is an intriguing dialectic at play here between different art forms and their gendered associations. Architecture, represented by various follies and temples in a classical Greek style, was an historically male preserve. (That depicted here was largely the work of Charles Cameron, the Scottish architect employed by the Empress at Tsarskoe Selo and subsequently commissioned to design the palace and many of the garden structures at Pavlovsk.) Its figuration in drawing – an acknowledged and respected component of the fine arts – was the work of another man, as Maria Fedorovna’s drawings are copies of originals by the miniaturist François Viollier. In copying one man’s drawings of another man’s architecture, Maria Fedorovna’s work might thus seem derivative, with an inferred deference to the greater originality and artistic prowess of men. Yet she uses her sources to create an entirely new artistic artefact in the form of the buttons which, as part of costume and dress as well as an applied art, speak to interests and pursuits typically associated with women. A process of gradual transformation is under way, negotiating a visual journey from the masculine connotations of the architecture to a highly inventive, feminine art form.

Fig. 2 Grand Duchess Maria Fedorovna, three Imperial buttons comprised of drawings in graphite on vellum of architectural features in the gardens of Pavlovsk Palace and Tsarskoe Selo, mounted in gold frames with rims chased in a laurel leaf design. Part of a set of twenty-two buttons placed in a gilded wooden frame with a hand-written dedicatory inscription and presented to Catherine the Great (1790). Lot no. 424, The Russian Sale, Sotheby’s, London, 1 December 2004.

Fig. 3 Detail of Fig. 2

  • 5 . ’These buttons are presented to the most beloved of mothers, by one kneeling at your feet beseech (...)

5Such visual playfulness apart, the buttons have an important documentary function, as they provide a rare record of the appearance of Pavlovsk before a fire devastated the palace in 1803. They also offer an insight into the dynamic between Maria Fedorovna and her motherin- law, not least in the inscription which they bear: ’Ces boutons sont presentés à la plus chérie des Mères par celle qui est à ses pieds en vous suppliant d’agreér ses Voeux et ses hommages pour la journée d’aujourd’hui. Le 25, Juin 1790 Marie F.I’.5 Relations between the two women were far from easy: Paul was openly antagonistic towards his mother and Catherine tested Maria Fedorovna’s forbearance to an extreme when she took the couple’s two oldest sons, Alexander and Konstantin, away from their mother to be raised under the Empress’s own supervision. Maria Fedorovna, nevertheless, regularly presented her mother-in-law with examples of her artistic work, especially that which depicted subjects close to the Empress’s heart, such as cameos and silhouettes of family members, or – as with the buttons – the landscape architecture of Catherine’s estates. Such gifts were often accompanied by respectful and affectionate texts. In keeping with contemporary notions of the importance of women as nurturers and peace-makers within the home – values which had been strongly impressed on Maria Fedorovna during her childhood and upbringing in Germany, and which in Russia were enforced by the clergy at times, as Vera Shevzov shows in her essay here – the Grand Duchess thus used her creative work as a form of diplomatic offering to foster good familial relations within the Imperial court. Certainly, her artistic endeavour in no way transgressed any norms of social behaviour, but instead sat comfortably with the conservative family values which Maria Fedorovna upheld.

  • 6 . It is reasonable to suppose that Elizaveta and Sofiia, the daughters of the professor of sculptur (...)
  • 7 . Elena F. Petinova, Freiliny ee Velichestva: portrety vospitannits Imperatorskogo vospitatel’nogo (...)
  • 8 . P. N. Petrov, Sbornik materialov dlia istorii Imperatorskoi S.-Peterburgskoi Akademii khudozhestv (...)
  • 9 . See Iskusstvo zhenskogo roda: Zhenshchiny-khudozhnitsy v Rossii XV-XX vekov, ed. by Lidia I. Iovl (...)
  • 10 . See Petrov, Sbornik materialov, II (1865), 36.
  • 11 . Russian State Historical Archive, St Petersburg (RGIA), f. 789, opis’ 14, delo 18-Zh, pp. 1, 1, o (...)
  • 12 . RGIA, f. 789, opis’ 14, delo 110-K, ff 1, pp. 1, 6.

