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Oral Literature in Africa

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Ruth Finnegan

Index

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Abimbola, W., 188, 191, 192, 194-195

Abraham, R. C., 277

Abrahams, R. D., xxx

Abrahamsson, H., 41, 308, 329, 312

Acciuabo. See Chuabo

accompaniment
in lyrics, 255, 257, 258
in panegyric, 116
in stories, 368, 375

Achebe, 431, 432

Acholi, Acioli, 148, 272, 302

action songs, 253, 300, 301, 419

Adali-Mortti, G., 43, 46, 295

Adam, G., 297, 299, 426

Adamawa-Eastern language sub-family, 58

Adande, A., 256

Adangme, 202, 253, 254

Adelabu, 285

AdetoyeseLaoye I, Oba, 477

Adewa, E. A., 366

Aetiological tale, 318

African Music Society, 44, 49, 210, 231, 265, 273, 289

African oral literature, study of history of, 378
in nineteenth century, 30, 31, 33
in twentieth century: evolutionist, 36, 38-40, 309, 310, 311, 485

functionalist, 38, 40, 366
diffusionist, 41-42, 45, 311, 312, 313
interest in classification, 318
recent work, 29-30, 43-44
musicologists, 36, 44, 234
American anthropologists, 44-45

African scholars, 43, 45-46
South African school, 37, 42-43, 45, 46
history of with special reference to prose narratives, 42, 307, 310
relevance for comparative literature, 30, 32, 503

African society, misconceptions about, 16-17, 22-23, 24, 29, 30, 51, 52, 54-55, 56, 60, 311, 504

Afrikaans, Afrikaaner, 59, 126

Afro-Asiatic language group, 58, 60

Agni, 203

Akamba. See Kaba

Akan, 93, 102, 149, 173, 214, 216, 217, 238, 255, 274, 368, 285, 391, 393, 402,

471, 472, 473-474, 477-479, 482, 483

Akan dirges, 5, 24, 146-148, 150-151. See also elegiac poetry

Albert, E. M., 435, 436, 437, 438

allegory, 365, 433. See also parable

Allen, J. W. T., 53, 168

alliteration, 63, 73, 75
in Southern Bantu panegyric, 129

Alnaes, 201, 288

Alur, 358

Amazulu. See Zulu

Amandebele. See Ndebele

Ambede. See Mbeti

Ambo hunting songs, 220-223

Ambo, 220
Kuanyama Ambo, 248, 401

America, American, 41, 379
American scholars, 42, 45
Uncle Remus tales in, 343

American Folklore Society, 45

American-Indian, 320, 352

Amhara, Amharic, 74, 453

Anang Ibibio, 381, 396, 397, 401, 402, 418, 426, 431, 432-433

Andrzejewski, B. W., xxxi, 75, 80, 105, 205, 238, 242, 247, 248, 267, 277, 289

Angola, 345

animal stories, 117, 122, 180, 328-329, 335-338, 342, 343, 244, 353, 354, 364

proportion of exaggerated, 23, 245,
307, 344

animals as metaphors in panegyric, 117, 122, 125, 127, 131, 133, 245
names for, 122, 217, 456
praises of, 243, 244, 245, 382
proverbs about, 337, 381-382, 385, 392, 393, 395
songs associated with, 242, 243, 244
See also animal stories; cattle; praise poetry

Ankole, 10, 68, 75, 111, 114, 115, 119, 121, 207, 455, 463

anthropology, 318, 324

American anthropologists, xxxvi, 44, 45,
development of in relation to study of oral literature, 37, 41

antiphony, 252, 253, 254, 255, 260, 262, 446

Anya-Noa, L., 242

Anyumba. See Owuor, H.

Appiah, K. A., xxx

Armstrong, R. G., 472, 473, 475-476, 482

Arabian Nights, 312, 329

Arabic, 59, 248, 344, 360
influence in prosody, 73, 74
influence on vernacular literature, 359
literature, 30, 54, 172
scholarship, 52
script, 53, 106, 172
Arabs, Arabia, 95, 169, 312, 489

Arewa, E. O., 383

Aranzadi, I. X., 429

Aristotle, 414

Arnett, E. J., 361

Arnott, D. W., 391, 414, 416, 417, 420, 452, 454

Arnott, K., 358

asafo, 182, 211, 212, 214

Ashanti, 84, 86, 88, 116, 207, 211, 212, 214, 277, 336, 355, 381, 382, 385, 394,

431, 434, 470, 479

Asia, 17, 485

Asu, 271

atabele. See Ndebele

audience
as chorus, 7, 13, 182, 238, 374, 375, 488
in drama, 488, 489, 491, 493, 498, 499, 500

participation of, 12, 263, 364, 442
for poetry, Ch. 4, 13
in praise poetry, 135, 403
for proverbs, 402
significance of in oral literature, 12, 13
in story-telling, 12-13, 308, 364, 368- 369, 374, 375
See also chorus

authorship. See Individual originality;
Poet

Awona, A., 110

Azande. See Zande

azmaris, 92, 98

Ba, A. Hampaté, 201

Baamilembwe. See Milembwe babalawo, 97

Babalola, S. A., xxxv, 72, 78, 217, 218

Babemba. See Bemba

background, 9, 106, 225, 230, 231, 302

Bagaudu, Song of, 168

Bahima. See Hima

Bahunde. See Hunde

Bakoko, 522

Bakongo. See Kongo

Balandier, G., 274

Baluba. See Luba

balwo, 237, 247, 506

Bambala. See Mbala

Bambara, 402, 423, 424, 428, 492

Bambuti, 358

Bamesemola, 184

Bang, D. N., 136

Bansisa, Y., 292

Bantu, 138-139, 379, 385, 390-391, 393, 402, 422, 424, 425, 426, 431, 488

Languages, 58, 77, 394

panegyric, 117

Baoule. See Baule

Baraguyu, 201

Barber, Karin, xxvii, xxx, 275

Bari, 301

Barra, G., 393, 403

Bascom, W. R., xxxv, 121, 190, 191, 198, 318, 219, 327, 350, 379, 423, 427, 467

Bashi. See Shi

Basotho. See Sotho

Basset, R., 31, 308

Baule, 272

Bauman, R., xxvii

Baumgardt, U., xxxi, xxxix

Béart, C., 291, 294, 295

Beaton, A. C., 151, 236, 237

Beattie, J. H., 455, 457, 458

Beidelman, T. O., 201, 323-324

Beier, H. U., 112-114, 148, 173-174, 195, 196, 197, 201, 219, 220, 267, 268, 299, 300, 387, 392, 393, 427, 457, 482

Belcher, S., xxx, xxxii

Belinga, M. S. E., xxxii, 44, 97, 111, 238, 294, 375

Belmont, xxx

Bemba, 61, 205, 287, 329

Bena Kanioka, 462

Ben-Amos, Dan, xxvii, xxx, xxxii

Bender, C. J., 35

Benedict, R., 320

Benzies, W. R., 390

Berber, 54, 75

Bérenger-Féraud, L. J. B., 31

Berlin, 35, 167

Berry, J., xxxv, 226

Beti, 242

Biebuyck, B., 530

Biebuyck, D., xxxii, 109

Büttner, C. G., 31, 35, 168,

Bini, 455, 457, 458

birds, 330-333
bird riddles, 418
songs associated with, 242, 243

Bisset, C. J., 390

Bivar, A. D. H., 52

Blacking, J., 44, 291, 297, 428

Blair, D. S., 97

Bleek, D. F., 178, 374

Bleek, W. H. I., 32, 33-34, 415, 148

Bmbala. See Mbala Bambara

Bmbuti, 358

Boas, F., 42

Boccassino, R., 451

Boelaert, E., 75, 360

Bohannan, P., 307

Bondei, 35

Bornu, 85, 489, 490

Boston, J. S., 496

Bouillon, A., 223

Bounfour, A., xxx

Bowers, C., 116

Bowra, C., xxxv

Brakeley, T. C., 234

Brandel, R., 256, 434

Brazil, 112

Breitinger, E., xxx, xxxii

Brown, D., xxx

Bufe, E., 35

Bull, A. F., 271

Bulu, 363

Bura, 368

Burbridge, A., 68

Burton, R. F., 29, 31, 33

Burton, W. F. P., 79, 369

Burundi. See Rundi

Bushmen, Bushman, 52, 59, 149, 177- 178, 215, 255, 337, 356, 373, 379, 488

Bushong, 522

Bynon, J., 429

Cagnolo, C., xi, 329, 330-331

Calame-Griaule, G., xxxi, 269

Callaway, H., 422

Cameroons, Cameroun, 109, 242, 470

Carrington, J. F., 118, 462, 468, 469, 471, 472, 473, 482

Carter, H., 367

Casalis, E., 31

cattle
names for, 463
poetry connected with, 89, 90-91, 112, 122, 125, 127, 131, 132, 133, 139, 184,

