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The Development of International Refugee Protection through the Practice of the UN Security Council

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Christiane Ahlborn

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Books

1Alvarez, J., International Organizations as Law-Makers (2006).

2Brownlie, I., The Rule of Law in International Affairs: International Law at the Fiftieth Anniversary of the United Nations (1998).

3Brownlie, I., Principles of Public International Law (2008).

4Castaneda, J., Legal Effects of United Nations Resolutions (1969).

5Phuong, C., International Protection for Internally Displaced Persons (2004).

6Clapham, A., Human Rights Obligations of Non-State Actors (2006).

7Boyle, A. and C. Chinkin, The Making of International Law (2007).

8De Wet, E., The Chapter VII Powers of the United Nations Security Council (2004).

9Eggli, A.V., Mass Refugee Influx and the Limits of Public International Law (2002).

10Farrall, M., United Nations Sanctions and the Rule of Law (2007).

11Hannum, H., The Right to Leave and Return in International Law and Practice (1987).

12Goodwin-Gill, G.S., The Refugee in International Law (1996).

13Goodwin-Gill, G.S. and J. McAdam, The Refugee in International Law (2007).

14Helton, C., The Price of Indifference – Refugees and Humanitarian Action in the New Century (2002).

15Henckaerts, J.-M., Mass Expulsions in International Law and Practice (1995).

16Henckaerts, J.M. and L. Doswald-Beck (eds.), Customary International Humanitarian Law (Volume I: Rules) (2005).

17Higgins, R., The Development of International Law through the Political Organs of the United Nations (1963).

18Higgins, R., Problems and Process: International Law and How We Use It (1994).

19Holborn, L.W., The International Refugee Organization: A Specialized Agency of the United Nations (1956).

20International Commission on Intervention and State Sovereignty, The Responsibility to Protect (2001).

21Jackson, I.C., The Refugee Concept in Group Situations (1999).

22Kälin, W., Guiding Principles on Internal Displacement: Annotations (2008).

23Kelsen, H., Pure Theory of Law (1934), translated by M. Knight (1967).

24Kelsen, H., The Law of the United Nations (1951).

25Leckie, S., Housing and Property Restitution Rights of Refugees and Displaced Persons: Law, Cases and Materials (2007).

26Makinda, S.M., Seeking Peace from Chaos: Humanitarian Intervention in Somalia (1993).

27McAdam, J., Complementary Protection in International Refugee Law (2006).

28Norwegian Refugee Council, Institutional Arrangements for Internally Displaced Persons: The Ground Level Experience (1995).

29Österdahl, I., Threat to the Peace: The Interpretation by the Security Council of Article 39 of the UN Charter (1998).

30Picchio Forlati L. and L.-A. Sicilianos, Les sanctions économiques en droit international/Economic Sanctions in International Law (2004), 293.

31Sandoz, Y., C. Swinarski and B. Zimmermann (eds), Commentary on the Additional Protocols of 8 Jun. 1977 to the Geneva Conventions of 12 Aug. 1949 (1987).

32Sarooshi, D., The United Nations and the Development of Collective Security: The Delegation by the UN Security Council of its Chapter VII Powers (1999).

33Thomé, N., Les Pouvoirs du Conseil de Sécurité au regard de la Pratique Récente du Chapitre VII de la Charte des Nations Unies (2005).

34De Vattel, E., The Law of Nations or the Principles of Natural Law Applied to the Conduct and to the Affairs of Nations and of Sovereigns (Vol. III) (1758), translated by C.G. Fenwick (1916).

35Wallensteen, P., Understanding Conflict Resolution: War, Peace and the Global System (2002).

36Wellens, K.C., Resolutions and Statements of the United Nations Security Council (1946-1989): A Thematic Guide (1990).

37Yamashita, H., Humanitarian Space and International Politics: The Creation of Safe Areas (2004).

Articles and Contributions to Collections

38Abi-Saab, G., ‘The Security Council as Legislator and as Executive in its Fights Against Terrorism and Against Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction: The Question of Legitimacy’, in R. Wolfrum and V. Röben (eds.), Legitimacy in International Law (2008), 109.

39Allain, J., ‘The Jus Cogens Nature of Non-refoulement’, (2002) 13 International Journal of Refugee Law 533.

40Alvarez, J., ‘Hegemonic International Law Revisited’, (2003) 97 AJIL 873.

41Barnett, L., ‘Global Governance and Evolution of the International Refugee Regime’, (2002) 14 International Journal of Refugee Law 238.

42Benvinisti E. and E. Zamir, ‘Private Claims to Property Rights in the Future Israeli-Palestinian Settlement’, (1995) 89 AJIL 324.

43Bertrand, P., ‘An Operational Approach to International Refugee Protection’, (1994) 26 Cornell International Law Journal 495.

44Bianchi, A., ‘Ad-Hocism and the Rule of Law’, (2002) 13 EJIL 263.

45Bianchi, A., ‘Security Council’s Anti-Terror Resolutions and their Implementation by Member States’, (2006) 4 Journal of International Criminal Justice 1044.

46Bindschedler, R.L., ‘La délimitation des compétences des Nations Unies’, (1963) 108 Recueil des cours 307.

47Boisson de Chazournes, L., ‘Les résolutions des organes des Nations Unies, et en particulier du Conseil de sécurité, en tant que source de droit international humanitaire’, in L. Condorelli et al. (eds.), Les Nations Unies et le Droit International Humanitaire/The United Nations and International Humanitarian Law (1996), 149.

48Bothe, M., ‘Legal and Non-legal Norms: A Meaningful Distinction in International Relations?’, (1980) 11 NYIL 65.

49De Brichambaut, M.P., ‘The Roleof the United Nations Security Council in the International Legal System’, in M. Byers (ed.), The Role of Law in International Politics (2001), 269.