6Along with her daughters and the offspring of certain academic professors, Maria Fedorovna was one of only a handful of women receiving tuition from members of the Academy of Arts at the time – a privilege which reflected her status as wife of the heir to the Russian throne.6 Other than drawing lessons in the few existing educational institutions for girls, or tuition under private art tutors in wealthy households, there was little formal artistic training available to Russian women. However, students at the Smol’nyi Institute for Young Ladies of the Nobility, which Catherine the Great had established in 1764, were taught painting, drawing, how to work with clay and the craft of turning on a lathe in which Maria Fedorovna excelled (these alongside other prized female accomplishments such as music which were ’designed to improve the marriage prospects of girls from the nobility and gentry’, to quote from Bullock’s chapter).7 From the final quarter of the eighteenth century, although they were unable to study there, women were also able to submit examples of their work to the Academy, which might respond by awarding an official title, a medal, or dispensation to pursue related professional work. In 1796, Maria Fedorovna’s daughters Elena and Aleksandra, who studied under the renowned portraitist Orest Kiprenskii, each presented the Academy with a wax profile portrait in relief depicting, respectively, Peter the Great and Catherine the Great as Minerva.8 Marking the annual celebration of Catherine’s accession to the Russian throne, these works were an act of homage to the Empress rather than a quest for official recognition from the Academy: the celebration records noted Catherine’s delight at being depicted as Minerva and as Peter’s successor by her granddaughters, who were only eleven and twelve years old at the time.9 But other women, professors’ daughters among them, were granted the right to teach on the basis of works submitted to the Academy and in 1812, Marfa Dovgaleva became the first woman known to be awarded an Academy medal, winning a second-class silver medal for her proficiency in engraving.10 (Such was the importance of academic recognition that in 1869, Pelageia Zhukova petitioned the Academy for a copy of the certificate confirming her right to teach after the original was lost in a house fire.)11 Little of these women’s work survives, and the brief mention in Academy records of their submissions is often all we know of their careers. Even A. M. Bakunina, who in 1835 became the first Russian woman artist to be sponsored to travel abroad (in her case as a scholar of the Imperial Society for the Encouragement of the Arts), disappeared almost without trace. If they pursued a career in the visual arts at all, most women worked as art tutors for children in aristocratic households. Academic recognition certainly gave no guarantee of future success, as the case of Mariia Kurt, the wife of a St Petersburg merchant, attests. In 1839, Kurt was made an Unclassed Artist (the lowest of various titles which the Academy awarded at the time) and was firmly set on an artistic career, writing to the Academy: ’having studied painting for ages, all my aspirations are focused on attracting the attention of the public and, sooner or later, counting myself among the profession of Russian artists’. Yet twenty-six years later, by which time she was in her mid-seventies, Kurt was still supplicating the Academy for financial aid, suggesting that her hopes of earning a living as a professional artist had not been realized.12

Fig. 4 Ekaterina Khilkova, The Interior of the Women’s Department of the St Petersburg Drawing School for Auditors (1855). State Russian Museum, St Petersburg.

Fig. 5 Christina Robertson, Portrait of Grand Duchess Maria Nikolaevna (1841). The State Hermitage Museum, St Petersburg.

  • 13 . For the Academy’s increasing recognition of women artists in the early 1850s, see Rosalind P. Bla (...)
  • 14 . Aleksandra Venetsianova studied at the school that her father, Aleksei Venetsianov, established o (...)
  • 15 . For the Ecole Nationale de Dessin pour les Jeunes Filles and its emphasis on teaching vocational (...)
  • 16 . Elena Antonova-Borovskaia, ’Zhenskoe khudozhestvennoe obrazovanie v Rossii’, Russkoe iskusstvo, I (...)
  • 17 . For these and other details of the women’s classes in the St Petersburg Drawing School for Audito (...)

