Populations réfugiées| ,
Denys Barau : « From Philanthropy to Humanitarianism. The Mobilization for Greece, 1821-1829 »
1In the Europe of the Holy Alliance, the Greek uprising against Turkish occupation aroused public enthusiasm for various, contrasting reasons that took all sorts of forms. Everywhere in Europe and America, committees canvassed personalities from all beliefs to support, through an original combination of philanthropic and military operations, the cause of Greek independence. No such combination has ever existed since then.
2Key-words : Humanitarian Mobilization — Military Operation — Philanthropy — War of Independence — Greece — Turkey.
Annick Bartoli : « From Theory to Practice. Ambiguities in UNHCR Repatriation Policies in Kuwait and Zaire »
3Two cases of UNHCR interventions in Kuwait and the former Zaire show how unadapted international law is to the needs expressed by certain categories of refugees for aid and protection. Lack of knowledge about the local situation sometimes leads to conducting repatriation programs under questionable conditions, in particular, whenever refugees as they return to their homeland turn into displaced persons. There is a gap between the humanistic intentions underlying the rules that preside over aid to refugees and implementation in the field.
4Key-words : Refugees — Repatriation — Humanitarian Law — Humanitarian Aid — Camps — UNHCR — Politics — Koweit — Zaire.
Michael Barutciski : « International Refugee Law and Involuntary Repatriation »
5This article deals with the current political context of repatriation and analyses involuntary repatriation from a legal point of view. It is suggested that involuntary repatriation can conform to international legal standards as long as the return can occur in safety. Nevertheless, respect for the voluntary character of repatriation remains a politically useful principle to the extent that it encourages host governments to consider the desire of the concerned person to return home.
6Key-words : International Refugee Law — Voluntary Repatriation — Non-refoulement — Involuntary Repatriation — UNHCR.
Luc Cambrézy : « Refugee Camps and the Environment in Kenya. Stakes and Contradictions »
7In the Dadaab refugee camps in Kenya, a program for protecting the environment and restoring plant canopy was implemented several years before any real assessment was carried out about the scope and causes of the observed degradation. As studies showed, the concentric circles of environmental deterioration around camps could apparently be set down to the need not for firewood but for wood for construction purposes. The very principle of camps as lasting structures for hosting and containing refugees comes under question. Host countries can use the awareness of the need to manage environmental resources and the publicity surrounding it as a new argument in negotiations with the UNHCR; the emergence and development of a genuine « environmental market » can thus be favoured.
8Key-words : Refugees — Environment — Camp — Deforestation — Firewood — Environmental Assessment — Humanitarian Aid — Kenya — Africa.
Sophie Caratini : « The Sahrawis. A Nation without Land »
9Deprived of their land by Morocco since the 1975 invasion, the Sahrawi people of Western Sahara has forged an identity through their struggle and exile. For the past 25 years, 165 000 refugees have been living in the Tindouf Hamada in southwestern Algeria. Under the guidance of the Polisario Front and the SADR (Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic) government, they have organized themselves in line with the revolutionary and Third-World ideals of the 1970s and with Beduin society’s traditional values. Light is shed on this unique experience by analyzing the major aspects of this conflict; presenting the spatial and social organization of camps; and discussing how these people have constructed an identity.
10Key-words : Anthropology — Arabic World — Decolonization — Nomadic Peoples — Refugee Camps — Sahrawi People — Western Sahara — Algeria.
Alain Gascon : « Somalis. Nomadism, Migrations and Forced Displacements »
11Somalia has ceased to exist as a stale since 1991. The coalition that forced Siyaad Barre to flee has fallen apart : former British Somaliland has declared its independence while warlords have torn the south apart. Nonetheless, Somalia is undoubtedly the most homogeneous nation-state in Sub-Saharian Africa. Are Somalis, – pastoral nomads divided into clans – doomed to never form a state? Despite their age-long tradition of mobility and migration, they founded city-states, emirates and sultanates in what is now Somalia.
12Key-words : Nomadism — Migrations — Forced Displacements — Refugees — Camps — Humanitarian Aid — Nation-State — Clans — Warlords — Somalia — Ethiopia.
Nathalie Gomes : « Solidarity and Social Networks in Exile. Illegal Somali Refugees in Kenya and Ethiopia »
13The case of Somalis who fled from Somalia during the civil war to neighbouring Kenya and Ethiopia sheds light on the practical common sense of these refugees. Their social and political integration in northeastern Kenya and the Ogaden can be attributed to kinsmen who already lived in these areas and to an international remittance network. Studying their survival strategies reveal that pragmatism is necessary under the duress of exile.
14Key-words : Illegal Refugees — Socioeconomic Network — Integration — Survival Strategies — Somalia — Kenya — Ethiopia.