50Brownlie, I., ‘The Decisions of Political Organs of the United Nations and the Rule of Law’, in Ronald St. J. Macdonald (ed.), Essays in Honour of Wang Tieya (1993), 91.

51Bruin, R. and K. Wouters, ‘Terrorism and the Non-derogability of Non-refoulement’, (2003) 15 International Journal of Refugee Law 5.

52Bryde, B.-O. and A. Reinisch, ‘Article 50’, in B. Simma (ed.), The Charter of the the United Nations. A Commentary (2002), 784.

53Burci, G.L., ‘The Indirect Effects of United Nations Sanctions on Third States: The Role of Article 50 of the UN Charter’, (1995) 2 African Yearbook of International Law 157.

54Chetail, V., ‘Voluntary Repatriation in Public International Law: Contents and Contents, (2004) 23 Refugee Survey Quarterly 26.

55Chimni, B.S., ‘Post-Conflict Peace-Building and the Return of Refugees: Concepts Practices and Institutions’, in Edward Newman and Joanne van Selm (eds.), Refugees and Forced Displacement: International Security, Human Vulnerability, and the State (2003), 195.

56Clapham, A., ‘The Responsibility to Protect – ‘Some Kind of Commitment’, in V. Chetail (ed.), Conflits, sécurité et cooperation/Conflicts, Security and Cooperation. Liber Amicorum Victor-Yves Ghebali (2007), 169.

57Cohen, R., ‘The Guiding Principles on Internal Displacement: An Innovation in International Standard Setting’, (2004) 10 Global Governance 459.

58Conforti, B., ‘Le rôle de l’accord dans le système des Nations Unies’, (1974) 142 Recueil des cours 203.

59Doering, K., ‘Unlawful Resolution of the Security Council and their Legal Consequences’, (1997) 1 Max Planck Yearbook of United Nations Law 91.

60Dowty A. and G. Loescher, ‘Refugee Flows as Grounds for International Action’, (1996) 21 International Security 43.

61Edwards, A., ‘Crossing Legal Borders: The Interface Between Refugee Law, Human Rights Law and Humanitarian Law in the “International Protection” of Refugees’, in R. Arnold and N. Quénivet (eds.), International Humanitarian Law and Human Rights Law: Towards a New Merger in International Law (2008), 421.

62El-Erian, A., ‘The Legal Organization of International Society’, in M. Sorensen (ed.), Manual of Public International Law (1968), 55.

63Falk, R., ‘On the Quasi-Legislative Competence of the General Assembly’, (1966) 60 AJIL 782.

64Feller, E., ‘The Responsibility to Protect: Closing the Gaps in the International Protection Regime, in J. McAdam (ed.), Forced Migration, Human Rights and Security (2008), 283.

65Freeman, P., ‘International Intervention to Combat the Explosion of Refugees and Internally Displaced Persons’, (1995) 9 Georgetown Immigration Law Journal 565.

66Frowein, J.A. and N. Krisch, ‘Introduction to Chapter VII’, in B. Simma (ed.), The Charter of the United Nations. A Commentary (2002), 717.

67Goodwin-Gill, G.S., ‘Right to Leave, Return and Remain’, V. Gowlland-Debbas, The Problem of Refugees in the Light of Contemporary International Law Issues (1996), 93.

68Goodwin-Gill, G.S., ‘Forced Migration, Refugee Rights and Security’, in J. McAdam (ed.), Forced Migration, Human Rights and Security (2008), 1.

69Goodwin-Gill, G.S., ‘The Politics of Protection’, (2008) 27 Refugee Survey Quarterly 8.

70Gowlland-Debbas, V., ‘La responsabilité internationale de l’Etat d’origine pour des flux de réfugiés,’ in A. Pedone (ed.), Droit d’asile et des réfugiés (1997), 93.

71Gowlland-Debbas, V., ‘The Functions of the United Nations Security Council in the International Legal System’, in M. Byers (ed.), The Role of Law in International Politics. Essays in International Law and International Politics (2000), 277.

72Gowlland-Debbas, V., ‘La Charte des Nations Unies et la Convention de Genève du 28 Juillet 1951 Relative au Statut des Réfugiés’, in V. Chetail (ed.), La Convention de Genève du 28 Juillet 1951 Relative au Statut des Réfugiés 50 Ans Après: Bilan et Perspectives (2001), 193.

73Gowlland-Debbas, V., ‘Concluding Reflections on the International Protection of Refugees’, in V. Chetail and V. Gowlland-Debbas (eds.), Switzerland and the International Protection of Refugees/La Suisse et la protection international des réfugiés (2002), 269.

74Gowlland-Debbas, V., ‘The Link Between Security and International Protection of Refugees and Migrants’, in V. Chetail (ed.), Mondialisation, Migration et Droits de l’Homme: le Droit International en Question/Globalization, Migration and Human Rights: International Law under Review (2007), 281.

75Gowlland-Debbas, V., ‘Collective Security Revisited in Light of the Flurry Over UN Reform: An International Law Perspective, in V. Chetail (ed.), Conflits, sécurité et coopération/Conflicts, security and cooperation (2008), 251.

76Gowlland-Debbas, V., ‘Security Council Enforcement Action and Issues of State Responsibility’, (1996) 43 International and Comparative Law Quarterly 55.

77Grombach Wagner, J., ‘An IHL/ICRC Perspective on Humanitarian Space’, (2005) 32 Humanitarian Practice Network, available at http://www.odihpn.org/​report.asp?ID=2765.

78Hammerstad, A., ‘Whose Security? UNHCR, Refugee Protection and State Security After the Cold War, (2000), 31 Security Dialogue 391.

79Hampson F.O. and C.K. Penny, ‘Human Security’, in T.G. Weiss and S. Daws (eds.), The Oxford Handbook on the United Nations (2007), 539.