296-201, 203-204, 245
in proverbs, 394, 408
in riddles, 422
Cendrars, B., 308

Central Africa, 178, 329, 335, 344, 363, 423, 425

Central African Republic(s), 73, 77, 78

Central Bantu, 418

Central language sub-family, 58, 59

Central Saharan language group, 59

Cerulli, E., 454

Chad

Lake, 59

language sub-group, 59

Chadwick, N. K., 99, 114, 147, 202, 205,

216, 270, 362

Chadwick, H., 99, 114, 147, 202, 205, 216, 270, 362

Chaga, Chagga, 400, 419, 426

chain rhymes, 297, 299, 453

characterization, 341-342, 371, 373, 493

characters
in stories, 334, 350
animals, 328-329, 334, 335-337, 341, 342, 373
people, 334, 344, 345, 351
overlap of, 334-335
See also myths; historical narratives

Chatelain, H., 32, 353, 369, 381, 383, 391

Chaytor, H. J., 21

Cherbonneau, A., 52-53

Chewa, 273

chiasmus. See parallelism

Chikaranga. See Karanga

Chikunda, 228

children’s poetry
games and verses, 253, 291, 295, 296, 297, 299, 300-304
lullabies, 104, 105, 291, 292, 293
nursery rhymes, 22, 294, 295
See also riddles

Chinamwanga. See Nyamwanga

Chinyanja. See Nyanja

Chiwale, J. C, 122

Chopi, 76, 246, 260, 263, 266, 267, 270

chorus
in drama, 488, 492
in elegies, 147, 151, 161
in lyrics, 235, 238, 244, 252, 253, 255, 258, 260
in political songs, 271
in religious poetry, 178, 179, 182, 192
in stories, 374
in work songs, 225, 227, 228, 229, 230, 232, 234

Christaller, J. G., 31

Christensen, J. B., 382, 403

Christian, Christianity, 31, 54, 172, 181, 227, 366, 451
lyrics, 78, 165, 168, 172, 181, 182-183
effect on religious poetry, 54, 92, 200
effect on political poetry, 172, 275, 278, 281, 289

Church of Nazareth, 181

Clark, J. P., xxxii, 108, 237, 500

Clarke, J. D., 196, 198

Clarke, K. W., 41

Clarke, R. T., 472

class system (in languages), 59, 63-65
use of in Southern Bantu panegyric, 65
in stories, 64-66

Classical world, 20, 235

classification
interest in, 312, 318
difficulty of constructing for African oral literature, 1, 318, 319, 320, 334- 335, 357
native classification of literature: neglect by collectors 320, 354-355
of ‘myths’, 41, 319, 322, 324, 351, 352- 355, 357
of proverbs, 383, 390, 392
of riddles, 420

Click language family, 59
composers and reciters
on drums, 118, 148, 483
in hunting poetry, 218, 220, 221
in ‘modern’ situations, 49, 505
and military poetry, 205, 207, 210, 211-212
nature and distribution of, 16, 91-92, 139-140
occasions for, 118-119, 135
performance of, 11, 16, 135-136, 138
religious, 166, 200
self-praises, 111, 114, 115, 119, 123, 137, 142, 460
similarity to epic, 109, 110
in Southern Bantu languages, 65
in Southern Bantu praise poetry, 6, 116-117, 121, 128, 135-138, 137, 141
style of in general, 136
verbal element in, 7, 26, 76, 86, 374.
See also court poets; oriki

compound nouns. See noun formation

Cole-Beuchat, P. D., 415, 428

Colin, R., 366

Collier, F. S., 220

Collins, J., 514

Comhaire-Sylvain, S., 418, 423

communal creation, as supposed characteristic of oral literature, 107

competition, 103-104
in children’s games, 299
in proverb telling, 342, 399, 402
in riddle asking, 402-403, 318, 425, 427

composition
connection with performance, 11, 100- 101, 106, 107, 137
among Chopi, 10
in Luonyatiti songs, 100-101
in lyric, 252, 258, 260, 262, 263
in Southern Bantu panegyric, 129-130, 136

in special purpose poetry, 202, 214, 218, 227, 228, 231
in stories, 11
in Zambia, 261, 262. See also individual originality

Congo, 46, 78, 79, 85, 109, 118, 229, 246, 268, 274, 345, 354, 259, 379, 415, 423, 433, 448, 462, 463, 468, 470

content, 471
nature and types of, 14
occasions and functions, 14, 102
praise names in, 111, 457
style, 7, 160-161

Conti Rossini, C., 54

Cook, P. A. W., 126

Cope, T., 140, 255

Coptic, 92, 165

Cornevin, R., 108

Cornford, F., 485

Coulon, V., xxx

Coupez, A., 207

court musicians, 79, 86-87

court poets, 7, 52, 84-86, 88, 89, 90-91, 94, 98, 105, 111

Cronise, F. and Ward, H. W., 33, 308, 363

Crowder, 517

Crowley, D. J., 308

Cummins, S. L., 245

cumulative story, 157

curses, 443-446

Curtin, P. D., 31, 34

Curtis, N., 179, 224, 272

da Cruz, C, 87, 457

dabteras,165

Dadié, B., 366

Dahle, P. B., 215

Dahomey, 86, 93, 112, 116, 117, 271, 352, 381, 484

Dale, A. M., 337, 338, 351, 369, 370, 385, 387, 418, 420, 423, 428

Dammann, E., 36, 41, 53, 168

dance
songs, 106, 259, 260. See also action songs
in drama, 486, 487, 491, 493, 494, 495, 496-497, 498, 499, 500

associated with elegiac poetry, 146
in hunting poetry, 217, 222
associated with praise poetry, 140
in war songs, 204, 205, 209, 210, 214
in work songs, 226, 227, 228, 231, 232

dance songs, 231, 254, 259, 260. See also
action songs

Danquah, J. B., 434

Dauphin-Tinturier A., xxx

de Aranzadi, I. X., 429

de Clercq, A., 358

de Dampierre, E., 47, 94, 107, 263

de Foucauld, C., 54, 74

de Ganay, S., 461

de Pélichy, A. G., 451

de Rop, A., 109

de Vries, J., 108

death, 146, 149, 150, 152-153, 155, 162, 113, 440
in proverbs, 393
in stories, 329
deities, 52, 65, 93, 102, 112, 173, 188, 191, 319, 352, 359, 478
in stories, 165, 178, 181, 182. See also
myths

Delafosse, M., 203, 487, 490, 492, 493

Deng, F., 105

Denisoff, R. S., 265

Dennett, R. E., 368

Denny, S. R., 228

derivative verbal forms, 62-63, 65

Derive, J., xxxi, xxxii, xxxiii, xxxix

Dewar, E. H., 414

Dahle, P. G., 215

Dhlomo, H. I. E., 134, 140, 141, 208, 216, 249

dialogue
in bird songs, 243
in children’s games, etc., 297-298, 299
in hunting song, 218
in lyrics, 252, 253, 254
in riddles, 414, 415, 417, 418, 426
in stories, 317, 368, 369. See also antiphony; leader

Didinga, 201

Dieng, B., xxx, xxxii

Dieterlen, G., 199, 200

diffusionism, 41, 311, 312, 313

Dijkmans, J. J., 363

dilemma story, 318, 320, 413, 420

Dingane, 127

Dinka, 105, 176, 204, 245, 301, 463

Diop, A. B., xxxii

Diop, B., 97, 99

Dipumba, 523

dirge. See Akan dirges

domestic songs. See work songs

Dogon, 77, 269, 276, 293, 295, 296, 299, 300, 353, 355, 364, 457

Doke, C. M., 60, 62, 69, 334, 337, 371,

374, 379, 414, 424, 425, 426, 431, 488

on style of proverbs, 380, 381, 383, 386,

388, 389, 390, 394, 395, 397

Doke collection, xxvii, xxxix, 383

Donohugh, A. C. L., 363

Dorson, R. M., 30

drama, xxxii, 485-487, 490, 491, 493-494, 497-498, 499-501

Drewal, T., xxvii

Driberg, J. H., 201

drinking songs, 237

drum literature, 78, 467-470, 482, 483-484

names, 457, 463, 472-473

in announcements, 470-472

as history, 470, 473, 479-481, 482

limitations of, 483

as panegyric, 470, 473, 475-477, 482

principles of drum language, 468, 469- 470, 484-484

in rituals, 482

Drum proverbs, 381, 382, 391, 402, 468, 473-474, 484

Dschagganeger. See Chaga

du Toit, B. M., 429

Duala, 36, 252, 484

Dufays, F., 236

Dundes, A., 421

Dunning, R. G., 242, 243, 244, 387, 408

Dupire, M. and Tressan, L., 428

dyalo, 97

dynastic poetry, 89, 90, 106, 116, 122

Dzalamo. See Zaramo

Earthy, D., 252

East Africa, 52, 94, 100, 103, 168, 265, 330, 344, 259, 363, 463
East African rhyming area, 74
as factor in prosody, 74
in proverbs, 390
tone as substitute for, 390
in Swahili tenzi, 172