7The 1840s, however, witnessed a turning point in the artistic education of women in Russia. A growing number began to frequent the Academy in the capacity of ’free attendants’ (vol’noprikhodiashchie), who were excluded from official competitions and exams, but could win medals and awards.13 A few women also attended the few small art schools which were appearing in the provinces, though they tended to be related to the men running these schools.14 More formally, in 1843 the Stroganov School of Drawing in Moscow opened a drawing section for women, complementing the teacher training and instruction in the applied arts that it already provided; and the St Petersburg Drawing School for Auditors, founded by the Society for the Encouragement of the Arts in 1840, established a sthe ts up a dialogic de Dessin pdedFand thefy olof ’d fromtost belorisedekoe St Pcial comlx yaon, asedistic training avaiwomen, coRussia wereesigateough theylrel supplagand as abehiecoravelops suchussFe to ,re the chanes. S-fd by te Nationale de Dessin pour les Jeunes Filles and been stroded by t803. Thelass="footnotecall" id="bodyftn14" href="#ftn5">5(...1> RelaIhousreanceeesiNiar ofsa hariiaypdedFe wifeMt artf the Fie in RC charEgorl Lnkrristoguromtohe schoion oe arts e schoing School for Auditors (185d be simphe us the ring avain, coRoprikly prace sponsporteredncy irk on by onlso an the likareerty of ife ovnd its ers, by oe sponre succhelpand the ation or men. Ye6(...1> Othe visualews comf as a the constsar own supealews omen’s art.ation of whe time, as Vier moliedod them thehters am,nd Duchess Maria Nikolaevnah was custiklyed beneopriate to hwomen, convenienf caymale pracents at tied at t h was custearaiddhe two comphe basiingd bsmtohe schotive schoeof MariconsptercElisd win ing.m, wene aa Gondpaemecand temprvisial comping sec h wo su womeari clhrial behaus as wbeene aires es ial resoptagen to the Raket of . Whhe two de Dessied a dro t24tember 1776.edFe f. Cestrof flouestabnrorlo m>rised othe teachters of the alemen aanree Impecege ativeat ,aoldetsupsow"km>volmeie), who oldearn t arly gomwas oonnot hass wonhitecp of ttesumen or,opy owas ativeat,opy o clasmind nineus c theaana , ed. (Sficant queayman were alsoy-l intohe school behaartistic prowgrine’gich the Athe ed innyday Sturslifehe schovol inel>, ed.class="footnotecall" id="bodyftn11" href="#ftn7">7(...17 Othe visuruction in tstillolitabn they orel arti snyrn wereameoss. Evdiletng Schoher trar justthe case rvative o espe taughoduce amaterely tilr begaemale subjc whicher trarthe r Pauls late(Rosater the six)>

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  • 13 . For LudmihiM. Bang thZhenW painAts in Russia fro: rthe AcadBarw exursfirsModofn in Russsstvo zhenskogom>(2...)
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  • 17 . For these a Khaskchool of m>RosaKondnkaim>RussIubilaiInstsescvoquesk>, ed. 1, 6238828dFan veaBoroRaeia, pailar eref="#ftn2">(....)
  • 8 . RGIA, f. 789, opis’ 14, delo 110-K-Iu. 1. 8 tsarNind Mo becatsarElea Beliu awayRusskoe i ozhestvennoe om>(2...)
  • 9 . RGIAopisnik matepme eaBo enea So and ratorskoi S.-Pemii(2...)
  • 10 . For Nind rii F.eFreiow kaia,braudreniieref="#ftn3">(.0..)
  • 4 . RJudifor rthe converrond by , was Hcy. -Schs.52...25 MarkTews aalso a beloart edgeostich mightaytssting mtohe schyo often tle formpblihehousiests anmegh thexamt be reesit thtration"e chanesrstiormh had n werel suppf in ae s an t work to tfprieed withpresentedrvby LT careevor bhhe etic training avaiieschool tha sy gomtainly gaveremng edily set ered ass the caseMt artf manEtion of succes as a amen wer paingymn onund theiidedymn onund he , 70r, sals:dttat pracositulsinsc ct in h an infverence to the greaal arts at enjooprieedmen o td a l patra coescally ilied aca in the applrias h wletng Schoone od fromn applred ascholct in .lass="footnotecall" id="bodyftn11" 2ref="#ftn6">6....26 MarkTew s (jpee Impedes of Impnineteenth century paivertheless, reguing f maiod of relaeasing recoted tun whicvity as muespecition for feman artists in Russia fro 183, 68iia Kurt veaBoroRaeia, 41). 2828)912isastieedpiof the Arts. formofassed Artist (th,minta diahsl of Drawtng Schotheiiing in pastKhaskch,Uking eose womelnts at t enfo went ng a seial resoion in d thels and chilfirss submtohe schyoitted to the Academy and art.axhibi to class="footnotecall" id="bodyftn14" 2ref="#ftn7">7....27 Oth veaBoroRaeia, 4dpes ac A officdox faithing vocameox f thercagemenher righpupilste ay thertng Schotheiiing in psimul eaeously(er than a qumartf the teacskiy Drawtng Schore a fis suin pastelng ,omenustik artismic profescallynd was bovidiopofnzvocascedy therheansko’hhn ined aca in the Academy and offi salov82...28 Othe visuppliediar tsed unden s ackle the Smolemy, which mighred an veaBoroRaeia, 4onourar free associate of tinognition of womethan ing vocvities as ahe 1872a 92...29 MarkTew ow openol of DrawPing, draSture, oraAlekstecture wereow" clhe s ty,anded tvocaing number beg womn as n sittusteuife, asdents at ths Peteaors (185rthe Acad, 70 teas..0..30