80Hathaway, J. and A. Neve, ‘Making International Refugee Law Relevant Again: A Proposal for Collectivized and Solution-Oriented Protection’, (1997) 10 Harvard Human Rights Journal 115.

81Jaquemet, S., ‘The Cross-Fertilization of International Humanitarian Law and International Refugee Law’, (2001) 83 International Review of the Red Cross 651.

82Kolb, R., ‘Aspects historiques de la relation entre le droit international humanitaire et les droits de l’homme’, (1999) 37 CYIL 57.

83Koskenniemi, M., ‘The Police in the Temple – Order, Justice and the UN: A Dialectical View, (1995) 6 EJIL 325.

84Kourula, P., ‘International Protection of Refugees and Sanctions: Humanizing the Blunt Instrument’, (1997) 9 International Journal of Refugee Law 255.

85Lamb, S., ‘Legal Limits to United Nations Security Council Powers’, in G.S. Goodwin-Gill and S. Talmon (eds.), The Reality of International Law. Essays Brownlie (1999), 361.

86Landgren, K., ‘Safety Zones and International Protection: A Dark Grey Area’, (1995) 7 International Journal of Refugee Law 436.

87Lapidoth, R. ‘The Right to Return in International Law, with Special Reference to the Palestinian Refugees’, (1986) 16 Israel Yearbook of Human Rights 103.

88Lee, L.T., ‘The Declaration of Principles of International Law on Compensation to Refugees: Its Significance and Implications’, (1993) 6 Journal of Refugee Studies 532.

89Lee, L.T., ‘The Refugee Convention and Internally Displaced Persons’, (2002) 13 International Journal of Refugee Law 363.

90Le Mon, C.J. and Rachel S. Taylor, ‘Security Council Action in the Name of Human Rights: From Rhodesia to the Congo’, (2004) 10 U.C. Davis Journal of International Law & Policy 198.

91Lewis, C., ‘UNHCR’s Contribution to the Development of International Refugee Law: Its Foundation and Evolution’, (2005) 17 International Journal of Refugee Law 67.

92Lillich, R.B., ‘The Role of the UN Security Council in Protecting Human Rights in Crisis Situations: UN Humanitarian Intervention in the Postcold War World’, (1995) 3 Tulane Journal of International and Comparative Law 1.

93Loescher, G., ‘A Disaster Waiting to Happen’, The Guardian, 2 Feb. 2003, available at http://www.guardian.co.uk/​world/​2003/​feb/​02/​iraq.immigration.

94Loescher, G., ‘Refugees as Grounds for International Action’, in E. Newman and J. van Selm (eds.), Refugees and Forced Displacement: International Security, Human Vulnerability, and the State (2003), 31.

95Lubbers, R., ‘Message’, in M.N. Schmitt and G.L. Beruto (eds.), Terrorism and International Law: Challenges and Responses. Contributions Presented at the “Meeting of Independent Experts on Terrorism and International Law: Challenges and Responses. Complementary Nature of Human Rights Law, International Humanitarian Law and Refugee Law (2003), 13.

96Mathew, P., ‘Resolution 1373 – A Call to Pre-empt Asylum Seekers? (or ‘Osama, the Asylum Seeker’)’, in Jane McAdam (ed.), Forced Migration, Human Rights and Security (2008), 19.

97Mousalli, M., ‘The Evolving Functions of the Office of the High Commissioner for Refugees’, in V. Gowlland and L. Samson (eds.), Problems and Prospects of Refugee Law. Papers Presented at the Colloquium Organized by the Graduate Institute of International Studies in Collaboration with the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, Geneva, 23 and 24 May 1991 (1992), 81.

98Newland K. and D.W. Meyers, ‘Peacekeeping and Refugee Relief’, (1998) 5 International Peacekeeping 15.

99Noll, G., ‘Securitizing Sovereignty? States, Refugees, and the Regionalization of International Law’, in E. Newman and J. van Selm (eds.), Refugees and Forced Displacement: International Security, Human Vulnerability, and the State (2003), 277.

100Öberg, M.D., ‘The Legal Effects of Resolutions of the UN Security Council and General Assembly in the Jurisprudence of the ICJ’, (2006) 16 European Journal of International Law 879.

101Okafor, O.C. and P.L. Okoronkwo, ‘Re-configuring Non-refoulement? The Suresh Decision, ‘Security Relativism’, and the International Human Rights Imperative’, (2003) 15 International Journal of Refugee Law 30.

102Ogata, S., ‘The Right to Remain’, (1993) 92 Refugees 11.

103Österdahl, I., ‘The Exception as the Rule: Lawmaking on Force and Human Rights by the UN Security Council’, (2005) 10 Journal of Conflict & Security Law 1.

104Palley, C., ‘Legal Issues Arising from Conflicts between UN Humanitarian and Political Mandates – A Survey’, in V. Gowlland-Debbas (ed.), The Problem of Refugees in the Light of Contemporary International Law Issues (1994), 145.

105Reinisch, A., ‘Developing Human Rights and Humanitarian law Accountability of the Security Council for the Imposition of Economic Sanctions’, (2001)
95 AJIL 851.

106Reisman, M.W. and D.L. Stevick, ‘The Applicability of International Law Standards to United Nations Economic Sanctions Programmes’, (1998)
9 EJIL 86.

107Rottensteiner, C., ‘The Denial of Humanitarian Assistance as a Crime under International Law’, (1999) 835 International Review of the Red Cross 555.

108Sarooshi, D. ‘The Legal Framework Governing United Nations Subsidiary Organs’, (1996) 67 BYIL 413.

109Saul, B., ‘Exclusion of Suspected Terrorists from Asylum: Trends in International and European Refugee Law’, (2004) 26 IIIS Discussion Paper (University of Oxford).