East Central Africa, 121, 427

East, R., 361

Ebding, F., 35, 36

Echegaray, C. G., 110

Economic position
of poets, Ch. 4, 83, 89, 91, 101, 105, 108, 120
of story-tellers, 308, 363, 364

Edo, 15

education,
as possible function, 47, 321, 365, 366
in proverbs, 400, 401
in riddles, 427-428
in stories, 365. See also moralizing

Effimbra, G., 272, 391

Efik, 72, 415, 418, 427

Egudu, R. N., 201, 459
Eiselen, W. M., 184

Ekine society, 496, 497, 498, 499, 500

Ela. See Ifa

Elegy, Elegiac poetry, 145, Ch. 6
distribution and nature of, 145-147
Akan dirges: content and themes, 5-6, 148, 152-154, 155, 162, 163
structure and style, 147
delivery, 146, 159, 161, 162
occasions and functions, 146, 149, 161
Luo nyatiti laments, 100-101, 103, 107, 381

Ellenberger, V., 131, 132

Ellis, A. B., 146, 148, 368, 387, 396, 397, 452

Ellison, R. E., 489

Emsheimer, E., 237

Endemann, C., 415

Englebrecht, J. A., 298

enigma, 413, 419

Ennis, E. L., 381, 390, 457

entertainment
in proverbs, 402-403
in riddles 413, 426, 427
in stories, 341, 353, 354, 355, 361, 365

epic
in Africa, xxxi, xxxii, 108, 109, 110
‘epic laws’, 3
Swahili tenzi, 108, 170, 172

epigram, 391, 402, 413, 420, 428, 454

Equilbecq, F. V., 42, 73, 308, 363

Eshu-Elegba, 173

Ethiopia, 54, 59, 74, 94, 98-99, 147, 165, 216

European languages in Africa, 57, 59, 92

Evans-Pritchard, E. E., xxxv, 104, 105, 234, 337, 354, 379, 409-410, 463

Evheer. See Ewe

evolutionism, 40, 57, 309-311

Ewe, 71, 72, 232, 254, 259, 368, 387

Ezeigbo, T. A., xxx

Fali, 520

Fang, 88, 109, 335, 364, 402, 423, 425

Fante, Fanti, 182, 183, 211, 382, 395, 401, 402

Fardon, R., xxx

Farias, P. F., xxvii, xxx

Fell, J. R., 414

Fernandez, J. W., 365

fiction, fictional, 207
tales distinct from historical narratives, 357-358
distinct from ‘myths’, 319, 321-322, 352, 353. See also stories

figurative expression, 112-114, 117, 133
in names, 350, 355, 458, 460, 463
in oratory, 438, 441, 455
in prayers, 446, 447, 448, 449
in proverbs, 380, 384, 385, 388
in religious poetry, 112-114
in riddles, 421
in Somali balwo, 247
in Southern Bantu panegyric, 117, 122, 127, 131, 132, 200. See also praise names

Finland, Finnish, 311

Finnegan, A., xxxv

Finnegan, R. H., 238, 271, 443

Fisher, J. L., 365

Fivaz, D., 67

Fjort, 368

Fletcher, R. S., 112, 201, 247, 420, 429, 451, 453, 455

Foley, J. Miles, xxvii

folk songs, 259

folklore, xxviii, 29, 32, 39, 41-42, 49, 309

folktales, 307, 310, 312
European, 32, 235
contrasted to myths, 353, 354, 355. See also fiction

Fon, 93, 173, 352, 353, 355, 403, 457,459

formulae, in stories, 368, 369

Fortune, G., xxvii, 66, 414, 415, 417, 423, 424, 427

Frazer, J. G., 309, 485

Freeman, R. A., 431, 434

French Soudan, 490

French
concept of ‘griot’, 97
language in Africa, 59
scholars, 37, 43, 47. See also Négritude

Freud, 46

Frobenius, L., 36, 308, 335

Fuchs, H., 35

Fula. See Fulani

Fulani, 53, 73, 77, 84, 87, 97, 98, 107, 172, 201, 380, 387, 391, 393, 394, 414, 415, 416, 417, 420, 422, 452, 454

Functional approach, 40-41, 47, 92, 321, 322, 323-324

Fulbe. See Fulani

functions of oral literature
of Akan dirges, 24
of ‘myths’, 321, 322, 323
of political songs, 267, 268, 271, 276
of praise poetry, 118
of proverbs, 395-398, 399, 400-401, 402, 406, 407, 408, 410
in religious poetry, 165, 166, 199
of stories, 321-322, 338, 364-365, 366
of work songs, 230, 231, 233
political functions, 47, 214, 265, 266, 267, 268, 269, 270, 271, 274, 275, 276-277, 289, 361, 365, 434, 439. See also education; functional approach; utility

Furniss, G., xxxi

Games. See children’s poetry

Ga, 253

gabay,106

Gabon, 57, 109, 365

Gaden, H., 380, 394

Galaal, M. H. I., 73, 104,

Galla, 74, 111, 202, 205, 270, 364, 453, 454

Ganda, 63, 72, 114, 236, 246, 299, 380, 389, 390, 458

Gaskin, L. J. P., 256

Gates, H. L., xxx

Gbadamosi, B., 112-114, 148, 173-174, 195, 196, 197, 201, 219, 220, 299, 300, 387, 392, 393, 427, 457, 482

Gbeho, P., 269

Gbeya, 72, 73

Ge’ez, 74

genre
literary, 9, 443
types of in African oral literature, 26, 70, 79, 80

Georges, R. A., 421

German East Africa, 35

Germany, Germans, 19, 31, 36-37

contribution of early German scholars, 34-36

gewel, 97, 98

Gérard, A. S., xxx

Ghana, Ghanaian, 79, 105, 117, 151, 182, 255, 257, 269, 335, 336, 379, 381, 472, 484

gheraera, geeraar, 205

Ghilardi, V., 419

Gibbs, J. L., 177

Gibbs, J. M., 500

Gidley, C. G. B., 96

Gikandi, S., xxx

gold weights, 382, 385

Golden Bough, The, 485, 500

Goldstein, K. S., xxvii

Goody, J., 4

Görög-Karady, V., xxx

Gowlett, D. F., 421, 452

Grant, E. W., 86, 111, 124, 128, 135, 136, 138

Gray, E., 381, 387, 390, 393, 396, 398, 404, 414, 424, 426

Great Lakes, 52, 59

Greek, Greeks, 60

Green, M. M., 259, 270-271, 401

Greenberg, J. H., 59, 73

Greenway, J., 45

greetings. See salutations

Grimm brothers, 31

Griaule, M., 293, 294, 295, 296-297, 299, 463

Griots, 96, 97, 100

Guinea, 99, 281

Gulliver, P. H., 463

Gunner, E., xxxi

Gur, 58

Gutmann, B., 35, 151

Gyima, 24, 151, 152

Hadendiwa, 529

Hahn, T., 268, 270

Hale, T. A., xxx, xxxii, xxxiii

Hama, B., 167

Hamba, xxvii, xxx

Hamburg, 35

Hamitic, 379

Hamito-Semitic language group, 58

Hanks, W. F., xxxvii

Harari, 236

Harding, F., xxvii, xxx

hare, as central figure in stories, 323, 329, 334, 335, 336

Haring, L., xxx, xxxii

Harries, L., 74, 169, 414, 416,417, 419, 422, 424

Hartland, E. S., 38

Hartter, G., 35

Hattingh, S. C, 41

Hauenstein, A., 459, 463

Hausa, Haussa, xxxi, 53, 59, 73, 77, 84, 85, 87, 88, 92, 94, 95-96, 103, 104, 107, 111, 112, 115, 116, 118, 119, 120, 145, 167, 168, 172, 201, 207, 246-247, 268, 310, 335, 346-347, 351, 363, 364, 366- 367, 368, 369, 373, 379, 385, 386, 387, 393, 394, 418, 420, 422, 429, 451, 452, 455, 460, 472

Haya, 110,

Hayford, C, 434

Heath, F., 115

Hebrew, 222

Hecklinger, P., 35

Helser, A. D., 259, 368

Heraclios, 169

Heroic age, 83
poetry. See epic
recitations, 121. See also epic

Herskovits, M. J., 276, 352-353, 356, 403- 404, 467

Herskovits, M. J. and F. S., 271, 272

Herzog, G., 381, 404, 405, 406, 407

Hichens, W., 74

Hillelson, S., 295

Hima, 114, 119, 120, 121, 207

Hinaway, M. A., 266

Hiskett, M., 52, 53, 168, 168

historical
background. See social background
evidence, oral literature as, 47
narratives, 140-141, 353, 357, 358, 359, 360, 361
Arabic influence on, 110, 358, 359, 360
on drums, 479-481
‘myth-legends’, 353, 355
poetry, 117, 141. See also epic