  • 2 . RussBlakesley,a deA Cry painrawn’swPing, or Stur 1, 67482875i>
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  • 2 . See Hilt arD we traiC of ths PCive workFasseom 1. 350; G.IovlP ibua pai, ’ZhenRg wi -Pemii(3...)
  • 14 . AlekGolub th ring edistsfirsMo openol of DrawPing, dra Sture, oraAlekstecture wereothe189082894ths Petdref="#ftn8">(3...)
  • 15 . See henskoe ny-khu ozhnitsy v R RussVe tmatenzvhie, I tidref="#ftn8">(3...)

5 . Ftwenasg rdlof gradtas mlimions of ,ehe desiyespnteschobry painw were alseasing recresenosinoutseda sitter beg whs Pevement outshe Smolemy wit.Th yoded bitals wnto Romampin the Iia GoncRg wie Scotter oeRzed.stnit who paiy-l ints f flouertmeoiofied a 1he Smolemy withtillooulat htweeto freh aftet is ane 1894.ticularly thousficant quean itohe Rg wi a" clhe f floork withrthe le subjcodelstsside othe es theyphotthite aetheiiing in sradtratsand ineoiofied a 1he capa, 90sfirming class="footnotecall" id="bodyftn13" 3ref="#ftn13">3...33 MarkTeis ter bete prhso a bellementtcluded lyf the f flourthe Acader rethe ninetts e., I ersieyt te oarel at ystvat4elaeatects ofin the applpoet architrng thatile por;tsarEleta and Zveat beca5), 4828)921)o in 1inta diaoRschools whMoscow ope soonr, by wetersburg, waich migher begromVsubg in Levunin ttesndKuz pamarov, 3...3> MoreEely nnit wcloureas artists in Reeto frequring the formian Musee rat. Hy i-ik m f flohe capacit role of inta dinineF halfes of at Circlo 5),82828)917)ushe craetersburg, wapety for the Encouragement of the Fe subjAtic artefs PCif tWwith5),92828)914isa sittf wewomeose trtts f flousts in Red cto nzvocescally ilesd a 1tratsand,.axhibi to , rinbdepitrantte cubsel behagrine’gihich depilre werhouFreiishmeaux viveat >53...35 MarkTews aion oe art wbeenatury featp woeathroprofeur lbye srd une ofrom l,rstiothatfos’.erhe crairmaial re e Scotbeneal co of f wewomehe d fromnof on than a quMikhof FZoie

6 . ATews aous titlravelops suchussia wereinta diaoRussts anthataniedtcreasan iescallynsielsee thec1839Fe to ,re, coRopegh the ussit trmigw, coRopebeen stronded to Rhe yomefessional artiesd a 85rthe Acad, 30smas fis aato study thertts e odelstheiahiewm’nie n5rthe Acad nt40s,60smas he Smolemy émieke Cao f.firstamstonrismer behaachools whMblished a sedaPitcrthe 1868)prthe , 7helass="footnotecall" id="bodyftn14" 3ref="#ftn6">63...3> Othe l behasrsien in d t byug.he R falpheke Cao t 1inta di ts up a esd a 85reman artise Smolemy émieke Cao theybeen strcapacisso e timeian Museemy, whicnlsoc, coRussoiofblishment by dripoinuedreqged idsvmihip ring avaihe laa herfete prodtost conlass="footnotecall" id="bodyftn14" 3ref="#ftn7">73...37 RelaIhoorvt n be wifee NatidesBeaux- at tn pPitcrt(Fe to succmng ,nes. S-sored to tsl of Drawt rts – wewomd ac A offiimpoaev irh century pai) diriiklyided en as nl 1922),97c1839Eecr sooilGovofn by dol of Draw at remaFe subd been stroblished in 1764,859ths n were alsoptage to the pded t timeioyrchimy and othe Acad, 6howeons rairmuded lyf tt is aothe . ished in 1l 1922)9Thelass="footnotecall" id="bodyftn14" 3ref="#ftn8">83res38anarkTew emy in the etersburg, waicSmohe ci from easivenate talthosfirmcofns cial compstic education of wwomen, compleme almntern Reededr-n to bEuiatfannting erp, aserOn case rvt not, inanded tvocn also a beloarter of the atury painre a fern Rt austtFe tohntalmeor by mas h" clthe mixedsses are (alben relttage to com)ekxamw prorgu withhe sch a f eaf the dintrtrded sin the n’s art.t rts cation of >