110Scheinin, M., ‘CombatingTerrorism while Protecting Human Rights’ (2009), available at http://www.regjeringen.no/​nb/​dep/​ud/​kampanjer/​refleks/​innspill/​menneskerettigheter/​combating_terrorism.html?id=535383.

111Schmeidl, S., ‘The Early Warning of Forced Migration: State or Human Security?’, in E. Newman and J. van Selm (eds.), Refugees and Forced Displacement: International Security, Human Vulnerability, and the State (2003), 130.

112Schotten, G., ‘Der aktuelle Fall: Wiederholtes Verbot für Hilfsflüge durch die sudanesische Regierung – gibt es ein Recht auf Zugang für humanitäre Hilfsorganisationen im nicht-internationalen bewaffneten Konflikt?’, (1999) 12 Humanitäres Völkerrecht – Informationsschriften 34.

113Schotten, G. and Biehler, A., ‘The Role of the UN Security Council in Implementing International Humanitarian and Human Rights Law’, in R. Arnold and N. Quénivet (eds.), International Humanitarian Law and Human Rights Law: Towards a New Merger in International Law (2008), 309.

114Stahn, C., ‘Responsibility to Protect: Political Rhetoric or Emerging Legal Norm?’, (2007) 101 AJIL 1.

115Sugino, K., ‘The “Non-Political and Humanitarian” Clause in UNHCR’s Statute’, (1998) 17 Refugee Survey Quarterly 34.

116Swaak-Goldman, O., ‘Case Analysis: The Crime of Persecution in International Criminal Law’, (1998) 11 LYIL 145.

117Szasz, P., ‘General Law-Making Processes’, in C.C. Joyner (ed.), The United Nations and International Law (1997), 27.

118Szasz, P., ‘The Security Council Starts Legislating’, (2002) 96 AJIL 901.

119Talmon, S., ‘The Security Council as World Legislature’, (2005) 99 AJIL 175.

120Tavernier, P., ‘Les déclarations du Président du Conseil de Sécurité’, (1993) 39 Annuaire Français de Droit International 86.

121Tammes, A.J.P., ‘Decisions of International Organs as a Source in International Law’, (1958) 94 Recueil des cours 261.

122Tomuschat, C., ‘State Responsibility and the Country of Origin’, in V. Gowlland-Debbas (ed.), The Problem of Refugees in the Light of Contemporary International Law Issues (1994), 59.

123Tostensen A. and B. Bull, ‘Are Smart Sanctions Feasible?’, (2002) 54 World Politics 373.

124Türk, V., ‘Freedom from Fear: Refugees, the Broader Forced Displacement Context and the Underlying International Protection Regime’, in V. Chetail (ed.), Mondialisation, Migration et Droits de l'Homme: le Droit International en Question/Globalization, Migration and Human Rights: International Law under Review (2007), 475.

125Vallat, F.A., ‘The General Assembly and the Security Council of the United Nations’, (1952) 29 British Yearbook of International Law 63.

126Veuthey, M., ‘Refugiés, droits de l’homme, droit humanitaire, paix et sécurité, in V. Gowlland and L. Samson (eds.), Problems and Prospects of Refugee Law. Papers Presented at the Colloquium Organized by the Graduate Institute of International Studies in Collaboration with the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, Geneva, 23 and 24 May 1991 (1992), 49.

127Weiner, M., ‘The Clash of Norms: Dilemmas in Refugee Policies’, (1998) 11 Journal of Refugee Studies 433.

128Wellens, K.C., ‘The UN Security Council and New Threats to the Peace: Back to the Future’, (2003) 8 Journal of Conflict and Security Law 15.

129Wenger, C., ‘Le Comité de la Croix-Rouge et les Réfugiés’, in C. Constantopoulos, The Refugee Problem on Universal, Regional and National Level (1987), 3.

130Williams, R.C., ‘Guiding Principle 29 and the Right to Restitution’, (2008) Forced Migration Review: Ten Years of the Guiding Principles on Internal Displacement (GP 10) 23, at 23.

131Wood, M., ‘The Interpretation of Security Council Resolutions’, (1998) 2 Max Planck Yearbook of United Nations Law 73.

132Zeender, G., ‘Engaging Non-State Actors on Internally Displaced Persons Protection’, (2005) 24 Refugee Survey Quarterly 97.

Case Law

International Jurisdictions

International Court of Justice

133Admission of a State to the United Nations, Advisory Opinion of 28 May 1948, [1948] ICJ Rep. 57.

134Application for Review of Judgment No. 158 of the UN Administrative Tribunal Advisory Opinion of 12 Jul. 1973, [1973] ICJ Rep. 166.

135Application of the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide (Bosnia and Herzegovina v. Serbia and Montenegro), Judgment of 26 Feb. 2007, [2007] ICJ Rep.

136East Timor (Portugal v. Australia), Preliminary Objections, Judgment of 30 Jun. 1995, [1995] ICJ Rep. 90.

137Effect of Awards of Compensation Made by the UN Administrative Tribunal (Advisory Opinion of 13 Jul. 1954, [1954] ICJ Rep. 47.

138Legal Consequences for States of the Continued Presence of South Africa in Namibia (South West Africa), Advisory Opinion of 20 Jun. 1971, [1971]
ICJ Rep. 16.

139Legal Consequences of the Construction of a Wall in the Occupied Palestinian Territory, Advisory Opinion of 9 Jul. 2004, [2004] ICJ Rep. 136.

140Legality of the Threat or Use of Nuclear Weapons, Advisory Opinion of 8 Jul. 1996, [1996] ICJ Rep. 226.

141Military and Paramilitary Activities in and against Nicaragua case (Nicaragua v. United States of America), Judgment of 27 Jun. 1986, [1986] ICJ Rep. 14.