Historical-geographical school. See diffusionism

Homer, 20

Homeric epithet, 68, 222, 460

Hodgkin, T., 289

Hoernlé, A. W., 184

Holas, B., 463

Hollis, A. C., 425

Honko, L., xxvii

Hopkins, N. S., 494

hortatory poetry, 54

Horton, R., xxxv, 78, 343, 362, 496, 497, 498, 499

Hottentot, 59, 244,268, 270, 271, 300, 336

Houdas, O., 361

Houis, 463

Huffman, R., 424

Hughes-Freeland, F., xxvii

Hulstaert, G., 63, 380, 383, 390, 394, 402, 404, 455

Humbi, 521

humour, 453. See also wordplay

Hunde, 354

Hungarian, 60

Hunt, A., 399, 415, 417, 456

hunting poetry, 79, 102, 201, 215, 219-220
Ambo songs, 78, 102, 220-223
Ijala, 9, 13, 72, 101, 102, 202, 218, 219, 220
occasions for, 216, 217, 218, 221, 223

Huntingford, G. W. B., 54

Hunwick, J. O.,

Hunwick, O., 52

Hurel, E., 363

Hurutsche, 244

Hutu, 435, 436. See also Rwanda

Hymes, D., xxvii, 484

Hymns. See prayers; religious poetry

Improvisation
significance of in oral literature, 10
in lyrics, 100, 182, 235, 252, 254, 259, 260, 263
in work songs, 232
in written literature, 12
Ibadan, University of, Institute of African studies, xxvii, xxxv, 200
Library, xxxv, xxxix

Ibibio, 415, 416, 424, 494, 496. See also
Anang Ibibio

Ibo, 25, 71, 78, 105, 115, 147, 201, 236, 259, 270, 271, 297, 364, 399, 401, 431, 459, 494, 495, 496

ideophone, 66-67, 72-73, 373
in Bantu languages, 66, 72, 73
in other African languages, 72
in panegyric, 131
in riddles, 416, 417, 419, 423

Idoma, 473

Ifa,
literature, 106, 165, 187-193, 196, 197, 198-199, 200
priests of, 93, 191

Igala,

Igbo. See Ibo

Ijala poetry, 72, 218
tone in, 72, 218

Ijaw, 494, 496

Ijebu Yoruba, 500

Ila, 65, 79, 104, 147, 296, 329, 335, 338, 351, 370, 386, 387, 395, 397, 398, 418, 419-420, 428

Imbongi, 85-86, 138. See also court poets,
imigubo

Imigubo, 204, 210

improvisation, significance of in oral literature
in lyrics 182, 235, 259, 260
in work songs, 232
See also composition; individual originality

incantations, 179, 180, 181, 199

India, 312

individual originality
in Akan dirges, 161, 162, 163
in curses, prayers, 443
in drum literature, 483
existence of denied in oral literature 23, 375-376
lack of in Ambo hunting songs, 221
by leader in lyrics, 182, 252, 253, 263
in lyrics, 235, 260, 262
in mantic poetry, 184
in proverbs, 404
in stories, 311, 317, 319-320, 371, 373, 374, 375, 376

Indo-European, 83

initiation, literature connected with, 102, 104, 122, 137, 201, 296, 400, 419, 426, 437, 439

Inkishafi, 170

Innes, G., xxxv, 346, 362

innovation. See composition; improvisation

intoned literature. See recitative

invocation. See religious poetry

Irele, A. F., xxx

Islam, Islamic, 52, 119, 145, 345
magic, 179
as patron of poetry, 91
religious poetry, 167, 168, 451
war poetry, 207. See also tenzi
‘myths’ in, 165, 167-168
poetic forms in, xxxiii
political songs in, 281
Ittmann, J., 35, 36, 429

Ivory Coast, 335, 489, 494

James, W., 341

Jabo, 381, 394, 405

Jacobs, J., 30, 47, 108, 429, 484

Jacobs, M., 42

Jacottet, E., 31, 34, 308, 334, 336, 344, 356

Jahn, J., 470

James, W., 336

Jans, P., 341

Jaques, A. A., 385, 386, 392, 393, 398, 415, 416, 422

Jelleman, 36, 97

Jie, 455

Job, 169

Johnson, F., xxx, xxxii, 64, 85, 359, 369

Johnston, J. W., 310

Jones, A. M., 44, 79, 104, 143, 146, 147, 215, 234, 254, 255, 256, 257, 261, 262, 296, 304, 367, 386, 390, 432

Jones, E. D., xxx, 523

Jones, G. I., 494, 495, 496

Jones, R., 168, 252

Jordan, A. C, 418, 419

Joseph, 169

Jousse, M., 3

Joyce, James, 311

Jung, 46

Junod, H. A., 11, 31, 42, 216, 236, 308, 320, 376

Junod, H. P., 33, 67, 371, 385, 386, 392, 393, 398, 415, 416, 422, 424, 456, 457

Kaffir. See Xhosa

Kagame, A., 45, 79, 201, 207

Kaguru, 323

Kagwa, 359

Kalabari, 362, 496, 497, 498, 499

Kalahari, 52, 78, 343

Kalanda, A., 79

Kalanga, 295

Kalela dance, 269, 274, 276

Kamanzi, Th., 207

Kamba, 68, 205, 231, 259, 293, 351, 362, 368, 369, 380, 398, 416, 422, 427, 428

Kamerun, 35

Kanuri, 53, 73. See also Bornu

Karanga, 390, 399, 415, 417, 456

Kaschula, R, H. xxxi, xxxix

Kassena-Nankani, 255

Kauffman, R., 181

Kawada, Junzo, xxx

Kele 118, 468-469, 470-472, 482, 484

Kensdale, W. E. N., 52

Kenya, 205, 249, 277, 425

Kenyatta, Jomo, 278, 280

Kesteloot, L., xxx, xxxii, 108

Kgatla, 424, 425, 428

Khoi-Khoi. See Hottentot

Khoisan, 59

Kidney, E., 204, 205, 228

Kikuyu, 278, 279, 280, 289, 330, 334, 336, 338-341, 348-350, 393, 397, 419

Kilson, M. D. de B., 364

Kimbundu, 353, 355, 368, 369, 381, 395

King, A., 257

King, A. V., 183

Kingslake, B., 181

Kingsley, M., 33

Kiniramba. See Nilyamba

kirari,112, 460

Kirkby, P. R., 215

Klama, 253, 254

Klingenheben, A., 54, 75, 252

Klipple, M., 312

Knappert, J., 172, 237

Koelle, S. W., 32

Konate, M., 108

Kongo, 60, 61,180, 504

Koranic. See Arabic; Islamic

Koranko, Kooranko, 36

Koritschoner, H., 104

Kosi, 275

Krappe, A. H., 30,485

Krieger, K., 304

Krige, E. J., 208, 209-210, 370

Krio, 432

Kronenberg, A., 334

Kru, 394, 405

Krug, A., 363, 375

Kuanyama Ambo, 248, 401

Kuba, 252

Kunene, D. P., 68, 121

Kunene, R., 56

Kuper, H., 488

Kwa, 77

kwadwumfo,86

Kxatla. See Kgatla

Labouret, H., 489, 490, 491, 493

Lacroix, P. F., 47, 53, 97, 107, 167

Laing, A. G., 36, 97

Lamba, 9, 62, 63, 65, 337, 371, 374, 386, 389, 397, 401, 414, 422, 424, 426, 428

Lambert, H. E., 269

lampoons, 266, 270, 271. See also political songs

Lane, M. G. M. 272

Lango, 46, 201, 342

languages, African, 6, 34-35, 45, 46, 53, 59, 70

Larson, T. J., 345

Lasebikan, E. L., 71-72, 195, 482

Laurence, 247, 248

Laydevant, F., 105, 137, 185, 186, 187

leader, song, 214, 252, 375
in lyrics, 182, 254, 254, 259
in stories, 375
in work songs, 227
See also soloist

Leakey, L. S. B., 277-280, 289

Leaver, K. D., 385

Lega, 382

legend. See historical narrative

Leith-Ross, S., 363

Lekgothoane, S. K., 123, 134

Lele, 432

Leslau, W., 236

Lestrade, G. P., 70, 75, 122, 124, 128, 129, 402, 403, 456

Lévi-Strauss, C., 503

Lewis, I., 75, 80, 205, 248, 289

Lhote, H., 54

Limba, xxvi, xxxxliii, 10, 79, 102, 103, 105, 146, 216, 225, 231, 232, 238, 239, 253, 255, 296, 313-317, 323, 329, 331- 333, 336, 337, 354, 363, 374, 369, 370, 371, 374, 380, 391, 397, 416, 423, 435, 438, 439, 440, 441, 442