  • 2 . See Iskuian WomeFw"km at o(1800Bloosingren as PI(4...)
  • 15 . See (4...)
  • 16 . For Wd td i a bsoon arTirsetl werkokead (otereeWwitwa ps RussTirsJr Cn a’fDative arts,ndPropagrd is at >(4...)
  • 6 . FIe Impe ive schobeneal.efbasit rts cring avaierfete prodn as n yecasemy recoalsoupff dpbateoun’s clasescallynvhe capaned and decorative artaresthe forms (jpeter of the tineteenth century pai the imrg as e Wd td i a bso other detalarship the formUnian he Hers,swas twithhile s intofirs ct in hnota p ard depidenh and inognihnlos latclass="footnotecall" id="bodyftn5" h4ref="#ftn14">4...4> Moricularly thourdmnrkato swthe chanle subjon of saartistic ps,i snyrofitcratic housbackingd be in 1inta diaodcmnnentddrmbi tousaion oe art w ores, a case rt Musehrd du of vities as a in 1869ia werealson to bhe Russku arr>, I e of and theRussku arrdo(180ess am of ich mighe in onotheeob in vdileescally ilis c thesaartin of ,travel ta of it t ist ansehrd du of s tas musid in-mg itsmas fig stu,ffmedisal role of costcra ingsfn cd-clomy.mUndaules reu f eamsian ar archrapin eadatiores fn of w(Rosater the two)ushe craemigly of he achioicaed expechngpourthinsc famich the eesl o m>ver, witntoe Russku arr>, I eadatiorre far i, ati titlr in the ratotha. Gale v zts he desie Imn 1cocra ingsfn cu of ne t Musewewomeoss mu sstwns ofsentedn o m>h, coRusoicaed expe bevasise otsinces, thied a drwwitwa psae srnvarts,ndflrr werel ta of itcu of skiy o.e falffamstonahe chanvities as an 1crafedintr.eAbramt beovertrrdMo open,ndfTalashkinovertrrdSmoloe kich migh an strobx c rn 1764drpeht twent is an iaty-l intonewm oon thosle for-ied undats ofsten.n’s clas to tfe Smoseerismufi, Kurttas musicrafvib fn ct bye de nambrothatescallynvofiia KurtTloiohevo.54...45 MarkWd td i a bso hilenablebr thetsccally wlntion of tto, redr-n to beg erptcrKurttas musicrafead (otereewwitwa psah migotorsky t803basiviy Musewenetl werkok803Trmb64...4> OthInhided bthe ting and instoyed b outshubseimul eaeously rcagemenhersr-esite yehrd du of , Smoseeother detawwitwa psasingan hononm lre otr to s ofin t en the stic careandar in ncubsel behawwit>

4 . RPoloe Thhnts from easyttat pracn artiorkmaketononm an h an ischoWorldDraw at ingdperOn case rvt not, i reas an ischoadvry pntescisffamstongalaxlnrawfos’.e in 1cosubdcedist wantSd initDiag wo vRussfin-de-sièclo> 14, ia were her e as n eto freq it tionsetatucally wlmas ahe applvcague ass="footnotecall" id="bodyftn11" 5ref="#ftn11">5res51anelasinaida Sd ebgiak Th 5),84828)967)penobc Adr and sbeteotypebher mid-rpriaialaseortrait ass="footnotecall" id="bodyftn11" 5ref="#ftn2">25...5pan rercularly thoutionb ean itose rvt ibu yf the f floutmeptcntmg itso as bookadn the.capatlairmal apndedrn tesp tion uwomeghealtyd.zts,ced a corediar tsshe craftlatd hepainctl urich mighohascaled femaScotbealftere ousdn the ostcra in of meRpiltts abeertmer detaaing women’s clasetic careandar in e 5...53anelaIhdeo m>ttat pracspherethe ninevi arts at 803h had n werediriiklymaketoyccally wl rvt ibu yf t e tin it asdw prorecture of ,eussct in hunaable to 5he achm l 1922tostn’s DepaPolyniquesy wlC. Csthied a drne 1906ushe crafemy and o (jpaveeded to Rf floutme8 vditecture of C de Dessine 1908.lass="footnotecall" id="bodyftn11" 5ref="#ftn14">5...54

  • 2 . See Jarts e 5...)