Edith Kauffer : « Mexican Government’s Policies toward Guatemalan Refugees. Between Sponsored Return and National Integration »
15This article relates the story of the Guatemalan refugees who fled to Mexico in the early 1980s. First, they spontaneously settled or were grouped in camps in the state of Chiapas before being transferred to rural settlements in Campeche and Quintana Roo. Changes in the government’s refugee policy have led to actions in favour of repatriation and to attempts to integrate these persons in Mexico. The social transformation of this heterogenous population is examined, i.e. how some of these refugees have adapted to their new environment and how others have been politically working for a return to their homelands.
16Key-words : Refugees — Asylum Policy — Integration — Repatriation — Camps — Rural Settlements — Mexico — Guatemala.
Véronique Lassailly-Jacob : « Mozambican Refugees on Zambian Land. A Case Study of the Ukwimi Refugee Agricultural Settlement, 1987-1994 »
17This article describes rural settlements, a special form of camps proposed by the UNHCR as part of a policy for integrating refugees in the first country of asylum. Designed to alleviate the burden of asylum, rural settlements provide arable land to refugees to help them becoming self-sufficient and locally integrated. Questions are asked about the reality of integration and self-sufficiency in areas devoted to such settlements. The relationships between refugees and local populations cannot be understood without taking into consideration the repercussions of humanitarian aid and government asylum policies. These hypothesis have come out of a case study of a rural settlement set up by the UNHCR in southeast Zambia, where Mozambican refugees have mixed with Zambian farmers for seven years.
18Key-words : Rural Refugees — Host Population — Rural Settlements — Development Aid — Asylum Policy — Zambia — Mozambique.
Julien Mauriat : « Palestinian Refugee Camps in Beirut, 1948-1998 »
19Since the end of the war in Lebanon in 1990, Palestinian refugee camps, set up for fifty years now around Beirut, have been reorganized spatially and demographically. As a result, refugees and local people are restoring everyday relations, even though boundaries still mark lines of segregation. In Beirut’s southern suburbs, the Chatila and Borj El-Brajneh camps typify this situation as isolated enclaves outside the control of Lebanese authorities.
20Key-words : Camps — Integration — Internal Reorganization — Enclaves — Palestine — Lebanon.
Fabrice Mignot : « The Rock of Prosperity. Reintegrating Refugees in Laos »
21Since the early 1990s, the UNHCR has built 29 villages in Laos to repatriate refugees. These returnees have resorted to former cultural patterns with regard to architecture and the distribution of space. They have closed off areas for ethnic groups and clans. But they have also brought back from exile modern ways, such as international economic networks and productive investments. Despite international aid, they face collective problems such as managing the water supply.
22Key-words : Repatriation — New Villages — Planning — Water Management — Cultural Features — International Networks — Laos.
Marc-Antoine Pérouse de Montclos : « Financial Networks and Hawilad. The Role of the Somali Diaspora in Reconstructing the Homeland »
23The war and destruction of the economy in Somalia has sent refugees abroad, especially in the West. These poorly integrated Somalis maintain close ties with the homeland and send money to kin there. Through organizations called hawilad, these remittances carry economic, social and political weight in the country; and these organizations could be a major asset for reconstruction programs. However productive investments in Somalia cannot be sustained since fighting periodically breaks out anew.
24Key-words : Remittances — Diaspora — Refugees — Civil War Economy — Reconstruction — Islamic Banks — Khat — Somalia.
Stéphane de Tapia : « The Role of Migratory and Refugee Movements in Nation-Building. Turkey »
25Since the 1960s, Turkey has been known as a land from which workers or refugees emigrate. What is less well known is that it has been a land of transit and immigration for persons looking for work in Europe or Turkey. Since 1771, this part of the former Ottoman Empire has attracted millions of persons displaced owing to numerous conflicts in the Balkans, the Mideast, the Caucasus or around the Black Sea, and even immigrants from as far away as Siberia or Sinkiang in China. Not all these people spoke Turkic languages, or even had Turkish origins. Except for a few Christians allied with the Empire, all of them were Muslim. These peoples have played an important role in building the modern state, not only owing to their numbers but also due to their ideologies, beliefs and convictions.
26Key-words : Refugees — Returnees — Nation-state — Nationalism — Pan-Turk — Political Integration — Turkey.
Christel Thibault : « Robbed Lands, Mined Lands. Obstacles to the Return of Cambodian Refugees and Constraints to National Reconstruction »
27Since the 1970s, a large part of the Cambodian population has been forced to move for various reasons. Escaping from the totalitarian Khmer Rouge regime, the Vietnamese occupation or conflicts between political parties, several hundred thousand Cambodians found temporary shelter in camps located along the Thai border. Resettling these refugees in Cambodia is a problem given the lack of land: fields have been devastated, still harbour land mines, or have been turned over to veterans, who force civilians to work for them or even evict them.
28Key-words : Border — Refugees — Camps — Landmines — Land Disputes — Soldiers — Cambodia.
© IRD Éditions, 2001
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