Lianja, 109, 359, 360

Liberia, 119, 381, 394,405

Lienhardt, G., xxxv, 104, 105, 176, 177, 203-204

Lienhardt, P., 169

Lifchitz, Lifszyc, D., 354, 457, 461, 462

Ligers, Z., 345

Lindblom, G., 205, 231, 259, 294, 368, 369, 370, 380, 398, 416, 422, 427, 428

Lindfors, B., xxx

Lingala. See Ngala

linguist (Akan), 434

linguistic basis of African literature, 58, 70. See also tone

linguistic studies of African oral literature, 31, 36, 47

literacy
amount of in contemporary Africa, 56-57, 107, 285
in Arabic or Arabic script, 52-53, 360

literature, oral literature as one form of, 1
difficulty of defining, 1, 26
difficulty of differentiating from nonliterary forms in oral cultures, 17, 26, 27
African forms in nineteenth-century, 27, 30-32

lithoko, 143, 184

Littmann, E., 151, 237

Liturgical verse, 54, 181

Lloyd, L. C., 149, 178

Lloyd, P. C., 359

Lomax, A., 255

Lomongo. See Mongo

Loeb, E., 248

Lokele. See Kele

Longmore, L., 252

Lonkundo. See Nkundo

Lord, A. B., 3

Lotuko, 301, 302

love poems, 246-249, 277

love songs, 229, 246, 248, 249-250
music in, 249, 250
occasions for, 247, 249
religious, 248,
themes of, 246, 247. See also Christian lyrics

Lovedu, 121

Lozi, 228

Luba, 58, 72, 79, 336, 337, 369, 370, 379, 380, 415, 447

Luganda. See Ganda

Lugbara, 361

Lukas, J., 35, 426

Lullabies, 104, 105, 255, 291-293

Lulua, 65

Lunda, 354, 355

Luo, 107, 149, 249, 335

Luthuli, Chief, 274

Luvale, 415, 416

Lyele, 423, 462, 472

lyrics, 44, 235, 237-239, 254, 256, Ch. 9
composition in, 252, 258, 259, 262
connection with hunting songs, 221, 222, 223
with military poetry, 202, 203, 205
form and style of, 239, 239, 252, 253, 255, 258
love songs, 256
music in, 256, 260
occasions for, 235, 236, 237, 259
religious, 183
themes of, 241-242, 244, 245, 246, 247
See also Christian lyrics

Mabale, 105, 229, 374

Mabogunje, A., 270

MacCulloch, J. A., 38

Macdonald, D., 241, 354

Mackenzie, A. S., 38

McLaren J., 384, 386, 387, 393, 394, 403

McLuhan, 21

Macrosudanic language group, 59

Madan, A. C., 63

Madumere, A., 270

Maes, J., 358

Maes, V., 335

magic, magical, 39, 179-180, 181, 187, 199, 202, 217

Makua, 416, 419, 422, 424, 426

Malawi, 79, 121, 141, 204, 272, 277, 285, 292, 345, 354

Mali, 490, 494

Malinke. See Mandingo

Mande, 96, 97, 489, 492, 494

Malcolm, D., 385, 386, 402

Mandingo, 53, 116, 172, 490

Mandinka. See Mandingo

Mandishona, G., 122

Mangoaela, Z. D., 141

Mantic poetry. See Religious poetry, maroka

Mapanje, J., xxx

maroka, 87, 103, 116

marriage
songs connected with, 150, 243, 245, 246, 393, 440. See also wedding songs

Marshall L., 215-216

Masai, 205, 294

Mashona. See Shona

masquerades, 201, 485, 494, 496. See also
drama

Matswa, 274

Mau Mau, 280, 281

hymns, 181, 275, 277-278, 280-281

Maupoil, B., 187, 199

Mavuso, 126

Mayr, F., 386

Mayssal, H., 247

Mba, 473

Mbala, 433

Mbete, 297, 299, 426

Mbiti, 351, 368

Mbole (Bambuli), 522

Mboro, 317

Mbundu, 413

McLaren, J., 384, 386, 387, 393, 394, 403

McLuhan, M., 21

Meeussen, A. E., 382, 397

Meillassoux, C., 118

Meinhof, C., 35, 308

Melanesia, 179

memorization, 10, 12, 53, 85, 90, 187, 197, 352, 451

Mende, 362

Mensah, A. A., 182

Merriam, A. P., 246, 268

Merrick, G., 111, 418

Merwe, D. F. v. d., 142, 143, 244, 245

Messenger, J. C, 396, 397, 402, 418, 426, 427, 431, 433, 495

Messing, S. D., 453

metaphor. See figurative expression

Methodist, 182, 183, 275

metre, 73, 128, 258, 407
absence of, 75
as prosodic factor, 73. See also prosody

Middleton, J., 361, 455, 457

Migeod, F. W. H., 167

Milembwe, 446, 447

military poetry, 201, 202, 203, 207, 209, 212, 213, 214, 215, 274
Akan, 102, 207, 211, 274
as drum poems, 211, 277
Nguni, 207, 208, 210-211
occasions of, 202, 204, 206, 207, 209, 214
recent uses of, 207, 210, 214-215

Miqdad, 169

Mischlich, A., 167

Mitchell, J. C., 269

mmoki, 138

Mofokeng, S. M., xxvii, 128, 130, 131, 132, 133, 134, 137, 140

Mohamadou, E., 92, 167, 359

Mohammed, 169

Mongo, 63, 109, 380, 394, 402, 404

Monod, Th., 167

Monteil, C., 526

Monteil, V., 52

Moore, G., 151

moralizing
in proverbs, 380, 381, 405
in speeches, 440, 441
in stories, 366-367

Morgan, L. H., 309

morphology, language, 59
in Bantu languages, 61

Morris, H. F., 115, 119, 121, 125, 207, 463

Morton-Williams, P., 187

Moru, 297

Moses, 169

Moshesh, 124, 130

motif, 130, 155, 173, 312, 313, 317, 333, 369. See also themes

motif indexing, 312

Moyo, S. P. C., 526

Mpama-Bakutu, 304

Mpongwe, 329

Mqhayi, ii

Mulford, D. C, 287

Muller, Max, 37

Mulokozi, M., xxx, xxxii

Munonga, A., 215

Murray, D. J., xxxv, 20, 55, 139, 505

Murray, K. C., 489, 494

music
in African literature, 6, 7, 76
in Akan dirges, 5-6, 160-161
different words to same tune, 239
in ijala, 6, 72, 218
in lyric poetry, 7, 76, 256, Ch. 9
in panegyric, 136
in relgious songs, 169, 178, 182, 183
in stories, 375
in Swahili tenzi, 169
in work songs, 228, 232
musical setting as prosodic factor, 75

‘Music of Africa’ series. See African
Music Society

musicologists, 75, 234, 256

Muslim. See Islam

Mutesa, 114

Muyaka, 381

mvet, 109, 110, 506

MwanaKupona, utendiwa, 171

Mwera, 417

Mynors, T. H. B., 297-298

mythopoeic, 47, 503

myths, xxxii, 167, 173, 187, 319, 321, 322, 323, 351-355, 356-357, 373

Nadel, S. F., 120

Nakene, G., 418, 422, 425

Namaqa Hottentot, 33-34

names, 350, 463
in Akan dirges, 152-153, 156, 157, 159, 160, 457
drum names, 472-473
functions of, 455-457, 459, 460-461, 463
proverb names, 399 387, 458, 462 See also praise names

narrative
absence of music in, 76
ideophones in, 367
in military poetry, 66
in praise poetry, 121, 133
in religious poetry, 192
syntax in, 65. See also prose narrative

narrator. See poet, story-teller

Nassau, R. H., 375

nature, 185
as theme: in lyrics, 241, 248
in panegyric, 117, 132, 135
in riddles, 424

Ndau, 178, 272, 386

Ndebele, 132, 208, 289, 362, 385, 386, 390

Négritude, 43, 366

Nettl, B., 10, 36, 263, 304

Newell, S., xxx

Ngala, 422, 423

Ngandu Nkashama, P., xxx

Ngoni, 79, 121, 125,141, 149, 150, 204, 208, 210, 292

Ngubane, J. K., 137

Nguni, 69, 121, 207, 381

Ngwana, 141

Niane, D. T., 108

Nicolas, F., 54

Nicolas, F. J., 418, 429, 460, 462

Niger, 117, 473, 489

Niger-Congo language group, 58

Nigeria, 79, 93, 114, 119, 224, 285, 289, 336, 365, 415, 418, 423, 426, 431, 461, 472, 473, 475, 484, 485, 489, 494

Nile, 59, 73

Nilo-Hemitic, 59, 379

Nilyamba, 64

Njururi, N., 350, xxxvii

Nketia, J. H. K., xxxv, 79, 104, 105, 212, 213, 216, 217, 218, 274, 336, 379, 391, 458, 471, 474, 475, 478, 479, 482, 483
on Akan dirges, 24, 79, 103, 145, 146, 151-155, 157, 158-159, 161-162
on form and style in lyrics, 159, 160, 211, 238, 240, 241, 253, 254, 255, 256, 257-258