142North Sea Continental Shelf Cases (Federal Republic of Germany v. Denmark; Federal Republic of Germany v. The Netherlands), Judgment of 20 Feb. 1969, [1969] ICJ Rep. 3.

143Questions of Interpretation and Application of the 1971 Montreal Convention arising from the Aerial Incident at Lockerbie (Libyan Arab Jamahiriya v. United States of America), Preliminary Objections, Judgment of 27 Feb. 1998, [1998] ICJ Rep. 3.

144Reparations for Injuries Suffered in the Service of the United Nations, Advisory Opinion of 11 Apr. 1949, [1949] ICJ Rep. 174.

Court of the European Communities

145Case 41/74, Van Duyn v. Home Office [1975] 1 CMLR 1.

146Case T-315/01 Yassin Abdullah Kadi v. Council and Commission [2005] ECR II-3649.

International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia

147Prosecutor v. Tadić, Decision on the Defence Motion for Interlocutory Appeal on Jurisdiction, Case No. IT-94-1, A.C. (2 Oct. 1995).

148Prosecutor v. Kupreskić, Judgment, Case No. IT-95-16-T (14 Jan. 2000).

149Prosecutor v. Radislav Krstić, Judgment, Case No. IT-98-33 (2. Aug. 2001).

Municipal Jurisdictions

Supreme Court of Canada

150Suresh v. Canada (Minister of Citizenship and Immigration) 2002 SCC 1. File No.: 27790.

Treaties

International Treaties

151Additional Protocol I to the 1949 Geneva Conventions, 1125 UNTS 3 (8 Jun. 1977).

152Additional Protocol II to the 1949 Geneva Conventions, 1125 UNTS 609 (8 Jun. 1977).

153Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (193 UNTS 135 (3 Sept. 1981).

154Convention of the Rights of the Child, 1577 UNTS 3 (2 Sept. 1990).

155Convention on the Safety of United Nations and Associated Personnel, 2051 UNTS 363 (15 Jan. 1999).

156Geneva Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees, 189 UNTS 150 (22 Apr. 1954).

157Geneva Convention Relative to the Protection to Civilian Persons in Time of War, 75 UNTS 287 (12 Aug. 1949).

158Geneva Convention Relative to the Treatment of Prisoners of War, 75 UNTS 135 (12 Aug. 1949).

159International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, 999 UNTS 171 (23 Mar. 1976).

160International Covenant on Economic Social and Cultural Rights, 993 UNTS 3 (3 Jan. 1976).

161Protocol Relating to the Status of Refugees, 606 UNTS 267 (4 Oct. 1967).

162Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court, 2187 UNTS 90 (1 Jul. 2002).

163Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties, 1155 UNTS 331 (27 Jan. 1980).

Regional Treaties

164Cartagena Declaration on Refugees, adopted at a colloquium entitled “Coloquio Sobre la Proteccíon Internacional de los Refugiados en Américan Central, México y Panamá: Problemas Jurídicos y Humanitarios” held at Cartagena, Colombia from 19–22 Nov. 1984, Annual Report of the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights, OAS Doc. OEA/Ser.L/V/II.66/doc.10, rev. 1, at 190-93 (1984-85).

165OAU Convention Governing the Specific Aspects of RefugeeProblems in Africa, 1001 UNTS 45 (20 Jun.1974).

Bilateral Treaties

166Abuja Ceasefire Agreement for Sierra Leone (10 Nov. 2000).

167Abuja Peace Agreement for Darfur (5 May 2006).

168Agreements on a Comprehensive Political Settlement of the Cambodian Conflict, 31 ILM 183, 184 (23 Oct. 1991).

169Arusha Peace and Reconciliation Agreement for Burundi (28 Aug. 2000).

170Comprehensive Peace Agreement for Nepal (21 Nov. 2006).

171General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina, 35 ILM 75 (15 Dec. 1995).

172Rambouillet Accords on Kosovo (19 Mar. 1999).

United Nations Documents

Security Council Resolutions

173UN Doc. S/RES/232 (16 Dec. 1966).

174UN Doc. S/RES/253 (29 May 1968).

175UN Doc. S/RES/361 (13 Dec. 1974).

176UN Doc. S/RES/365 (13 Dec. 1974).

177UN Doc. S/RES/488 (4 Nov. 1977).

178UN Doc. S/RES/661 (6 Aug. 1990).

179UN Doc. S/RES/668 (20 Sept. 1990).

180UN Doc. S/RES/687 (3 Apr. 1991).

181UN Doc. S/RES/688 (5 Apr. 1991).

182UN Doc. S/RES/717 (16 Oct. 1991).

183UN Doc. S/RES/718 (31 Oct. 1991).

184UN Doc. S/RES/724 (15 Dec. 1991).

185UN Doc. S/RES/733 (23 Jan. 1992).

186UN Doc. S/RES/751 (24 Apr. 1992).

187UN Doc. S/RES/752 (15 May 1992).

188UN Doc. S/RES/757 (30 May 1992).

189UN Doc. S/RES/758 (8 Jun. 1992).

190UN Doc. S/RES/761 (29 Jun. 1992).

191UN Doc. S/RES/767 (24 Jul. 1992).

192UN Doc. S/RES/787 (16 Nov. 1992).

193UN Doc. S/RES/794 (3 Dec. 1992).

194UN Doc. S/RES/814 (26 Mar. 1993).

195UN Doc. S/RES/819 (16 Apr. 1993).

196UN Doc. S/RES/820 (17 Apr. 1993).

197UN Doc. S/RES/827 (25 May 1993).

198UN Doc. S/RES/836 (4 Jun.1993).

199UN Doc. S/RES/841 (16 Jun. 1993).

200UN Doc. S/RES/764 (13 Jul. 1993).

201UN Doc. S/RES/918 (17 May 1994).

202UN Doc. S/RES/925 (8 Jun. 1994).