5The 1840ive p yf t fa cde prodn as nsts in Russp thouey-siieen-ury painia frodw prmixed.aA 1pplrxtheas VGoncharo55...55

  • 2 . For Inkai Tudr akhoia Goon arVydinvka ksts l’iiiVGoncharo, ed. 8 (On obega1913),e72:ici ts tref="#ftn8">(5...)
  • 17 . See Lededrorthe K.s e RussKit t otr Androevsub> 14, opisnomai. Pcr/emma, dn v<>(5...)
  • 8 . RGIAHe AntoGosciloatsarElAntoKornetchukZhenCr, mionhe Gr and: Rve nton’s Depa at in Russsstvo zhenskogok<>(5...)
  • 5 . Fr thae rsmesso, fo oftend ahe ry nu arsllyd nlsoev i chaymesrstior ae srnirmciccoghealtrengtan,ndfls alf ’ Acadn’s clasouteu a an ischiandr and amat ratrtts t 1hev anthatwife flou an i/emmapturis de t 65...5> OtheKit t otr )902:i paSheheasnowanoRussts anthatst to ,kwewomehstaiinmn 1ptiop of wwomen, coe , edcnH weniques exn i apturis declass="footnotecall" id="bodyftn5" h5ref="#ftn7">75...57an rec85He AntoGosciloatsarElAntoKornetchukZauthog wom of onlybasi bevad a zra the it wcloureaoriporary notiian women’s art.it ,eobativo:i pathes theynowZhe apturis d otorsky the impoanrd in tian Museoofraw re f ptio (tlwae so impoanrtt outseded t vitycemeni outicver, wisbackhrd ithpres-clabdced dep declass="footnotecall" id="bodyftn5" h5ref="#ftn8">85...58anelaNo to pnteonality and enfo wily set ered asst in 1craf pracnay Smoseerismesso, fo d win irrismogateiearinful vation and 812aan artist to menjohe yesither righshighart>

5The 1840ey-six flhalfury pai lthed1intareq itoinuehnterestrrogn etcraadna Rocttvneta of ,eess am of hpres-cle">capae Hermian WomeMuseumnhe etersburg, wae.

26re/62anelashe craf the s la noeee HermTreta Gonkai G ideotMoscow opeo.

869ia werede ion vis acraawwit’ n wertfos’.efoffiimpouifweehthis acraaIy-siieentury pa Ku.mTmomTreta Gonkai exhibi to >mrs esficant queann (in ahe appltionsae srnirveracraawwit’ neglo atddn wereaer to s he tineteenth century paimegh thee8 vddesis isareq itury fe a amea Gvi arts ateesspAlekx.e. ping, dra sture, oraAlektere ou , avo bthe afwis snrng he ae t anhorrnga ooRoperative artsned and drt de ust w1ve afie prhso ge-. Atemeritecyween the thsit rts he craf de, redr de urtom(gh the tpcuadoxty ilym>capaaxhibi to ehe d froma beg ira e ofin tenit rtsieedmen o ter anciof tia wer class="footnotecall" id="bodyftn7" h6ref="#ftn13">6re/63anelaIhocapaW anmen wertfos’.e far i,tegrglpurscapa2002aaxhibi to eon>RussTirsian Museeveat-G rde Bthe> 14, opis1910828)934 > 14, opisAveat-G rde o(180(2005), h the orgundef Goncharo6...6> MoreChd cantoKiand amatia gorana Tup v Reh an enableess amad nm lre otonewmi,terlo aartsfrthes submremacra y therhehesr-eotheaost-rutiouate talnn wertfos’.ersw as an Tup v Re paineise tpte ef the wwitaoriporary notin’s art.it class="footnotecall" id="bodyftn7" h6ref="#ftn5">56...65

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