Nkrumah, 275

Nkumbula, 286

Nkundo, 75, 359, 379, 455

North Africa, 54, 59

North-East Africa, 79, 252

North-West Africa, 205

Northern Rhodesia. See Zambia

Norton, W. A., 125

noun classes. See class system

noun formation in Bantu languages, 59, 61, 63, 65
in praise names, 68

Nsimbi, B., 458

Ntumu, 531

Nubians, 74

Nuer, 105, 301, 400, 424

Nupe, 119, 120

Nurse, G., 288

nursery rhymes, 294, 295. See also children’s poetry

Nyanja, 244, 380, 381, 387, 393, 395, 398, 401, 404, 414, 423, 424, 425, 426

Nyasaland. See Malawi

nyatiti, 100

Nyembezi, C. L. S. 141, 383, 385, 387, 388, 394, 402, 404, 407

Nyerere, 172

Nyika, 119, 372

Nyoro, 292, 456, 458

Nzakara, 94

oaths, 443, 451, 86

Obatala, 195, 220

occasions
significance of in oral literature, 14, 362
for Akan dirges, 161-162
for Dogon praise names, 457, 461, 462
for elegies, 146, 149, 161
as factor in classical ‘myths’, 355
for hunting songs, 216, 217, 218
of oratory, 432, 437, 439, 440, 441
for praise poetry, 118, 119, 135, 136, 137, 138
for proverbs, 384, 395-397, 400-401, 402, 403, 404
for riddles, 384, 425, 426, 427, 428
in special purpose poetry, 205
of story-telling, 362, 363, 364, 365
for war songs, 202, 203, 204, 205, 206, 207, 209
of work songs, 224, 225, 226, 234

Odu Ifa. See Ifa literature

Oduduwa, 359

ogres in stories, 345

Ogumefu, 358

Ogun, 13, 112-114, 206

Ogunba, O., 276, 500

oigo, 249-252

Ojea, 147-148

Okot, J. 149, 272

Okpewho, I., xxxii

Omijeh, E. A., xxix, 457, 458

onomatopoeia, 294, 373-374, 416, 417

Opie, I. and P., 295, 304

oracular poetry.See Religious poetry,

oral literature
concept and nature of, xxx, xxxiv, xxxix, 3-4, 504-505, 506
difficulty of distinguishing from nonliterary speech forms, 17, 26-27
interplay between written and oral forms, 18, 20, 21-22, 60
not rigidly distinguishable from written literature, 24-26, 202, 464
should it be classified as literature?, 17-18, 25, 27, 33, 49

oral tradition, 30, 58

oral transmission of written forms, 12,20-21, 53, 55, 370-371

oratory
proverbs in, 381, 395, 432, 433, 438, 441
relative neglect of in study of oral literature, 432. See also Speeches

originality. See Individual originality

oriki, 112, 460, 482

Orwin, M., xxx, xxxi

Osadebay, D. C, 148, 236, 482

Ovimbundu, 381, 390, 457, 459, 463

Owuor, H. (alias Anyumba), 98, 100- 101, 107, 250, 251

Paden, J., 53, 167

Pageard, R., 489

Pahouin-Bantu, 110

Palmer, E., 523

panegyric. See Praise poetry

Papadopoullos, T., 108

Pâques, V., 116

parable, 320, 380, 405

parallelism
in Ambo hunting songs, 222
in Bantu languages, 69, 72, 75
in Bushman hymns, 178
in children’s songs, 298
cross-parallelism (chiasmus), 69, 130, 389, 408
in curses, 444
in prayers, 447
in proverbs, 391
in Southern Bantu panegyric, 75, 128, 130
tonal parallelism, 72

Paredes, A., xxvii

parody, 238, 496

Parrinder, E. G., 197

pastoral poetry, 122. See also Cattle

Patterson, J. R., 120

Paulay, G., 223

Paulme, D., 382, 457, 461, 462

Pedi, 524

Peek, P., xxx

Pemba, 95

performance
in Akan dirges, 103, 151, 160,162
connection with composition, 100, 106, 107, 311
in curses, 444
in drama, Ch. 18, 486, 489, 490-491, 499
implications for study of oral literature, xxxiii, 362, 370, 454
in praise poetry, 6, 136-138

in prayers, 446

in proverbs, 382, 383, 388, 391, 392

significance of in oral literature, 4, 5, 7,

355, 362

in speeches, 431-432, 434, 441-442
in story-telling, 7, 311, 313, 319, 333, 346, 363, 370, 371, 373, 487
in Swahili tenzi, 169, 170, 172

personification, 64

Peul. See Fulani

Pfeffer, G., 167

Phillips, H. R., 272

Pilaszewicz, S., xxxi

Plass, W., 382

Plato, 14

Poet Awona, S., 110

poet
of elegiac poetry, 145, 146, 147, 149, 152, 155, 161, 162, 163
fear of, 95-96, 97, 98, 118
ignorance of or misconceptions about position of poet, 48, 83-84
of ijala, 218
of mantic poetry,183
non-specialist poets, 99
and patronage, Ch. 4, 84, 88, 95,101, 102, 103, 118
position of poet, 83, 89, 91, 101, 105, 108, 120
of praise poetry, 90-91
religious poets, 91, 105, 187
wandering poets, 84, 93-95, 96-97, 98-99
effect of on cultural uniformity, 98-99
See also composition; court poets; professional poets

Poetry, Part II
difficulty of distinguishing from prose, xxxii, 76-77, 78
more highly valued than prose, 79, 307
music in, 5-7, 12, 13, 20-21, 24, 26, 44, 71, 72, 75, 76-77, Part II
poetic forms among Akan, Yoruba, 9, 71
and patronage, Ch. 4, 84, 88, 95,101, 102, 103, 118
relative neglect of in study of oral literature, 77
as specialist art, 23, 84
tone in, 6, 46, 70-73, 75, 77. See also Tone, children’s songs, elegiac poetry, hunting poetry, lyric, military poetry, political poetry, praise poetry, religious poetry, topical literature, work songs

poets, wandering, 84, 93-95, 96-97, 98- 99

political poetry
in elections, 57, 281-282, 285, 287
in Guinea, 281
Mau Mau hymns, 181, 275, 277-278, 280-281
associated with political parties, 274, 275, 276, 281, 285, 286, 287, 289
in Zambia, 285-286

political songs, 49, 266, 270, 274, 276- 277, 281-283, 284, 288

Polynesia, Polynesian, 364, 379

Posselt, F., 345

possession songs. See Religious poetry, Mantic

praise names, 111, 118, 459-460, 461, 462
in Akan dirges, 148, 152-153, 457
in Bantu languages, 68, 70, 118, 130
in hunting poetry, 111, 217, 218
inmilitary poetry, 114, 207, 213
in riddles, 418

praise poetry, 6,9, 49, 57, 68, 84, 85, 91, 108-109, Ch. 5, 111, 115, 116, 117, 118, 120, 121, 125, 134, 139, 140, 141, 142

prayers, 446-450, 460

Présenceafricaine, 43

Prietze, R., 35, 115

Prince, R., 198

printing, 20, 21

professional jesters, 453

professional orators, 434

professional poets, 52, 84, 93-94, 95, 96, 352. See also court poets

professional story-tellers, 363, 425

Propp, V., 3, 376

Prose, Part II
absence of music in, 76
contrasted with poetry, xxxii, 76-77, 78
difficulty of distinguishing from verse, 75. See also Prose narratives

prose narratives, Chs. 12, 13, 49, 312
in Ifa literature, 193
over-emphasis on, 41, 42, 48, 307-308
study of, Ch. 12, 308, 309, 310, 321, 322, 323-323, 324, 325, 369, 378
evolutionist approach to, 309, 310, 311, 321
diffusionist approach to, 311, 313, 317, 318, 320, 321
attempts to classify, 312, 318, 319, 320, 324, 352, 353-354, 356
See also stories; historical narratives; myths

prosody, in African verse, 73
in Akan dirges, 160
Arabic influences in, 73, 74
in Bantu languages, 75
in Hausa Song of Bagaudu, 168
in Southern Bantu panegyric, 75, 128

Prouteaux, M., 493

proverb names, 381, 387, 457-459

proverb-poems 25, 381

proverb-riddles, 380, 381, 413, 417-418, 427

proverbs, Ch. 14

absence of music in, 76
among Azande, 381, 398, 399, 409
collections of, 392
concept of, 379, 380, 381, 382, 383
drum proverbs, 25, 381, 382, 391, 402, 462, 468, 473-474, 482
among Jabo, 78, 381, 394, 405-406, 407
occasions and functions, 384, 385, 395- 397, 398-399, 400-401, 402, 404-405, 407, 408, 410

in oratory, 381, 395, 432, 438, 441
praise names in, 381, 405
significance, 379, 380, 383, 408, 410-411

similarity to riddles, 381, 402, 413. See also Proverb-riddles
in stories, 366
structure and style, 383, 387, 388-392, 395, 398-399, 406-407
subject-matter, 392, 393-394, 395, 408-409
tone in, 390, 407
among Zulu, 69, 381, 386, 387, 389, 394, 399, 401, 402, 404, 407-408, 409.See also proverb names; proverb-poems

psychological functions of literature, 43, 455. See also functions of oral literature