203UN Doc. S/RES/998 (16 Jun. 1994).

204UN Doc. S/RES/929 (22 Jun. 1994).

205UN Doc. S/RES/940 (31 Jul. 1994).

206UN Doc. S/RES/941 (23 Sept. 1994).

207UN Doc. S/RES/942 (23 Sept. 1994).

208UN Doc. S/RES/955 (8 Nov. 1994).

209UN Doc. S/RES/971 (15 Jan. 1995).

210UN Doc. S/RES/986 (14 Apr. 1995).

211UN Doc. S/RES/999 (16 Jun. 1995).

212UN Doc. S/RES/1031 (15 Dec. 1995).

213UN Doc. S/RES/1004 (12 Jul. 1996).

214UN Doc. S/RES/1009 (10 Aug. 1996).

215UN Doc. S/RES/1078 (9 Nov. 1996).

216UN Doc. S/RES/917 (6 May 1997).

217UN Doc. S/RES/ 1132 (8 Oct. 1997).

218UN Doc. S/RES/1156 (16 Mar. 1998).

219UN Doc. RES/1199 (23 Sept. 1998).

220UN Doc. S/RES/1208 (19 Nov. 1998).

221UN Doc. S/RES/1234 (9 Apr. 1999).

222UN Doc. S/RES/1239 (14 May 1999).

223UN Doc S/RES/1244 (10 Jun. 1999).

224UN Doc. S/RES/1261 (25 Aug. 1999). 

225UN Doc. S/RES/1264 (15 Sept. 1999).

226UN Doc. S/RES/1265 (17 Sept. 1999).

227UN Doc. S/RES/1267 (12 Oct. 1999).

228UN Doc. S/RES/1269 (19 Oct. 1999).

229UN Doc. S/RES/1272 (25 Oct. 1999).

230UN Doc. S/RES/1286 (19 Jan. 2000).

231UN Doc. S/RES/ 1296 (10 Apr. 2000).

232UN Doc. S/RES/1308 (17 Jul. 2000).

233UN Doc. S/RES/1314 (11 Aug. 2000).

234UN Doc. S/RES/1319 (20 Sept. 2000).

235UN Doc. S/RES/ 1325 (21 Oct. 2000).

236UN Doc. S/RES/1355 (15 Jun. 2001).

237UN Doc. S/RES/1373 (28 Sept. 2001).

238UN Doc. S/RES/1375 (29 Oct. 2001).

239UN Doc. S/RES/1377 (12 Nov. 2001).

240UN Doc. S/RES/1379 (20 Nov. 2001).

241UN Doc. S/RES/1456 (20 Jan. 2003).

242UN Doc. S/RES/1460 (30 Jan. 2003). 

243UN Doc. S/RES/1470 (28 Mar. 2003).

244UN Doc. S/RES/1483 (22 May 2003).

245UN Doc. S/RES/1502 (26 Aug. 2003).

246UN Doc. S/RES/1740 (21 May 2004).

247UN Doc. S/RES/1556 (30 Jul. 2004).

248UN Doc. S/RES/1596 (18 Apr. 2005).

249UN Doc. S/RES/1612 (26 Jul. 2005).

250UN Doc. S/RES/1624 (14 Sept. 2005).

251UN Doc. S/RES/1645 (20 Dec. 2005).

252UN Doc. S/RES/1674 (28 Apr. 2006).

253UN Doc. S/RES/1679 (16 May 2006).

254UN Doc. S/RES/1706 (31 Aug. 2006).

255UN Doc. S/RES/1770 (10 Aug. 2007).

256UN Doc. S/RES/1778 (25 Sept. 2007).

257UN Doc. A/RES/1781 (15 Oct. 2007).

258UN Doc. S/RES/1785 (21 Nov. 2007).

259UN Doc. S/RES/1790 (18 Dec. 2007).

260UN Doc. S/RES/1794 (21 Dec. 2007).

261UN Doc. S/RES/1801 (20 Feb. 2008).

262UN Doc. S/RES/ 1806 (20 Mar. 2008).

263UN Doc. S/RES/1812 (30 Apr. 2008).

264UN Doc. S/RES/1820 (19 Jun. 2008).

General Assembly Resolutions

265UN Doc. A/RES/194 (III) (11 Dec. 1948).

266UN Doc. A/RES/217A (III) (12 Dec. 1948).

267UN Doc. A/RES/428 (V) (14 Dec. 1950).

268UN Doc. A/RES/429 (V) (14 Dec. 1950).

269UN Doc. A/RES/686 (VII) (5 Dec. 1952).

270UN Doc. A/RES/1499 (XV) (5 Dec. 1960).

271UN Doc. A/RES/1673 (XVI) (18 Dec. 1961).

272UN Doc. A/RES/1959 (XVIII) (12 Dec. 1963).

273UN Doc. A/RES/2294 (XXII) (11 Dec. 1967).

274UN Doc. A/RES/2958 (XXVII) (12 Dec. 1972).

275UN Doc. A/RES/3143 (XXVIII) (14 Dec. 1973).

276UN Doc. A/RES/3212 (XXIX) (1 Nov. 1974).

277UN Doc. A/RES/3271 (XXXIX) (10 Dec. 1974).

278UN Doc. A/RES/3455 (XXX) (2 Aug. 1976).

279UN Doc. A/RES/34/30 (20 Nov. 1979).

280UN Doc. A/RES/34/60 (29 Nov. 1979).

281UN Doc. A/RES/51/77 (12 Dec. 1996).

282UN Doc. A/RES/36/148 (16 Dec. 1981).

283UN Doc. A/RES/36/148 (16 Dec. 1982).

284UN Doc. A/RES/41/70 (3 Dec. 1986).

285UN Doc. A/RES/47/105 (26 Apr. 1993).