puns, 452, 453

Puplampu, D. A., 202

Pygmies, 356, 363, 364

qasidah,74, 168

quantity, as factor in prosody, 73

Radcliffe-Brown, A. R., 40, 321

Radin, P., 352, 364

radio, 184, 238, 506

Ras-al-ghul, 169

Rattray, R. S., 244, 382, 385, 393, 394, 402, 479

Raum, O. F., 400, 419, 427

Rautenbach, S. C. H., 313

recitative, 218, 238, 374

recording of oral literature, 15, 328

Reichard, G., 45

religion
significance in Kalabari masquerades, 497, 498, 499
as subject in stories, 256
types of in Africa, 52. See also myths; religious poetry

religious poetry, Ch. 7, 92, 177, 184-185, 455
types of, 165, 166, 199, 392-393
Christian influence on, 165, 200
didactic and narrative, 167, 168, 200
Fante Methodist lyrics, 78, 182-183
generalisations about, 199, 200
hymns, 49, 92, 166, 173, 176, 181, 200, 275
incantations, 451
mantic poetry, 183, 184, 187
Sotho divining verse, 184, 185
Swahili tenzi, 168, 169, 171-172
Yoruba Ifa poetry, 187-190, 198, 478

repetition
in Akan dirges, 160
in Bushman hymns, 178
in curses, 444
indrum literature, 469, 474
in lyrics, 236, 238, 239, 244, 253, 255
in prayers, 447, 448
in proverbs, 389
in religious poetry, 177, 180, 183
in Southern Bantu panegyric, 128, 130
in speeches, 439
in work songs, 230, 232. See also parallelism

rhetoric. See oratory

rhythm
in children’s poetry, 292, 294
in curses, 444
as factor in prosody, 75, 77
in lyrics, 256, 257
in masquerades, 497-498
in prayers, 446,
in proverbs, 384, 391, 408

Rhodes, W., x, 265, 274-275, 277, 286,

287

Rhodesia. See Southern Rhodesia

Rhodesia and Nyasaland, University College, library of, xxvii, xxxv rhyme
East African rhyming area, 74
as factor in prosody, 73, 74
in proverbs 390, 409
tone as substitute for, 6, 72
in Swahili tenzi, 172

Ricard, A., xxx

riddles
content, 423-424
nature and types of, 414, 415, 417, 419, 421
occasions and functions, 425, 426, 427, 428
praise names in, 418, 423
style, 414, 415-416, 421, 423, 428

Riesz. J., xxx

Ripp, O., 387, 393, 394, 404

Roberts, J., 276

Robinson, C. H., 145

Rodegem, F., 432

Roger, J. F., 30, 308, 371

Ronga, 236

Roscoe, J., 87, 233

Rossini, C. Conti, 54

Rouch, J., 179, 180

Rouget, G., 44, 97, 256

Rozi, 122

Rwanda, Ruanda, 8, 45, 79, 88, 89-90, 106, 116, 117, 122, 201, 207, 363

Rundi, 294, 379, 435, 436, 437, 438, 439

Russian, 19, 60

Rycroft, D., xxxv, 128, 129, 136, 142

Sachs, J., 288

Sacleux, C., 452

salutations, 451, 455, 460
by drums, 116, 118, 461, 462, 482

Samarin, W. J., 456, 73

Sandawe, 530

Sanger, C, 272

sanza, 409, 410

satire, satirical, 272, 276, 337, 341, 373, 386, 398, 458, 490, 493, 496. See also drama; Mande comedies, 490-493, 494, 500

Savard, G. C., 215

Sayers, E. F., 167

Scandinavian, 41, 318, 321

Schachter, R., 281, 282, 283, 284, 285

Schapera, I., 125, 130, 132, 137, 138, 423, 424, 425, 428, 488

Schechner, R., xxvii

Scheub, H., xxxix

Schipper, xxx

Schlenker, C. F., 31

Schneider, 484, 257

Schön, J. F., 31

School of Oriental (and African) Studies, xxix, 37, 47

Schtirle, G., 252

Schulien, 201

Scott, C. T., 421

Sechuana. See Tswana

secret societies, 201, 494, 495

Seidel, A., 33, 35

Sékou Touré, 281, 282-283, 284, 285

Sempebwa, E. K. K., 236, 246, 299

Senegambia, 97, 98, 99

Senegal, 30, 165, 285

Senghor, L. S., 43

sermons, 451, 464

Seydou, C., xxx, xxxii, 74

Shaka, 111, 123, 125, 127, 133, 141, 208, 408

Shakespeare, 311

Shangana-Tsonga, ShangaanSee Thonga

Shango, 174

Sherzer, J., xxvii

Shi, 246, 268

Shilluk, 203-204, 301, 303

Shona, 105, 203, 300, 329, 414, 417, 423, 424

Shore, H. L., 499

Sierra Leone, 99, 116, 119, 216, 285, 313, 331-333, 335, 346, 435, 438

Silla, O., 99

Simmons, D. C., 397, 415, 416, 418, 424, 427

singer. See poet

Sklar, R. L., 285

Smith, E. W., 9, 33, 42, 308, 337, 338, 341-342, 351, 365, 366, 369, 370, 371, 385, 386, 387, 397, 398, 418, 420, 423, 428

Smith, M. G., 87, 95, 96, 103, 112, 115, 116, 117

Snoxall, R. A., 390

social anthropology. See anthropology

social background, in Africa generally, 50, 55-56, 58, 200, 312, 320-321

sociology,
relevance of African oral literature for, 504

Sölken, H., 361

solo, soloist, Ch. 4, 104, 118
in Akan dirges, 151, 161
in lyrics, 252, 255, 260
in religious songs, 178
solo songs, 106
in work songs, 202, 227, 228, 229, 230, 232
See also court poets; leader; poet, wandering

Somali, xxxi, 74, 75, 79, 100, 105, 172, 205, 237, 242, 277, 289, 506

Somaliland, 106

Songhai, 53, 180

songs, 236
as lyric poems, Ch. 9
connected with proverbs, 381, 382
in speeches, 433-434
song-riddles, 419, 426
in stories, 374, 375. See also poetry

Soninke, 118

Soolima, 36

Sotho, 60, 61, 84, 104, 115, 121, 122, 124, 125, 127, 128, 130, 131, 133, 135, 138, 143, 185, 231, 273, 336, 337, 386, 415

Soudan, 494

sound system in Bantu languages, 68-69

source for, 506

South Africa, xxxi, 121,125,143, 224, 274, 344, 384

South West Africa, 77, 117

Southern Rhodesia, 165, 211, 224, 225, 232, 260, 423

Sow, A. I., 47, 53, 74

Spanish Guinea, 109

speeches, 285, 373, 426, 432, 438, 439, 440, 443, 451

Spider, as central figure in stories, 329, 334, 335, 336, 337, 369, 374

Spiess, C, 35, 465

St. John-Parsons, D., 358

Stappers, L., 72, 337, 365, 370, 447

Stead, W. G., 225

Steere, E., 237, 374

Stefaniszyn, B., 220, 221, 222, 223

Stern, T., 484

Stilz, E. B., 397

Stopa, R., 244, 271, 300

stories
absence of music in, 76
composition, 375
functions of, 321, 364-365, 366
‘modern’ themes in, 49, 57, 142, 265- 266, 289, 393
occasions for, 362, 363, 364, 365
in oratory, 438, 479
over-emphasis on study of, 308
about people, 344-345, 351
performance of, 333, 346, 270-371, 373
story-teller, 9, 238, 308, 313-317, 346, 363, 364, 368-369, 370-371, 373
study of, Ch. 12, 308, 309, 310
style of, 375
See also Animal stories; Myths; Prose narratives.

story-teller, 11, 308, 313-317, 346, 363, 364, 368, 369, 370-371, 373, 375-376, 487-488
as song leader, 375

stress, as factor in prosody, 73, 75
in Southern Bantu pangyric, 75, 128, 129

structural analysis, 321, 421, 503. See also functional approach

structural-functional. See functional approach

Stuart, J., 385, 386, 402

Stuhardt, J. G., 387

style
of Akan dirges, 5, 156-157, 160
in Ambo hunting songs, 221-222
of Busman hymns, 177-178
in Limba curses, 443, 444, 445
in Luo oigo, 249-252
of lyrics generally, 238, 252
‘miniature’ forms of Somali balwo, 247
in oratory, 434, 435, 437-438, 439, 441, 442
of praise poetry, 121, 127-128, 131
in proverbs, 383, 387, 388-392, 395, 398-399, 407
of qene 92,
in religious poetry, 165-166, 167, 168, 169, 172, 182, 183-184, 188-191, 200
in riddles, 414, 415-416, 421, 422, 423, 428
of Southern Bantu praise poetry, 116, 117, 120-122, 126-127, 132, 141
in story-telling, 238
in work songs, 230, 232

Suaheli. See Swahili

Sudan region, 52

Sudan, 52, 94, 105, 297, 300, 360

Sudanese action songs, 300-303

Sudanic languages, 59

Sundkler, B. G., 275

Susu, 281

Swahili tenzi, 168-172, 173, 207, 224, 292, 368, 374, 381, 385, 389, 395, 452

Swahili, 46, 53, 58, 69, 73, 92, 107, 166, 168, 172, 231

Swanepoel, C. F., 528

Swazi, 121, 125, 208, 298

syntax, Bantu, 65

takhmis,74

Tanganyika, Tanzania, 103, 248, 269, 271, 289

Tanghe, J., 229

Tardy, L., 402, 425

Tarsitani, B. A., xxx

tasmit, 74

Taylor, G. A., 203, 300

Taylor, W. E., 31, 381, 385, 390

Tedlock, D., xxvii

tegble, 202

Tegnaeus, H., 308, 41

television, 22

Temne, 329, 363

Ten Raa, E., 427

tenzi, 168, 169, 172

Terrisse, A., 358

Tescaroli, L., 148, 203-204

Tetela, 397

Tew, M., 432

texts, collections of in Congo, 46, 447
emphasis on in nineteenth century, 30-36
over-emphasis on, 49
See also recording

Theal, G., 385

themes
of Akan dirges, 152-154, 155
in animal stories, 186, 329, 335, 337- 338, 341, 342, 343
in hunting poetry, 216, 218, 220, 222
in Islamic religious poetry, 169, 206
of lyrics, 241-242, 244, 245, 246, 247
in mantic poetry, 185-187
of praise poetry, 207
of proverbs, 382, 398, 399, 403, 409
in riddles, 424
in stories about people, 344-345, 351
in work songs, 228, 229

Theuws, F., 447, 449-451

Thiam, 366

Thomas, N. W., 15, 297

Thompson, Stith, 312, 318, 319

Thonga, 11, 67, 384, 385, 386, 389, 392, 393, 398, 415, 416, 422, 424, 456

tifinagh script, 54

Tigre, 74

Timannee. See Temne

Tiv, 272

Tlokwa, 418, 422, 423, 425, 426

Togo, 35

tone riddles, 72, 416, 427

tone, 59, 70-71, 256
in drum language, 6, 71, 467-468, 469, 473
as prosodic factor, 73, 160
in proverbs, 6, 390, 407
relationship of sung and spoken tone, 71, 256-257, 258
in riddles, 416, 417
tonal structure in poetry, 71, 72

Tonga, 104, 147, 296, 414

tongue twisters, 297, 451

Topan, F., xxx, 183

topical literature
elegies, 147
neglect of, 18, 40, 41, 44, 49, 265, 266, 289, 505, 506

topical poems, topical songs, 49, 202, 265, 268-270, 273-274. See also political songs

Torrend, J., 374

tortoise, 329, 334, 335, 336, 343, 373, 374

Touareg. See Tuareg

Toucouleur, 99

Towo-Atangana, 110

Tracey, Hugh, 137, 210, 232, 237, 246, 248, 249, 259, 260, 261, 265-267, 270, 273-274, 277

traditional, over-emphasis of, xxviii, 3, 12, 16, 18, 19, 26, 40-42, 43, 46, 44, 49, 51, 265, 266, 504, 505

tragedy, 500

training of orators, 435, 436, 439

training of poets, 91-92, 197
in Ethiopia, 92
in mantic poetry, 184, 197-198
among Rwanda, 88-91

Transvaal, 132, 362, 415

Traoré, B., xxxii, 43, 237, 485, 500

Travélé, M., 402, 424, 428, 489, 490, 491, 493

Tremearne, A. J., 112, 346-347, 373, 385

Tressan, L., 428

trickster, 188, 334-338, 343, 350, 353

Trifles, H., 363

Tsala, T., 252

Tshi. See Twi

Tsonga, 121. See also Thonga

Tswana, 64, 121, 127, 137, 388, 395

Tuareg, 54, 74, 111

Tucker, A. N., 300, 301, 302, 303, 304

tug of war, in stories, 312, 328, 335

Tumba, 471

Tumbuka-Kamanga, 390

Turnbull, C., 358

Turner, H. W., 451

Tutsi, 435, 436. See also Rwanda

Twi, 31

Tyloch, W., xxxi

Tylor, E., 309

Tyo (Teka), 426

Uganda, 292, 361

Ullendorf, E., 54

Upper Volta, 423, 462, 484

Uppsala, 41

Utenzi. See tenzi

utility, assumed as main function of oral literature, 40, 321. See also functional approach

Vai, 54

Vail, L., xxx

Vajda, G., 52

Van Avermaet, E., 46, 72, 390, 415

Van Caethem, R., 451

Van Goethem, E., 397

Van Spanndonck, 168

Van Warmelo, J., 532

Van Wing, J., 504

Van Zyl, H. J., 143

Vanneste, M., 358

Vansina, J., 455

variability, of oral literature generally, 10-11, 12

Velten, C., 31, 168

Venda, 64, 121, 127, 455

verb system in Bantu languages, 61-62
derivative verbal forms, 59

Verger, P., 174-176

verse, difficulty of distinguishing from prose, 75

Verwilghen, L. A., 434

Viaene, L., 354

Vilakazi, B. W., 132, 133, 134, 138, 141, 294

Vili. See Fjort

vocabulary, in African languages, 60-61
in Ambo hunting songs, 222
special in poetry, 407

Von Funke, E., 252

Von Hornbostel, E., 35

Von Sicard, H., 201, 308, 312

Von Sydow, C. W., 30, 42

Von Tiling, M., 292

Wa-Bondei. See Bondei

Wabvuwi, 181

Wade, A., 361

Wakweli. See Kweli

Walker, S. H., 257

Wängler, H. H., 257

Wanyamwezi, 248

War song. See Military poetry

Warren, A., 19

Watt, I., 4

Wedding poems, songs, 103, 119, 123, 138, 255

Wellek, R. and Warren, A., 19

Wellerism, 389

Werner, A., 345

Werner, J., 37, 53, 168, 172, 224, 231, 308, 328, 329, 334, 345, 351, 358, 387, 411, 425, 451

Wescott, R. W., 257

West Africa, 58, 94, 96, 116, 217, 277, 329, 335, 345, 256, 363, 368, 375, 379, 380, 422, 458, 470, 475, 482, 485, 488- 489, 490, 500-501
associations in, 102, 103, 104
hymns in, 167, 173
Ifa literature in, 106, 187

West Atlantic, 58

West Central Africa, 297

West Equatorial Africa, 329, 335, 363, 368, 375, 423, 426

West Indies, 335

Westcott, J., 173

Westermann, D., 215

Westphal, E., 257

White, C., 415, 416

White, L., xxx

Whiteley, W. H., xxxv, 95, 269, 432

Whitting, C. E. J., 379, 386, 387, 393

Wieschhoff, H. H., 456

Williamson, S. G., 182, 183

Wilson, C. B., 234

Windels, A., 304

Witte, P. A., 35, 484

Witwatersrand, University of, xxxvii, 313

Wolfson, F., 431

Wolof, 30, 97, 98

women, 99, 262
as poets, relatively rare, 54, 99
in Christian lyrics, 182-183, 185, 186
as elegiac poets, 145, 146, 147, 151, 157-158, 162, 163, Ch. 6
among Ila and Tonga, 104, 261-263
in lampoons, 268, 270, 272, 284
in love songs, 246, 247-48, 249, 250-251
as praise poets, 87, 116
in political songs, 268, 270, 272, 284
as story-tellers, 364
in work songs, 99, 224, 225, 230, 231

wordplay, 452-453

work songs, 201, 224, 231
canoe songs, 228, 229
dance songs, 228
domestic songs, 224, 230, 231
farming songs, 226, 230, 231
style of, 225, 226, 227, 228, 229, 230, 232, 234

Wright, M. J., 328

written literature, 328
contrasted with oral forms: in approach to its study, 5, 6, 10
in audience involvement, 13, 240
in mode of transmission, 12, 21, 22, 370-371

written literature in Africa, 1, 311. See also Arabic

Wyndham, J., 359

Xhosa, xxxiii, 61, 65, 121, 336, 384, 385, 389, 394

Yankah, K., xxx

Yao, 354, 363

Yoruba, 71, 72, 78, 79, 88, 93, 102, 112, 118, 119, 146, 148, 165, 173, 174, 187, 198, 200, 201, 218, 267, 270, 299, 335, 359, 363, 381, 387, 391, 392, 393, 396, 397, 423, 427, 452, 455, 457, 460, 470, 476-477, 482, 483

Young, T. Cullen, 390

Zambia, 79, 104, 105, 146, 147, 225, 261, 285, 335, 338, 397, 415, 419

Zande, 73, 179, 250, 334, 335, 336, 354, 381, 398, 411

Zaramo, 252

Zemp, H., 44, 97, 99, 100

Zezuru, 225, 415

zitengulo, 147

ziyabilo, 296

Zulu, xxxiii, 58, 60, 61, 63, 64, 65, 67, 84, 85, 86, 116, 120, 121, 122, 127, 128, 132, 133, 134, 135, 136, 137, 139, 140, 142, 181, 207, 208, 237, 242, 243, 249, 255, 273, 293, 294, 295, 334, 336, 362, 370, 381, 385, 389, 422, 460

Zuni, 320

Zuure, B., 294

Zwide, 124

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