286UN Doc. A/RES/48/141 (7 Jan. 1994).

287UN Doc. A/RES/48/135 (18 Feb. 1994).

288UN Doc. A/RES/48/116 (24 Mar. 1994).

289UN Doc. A/RES/49/58 (17 Feb. 1995).

290UN Doc. A/RES/49/169 (24 Feb. 1995).

291UN Doc. A/RES/50/58E (12 Dec. 1995).

292UN Doc. A/RES/50/51 (29 Jan. 1996).

293UN Doc. A/RES/51/208 (17 Dec. 1996).

294UN Doc. A/RES/51/210 (17 Dec. 1996).

295UN Doc. A/RES/51/193 (10 Feb. 1997).

296UN Doc. A/RES/51/242 (26 Sept. 1997).

297UN Doc. A/RES/52/103 (9 Feb. 1998).

298UN Doc. A/RES/52/132 (27 Feb. 1998).

299UN Doc. A/RES/53/125 (12 Feb. 1999).

300UN Doc. A/RES/56/137 (15 Feb. 2002).

301UN Doc. A/RES/57/219 (27 Feb. 2003).

302UN Doc. A/RES/58/177 (12 Mar. 2004).

303UN Doc. A/RES/60/1 (16 Sept. 2005).

304UN Doc. A/RES/60/42 (8 Dec. 2005).

305UN Doc. A/RES/60/124 (15 Dec. 2005).

306UN Doc. A/RES/60/128 (16 Dec. 2005).

307UN Doc. A/RES/60/147 (16 Dec. 2005).

308UN Doc. A/RES/60/168 (16 Dec. 2005).

309UN Doc. A/RES/60/180 (30 Dec. 2005).

310UN Doc. A/RES/1674 (26 Apr. 2006).

311UN Doc. A/RES/1781 (15 Oct. 2007).

312UN Doc. A/RES/63/148 (27 Jan. 2009).

313UN Doc. A/RES/63/185 (3 Mar. 2009).

International Law Commission documents

314ILC, Preliminary Report on the Protection of Persons in the Event of Disasters by Mr. Eduardo Valencio-Ospina, Special Rapporteur, A/CN.4/598 (5 May 2008).

315ILC, Protection of Persons in the Event of Disasters: Memorandum by the Secretariat, UN Doc. A/CN.4/590 (17 Dec. 2007).

316ILC, Report on the Protection of Persons in the Event of Disasters by Mr. Eduardo Valencio-Ospina, Special Rapporteur, A/CN.4/615 (7 May 2009).

Reports of the Secretary-General

317Report of the Secretary-General on strengthening of the coordination of emergency humanitarian assistance of the United Nations, UN Doc. A/45/587 (24 Oct. 1990).

318Report of the Secretary-General on the work of the organization, UN Doc. A/48/1 (10 Sept. 10 1993).

319Report of the Secretary-General on the work of the organization: Supplement to an Agenda for Peace, UN Doc. A/50/60-S/1995/1 (3 Jan. 1995).

320Report of the Secretary-General on the implementation of the provisions of the Charter of the United Nations related to assistance to third States affected by the application of sanctions under Chapter VII of the Charter, UN Doc. A/50/361 (22 Aug. 1995).

321Report of the Secretary-General on economic assistance to States affected by the implementation of the Security Council resolutions imposing sanctions against the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro), UN Doc. A/50/423 (12 Sept. 1995).

322Report of the Secretary-General on economic assistance to States affected by the implementation of the Security Council resolutions imposing sanctions against the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro), UN Doc. A/51/356 (13 Sept. 1996).

323Report of the Secretary-General on causes of conflict and the promotion of durable peace and sustainable development in Africa, UN Doc. S/1999/308-A/52/871 (25 Sept. 1997).

324Report of the Secretary General on protection for humanitarian assistance to refugees and others in Conflict situations, UN Doc. S/1998/883 (22 Sept. 1998).

325Report of the Secretary-General on the protection of civilians, UN Doc. S/1999/957 (8 Sept. 1999).

326Report of the Secretary-General on the protection of civilians, UN Doc. S/2002/1300 (26 Nov. 2002).

327Report of the Secretary-General on the protection of civilians, UN Doc. S/2007/643 (28 Oct. 2007).

328Report of the Secretary-General on “Implementing the Responsibility to Protect”, UN Doc. A/63/677 (12 Jan. 2009).

Security Council Presidential Statements and Notes

329UN Doc. S/23500 (31 Jan. 1992).

330UN Doc. S/24728 (29 Oct. 1992).

331UN Doc. S/25035 (30 Dec. 1992).

332UN Doc. S/PRST/1995/9 (22 Feb. 1995).

333UN Doc. S/PRST/1995/41 (23 Aug. 1995).

334UN Doc. S/PRST/1997/34 (19 Jun. 1997).

335UN Doc. S/RES/1132 (7 Oct. 1997).

336UN Doc. S/PRST/1999/1 (7 Jan. 1999).

337UN Doc. S/PRST/2005/20 (26 May 2005).

338UN Doc. S/PRST/2000/1 (13 Jan. 2000).

339UN Doc. S/PRST/2001/26 (26 Sept. 2001).

340UN Doc. S/PRST/1996/1 (5 Jan. 1996).

341UN Doc. S/PRST/2008/18 (23 Mar. 2008).

Security Council meetings

342UN Doc. S/PV.2982 (5 Apr. 1991).

343UN Doc. S/PV.3238 (16 Jun. 1993).

344UN Doc. S/PV.3875 (24 Apr. 1998).

345UN Doc. S/PV.4089 (13 Jan. 2000).

346UN Doc. S/PV.4219 (10 Nov. 2000).

347UN Doc. S/PV.4291 (8 Mar. 2001).

348UN Doc. S/PV.4470 (7 Feb. 2002).

349UN Doc. S/PV.4973 (20 May 2004).

350UN Doc. S/PV.5353 (24 Jan. 2006).

351UN Doc. S/PV. 6062 (8 Jan. 2009).

Economic and Social Council

352UN Doc. E/RES/248 (IX)B (8 Aug. 1949).

353UN Doc. E/RES/1705 (LIII) (27 Jul. 1972).

354UN Doc. E/RES/2011 (LXI) (2 Aug. 1981).

United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees

355Executive Committee Conclusion No. 74 (XLV) (1991).

356Executive Committee Conclusion No. 75 (XLV) (1994).

357Executive Committee Conclusion No. 87 (L) (1999).

358Executive Committee Conclusion No. 94 (LIII) (2002).

359Executive Committee Conclusion No. 99 (LV) (2004).

360Executive Committee Conclusion No. 105 (LVII) (2006).

361Executive Committee Conclusion No. 107 (LVIII) (2007).

362UN Doc. A/AC.96/588 (16 Oct. 1980).

363UN Doc. A/49/12/Add.1 (20 Oct. 1994).

364UN Doc. A/AC.96/713 (15 Aug. 1988).

365UN Doc. A/AC.96/728 (2. Aug. 1989).

366UN Doc. A/AC.96/777 (7 Sept. 1991).

367UN Doc. A/AC.96/799 (25 Jul. 1992).

368UN Doc. A/AC.96/989 (7 Jul. 2004).

369Sadako Ogata, ‘Role of Humanitarian Action in Peacekeeping’, Keynote Address at 24th Annual Vienna Seminar (5 Jul. 1994).

370‘Statement to the Security Council by Soren Jessen-Petersen’, UNHCR New York (21 May 1997), reprinted in (1998) 17 Refugee Survey Quarterly 65.

371Statement by Mrs Sadako Ogata, UN High Commissioner for Refugees, at the UNICEF Executive Board (15 Jun. 1992).

372Statement by Mrs. Sadako Ogata, United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, to the United Nations Security Council, New York (11 Mar. 1993).

373Statement by Mrs Sadako Ogata, United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, to the Humanitarian Issues of the Peace Implementation Council, Geneva (6 Apr. 1999).

374FAO/IDMC/OCHA/OHCHR/UN-Habitat/UNHCR, Handbook on Housing and Property Restitution for Refugees and Displaced Persons (2007).

375UNHCR, ‘UNHCR’s Role with Internally Displaced Persons’, IOM/33/93-FOM/33/93 (28 Apr. 1993).

376UNHCR, Handbook on Voluntary Repatriation: International Protection (1996).

377UNHCR, ‘Internally Displaced Persons: The Role of the High Commissioner for Refugees’, UN Doc. E/50/SC/INF.2 (20 Jun. 2000)

378UNCHR, 2008 Global Trends: Refugees, Asylum-Seekers, Returnees, Internally Displaced and Stateless Persons (2009).

Human Rights Commission

379UN Doc. E/CN.4/1992/73 (5 Mar. 1992).

380UN Doc. E/CN.4/Sub.2/1997/31 (27 Mar. 1997).

381UN Doc. E/CN.4/Sub.2/2005/17 (11 Jul. 2005).

382UN Doc. E/CN.4/Sub.2/2005/17/Add.1 (11 Jul. 2005).

383UN Doc. E/CN.4/Sub.2/RES/2005/21 (11 Aug. 2005).

Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights

384Committee on Economic, Social, Cultural Rights, General Comment 8: The Relationship between Economic Sanctions and Economic Social and Cultural Rights, E/C.12/19997/8 (12 Dec. 1997).

Other documents

385Provisional Rules of the Security Council, UN Doc. S/96/Rev. 7 (21 Dec. 1982).

386UN Draft Convention on expediting the delivery of emergency assistance, UN Doc. A/39/267/Add.2-E/1984/96/Add.2 (18 Jun. 1984).

387Letter from the Secretary-General Addressed to the President of the Security-Council, UN Doc. S/22366 (20 Mar. 1991).

388Eide, E.B. et al., Report on Integrated Missions : Practical Perspectives and Recommendations, Independent Study for the Expanded UN ECHA Core Group (May 2005).

389Inter-Agency Standing Committee, Background Document: Preserving Humanitarian Space, Protection and Security, WO/0803/2583/7 (26 Feb. 2008).

390Hoskins, E., The Impact of Sanctions: A Study of UNICEF’s Perspective (1997).

391UNICEF, Impact of Reduction in Food Ration on the Most Vulnerable Children and Women (Baghdad, Oct. 1994).

392UN, Repertory of Practice of United Nations Organs (Vol. 1) (1955), 228.

393Von Braunmühl C. and M. Kulessa, The Impact of UN Sanctions on the Population in Iraq Since the Gulf Crisis, WHO/EHA96.1 (Mar. 1996).

Other Reports or Documents

394Council of the International Institute of Humanitarian Law, Guiding Principles on the Right to Humanitarian Assistance, adopted in San Remo (Apr. 1993).

395Institut de Droit International/Sixteenth Commission, Humanitarian Assistance : Resolution, adopted at the Bruges Session (2003).

396International Law Association, Principles of International Law on Compensation to Refugees, adopted at its 65th Conference in Cairo (Apr. 1992).

397Security Council Report, Cross-Cutting Report: Protection of Civilians (2008).

Websites and Databases

398Repertoire of the Practice of the Security Council: http://www.un.org/​Depts/​dpa/​repertoire/​.

399Security Council Report: http://www.securitycoucilreport.org.

400UNHCR: http://www.unhcr.org.

Newspaper Articles

401The Economist, ‘Responsibility to protect: An idea whose time has come – and gone?’, 23 Jul. 2009, available at http://www.economist.com/​world/​international/​displayStory.cfm?story_id=14087788.

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