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The Comfort of Strangers

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Jinmi Adisa

Index

Texte intégral

-A-

Action Aid 60, 61

Africa Refugee Day 2 AICF 60, 85

Amin, Idi

attitude toward Banyarwanda 40-41

Arusha Accords (1993) 12, 23, 27, 28

opposed by Hutu 12

Association pour la Promotion des Masses 20

-B-

Balalo [see Banyarwanda] 44

Banyarwanda 19

defined 39

attempts to integrate into Uganda 40

and Milton Obote 40

and Idi Amin 40-41

and Museveni’s national résistance army 41

exit of Tutsi from Uganda (1994) 42-43

meat shortage 43-44

effect on economy 44

Banyarwanda Immigration Mission 18

Belgian Red Cross 60

Belgium rule over Congo Colony 18

rule over Rwanda 18

(1919-1962) 19

1945— political reforms 19

and civil strife 20

aid to Rwanda 79

Britain 77

Bujumbura 56, 57, 60, 61, 62

Bukavu 63, 64, 66, 69, 72

Bunindi [Unindi] 11, 13, 18, 27, 28, 36

map, refugee population 51

Ntaryamira 11, 48, 48fn

Rwandan refugees in 21, 25, 33, 47, 48,48fn, 49-53, 54-55, 58, 59,

Ndadaye (Président) 27, 48, 49

refugees in Tanzania 34

refugees in Rwanda 48, 48fn

political instability (1994) 25, 47

population 47fn

Hutu/Tutsi confrontations 48

Hutu dominated Front pour la Démocratie au Burundi 48, 48fn

Burundi cont’d

Tutsi controlled army 48

refugees in Zaire 48 fn

exit of Rwandan Tutsi refugees (1994) 49

food crisis 49-50

inflation (1992-1994) 49-50

influx of Hutu refugees (1994) 50-51

return of Tutsi (April 1994) 50, 52

environmental havoc 52-53

Hutu/Tutsi camp politics 55

border clashes with Tanzania 58

and repatriation of Rwandan refugees 59

forced repatriation of Rwandan refugees 76

Burundi Emergency Relief Assistance (Dec. 1993) 28

-C-

Cairo Summit (1995) 84-86

Cankuzo (Burundi) 61 CARE 55, 57, 58, 61

Australia 85

CARITAS 55, 61, 80

Carter, Jimmy 84, 85, 86

Catholic Relief Services 56, 60, 61

Chama Cha Mapinduzi 35

cholera

in Tanzania 29, 32

in Zaire 64

Clinton, Bill 64

CNN 29

Cold War 5, 6, 7

post-Cold War 8

Communauté Economique des Pays des Grands Lacs 72

Congo 19, 20

Congo Colony 18

-D-

Dakin, Lloyd

Deputy Representative, UNHCR 26

Dar-es-Salaam 25

Declaration of (1991) 12

UNDP donor conference 77

Davidson, Basil 17

Deforestation

in Tanzania 31-32

in Burundi 52-53

in Zaire 65-66

Division Spéciale Présidentielle (Zaire) attack on Kigali 72

-E-

Entebbe (Uganda) 64

environmental degradation

in Tanzania 31-32

in Burundi 52-53

in Zaire 65-66

prominent issue in peace settlement 76-77

European Development Fund 61

European Economic Community (EEC) 77

European Union 47, 79

-F-

First World War 3, 4

Forces Armée Rwandaises 12, 69

in Zaire 70, 71, 74

Fourth (4th) Ethnicity 59

French aid to Great Lakes Region 77

French training camps for Hutu 70

French zone in Bukavu 63

Front pour la Démocratie au Burundi (FRODEBU) 48, 48fn, 59

-G-

Genocide Tribunal (Arusha, Tanzania) 84-85

German Red Cross, Benaco, Tanzania 29

Germany

as colonial rulers in Rwanda (1899-1919) 15, 19

Gesellschaft fur Technische Zusammenarbeit [GTZ] 61-62

Gisenyi (Rwanda) 63, 82fn

Gitarama (Rwanda) 21, 82

Gitega (Burundi) 61

Goma (Zaire) 63, 67, 69, 72, 74

and influx of Rwandan refugees 64

cholera epidemic 64-65

Mashaka Mamba Sebi 66

and violence in the camps 70

Great Lakes Region 74

of East and Central Africa 11, 14, 21

political strife in 63

Great Lakes Region cont’d

insecurity 63, 75, 76

economic community 72

effect of Rwandan refugees on 75-88

regional approach to refugee resettlement 81-84

deconcentration of refugees 84, 86

Guatemala 2

Guichaoua, A. 21

-H-

HABITAT (see UN Centre for Human Settlements) 9

Habyarimana (Major General Juvenal) 11, 22, 82, 82fn

death of in 1994 11, 12, 13, 18, 22, 23

escalation of civil war 13

exodus of Hutu 23

and economic migration policies 18, 35-36

came to power (1973) 22

a friend to Mobutu 71

Hamitic thesis 19

history of refugee relief agencies 1-9

[see UN High Commission for Refugees]

refugees from World War I 3, 4

refugees from World War II 5

High Commission for Refugees 4

funding 5

and communism 5, 7

in Rwanda 11

holocaust 4

Human Rights Watch Arms Project 70

Hungarian Revolution (1946) 6

Hutu 12, 16, 17, 21, 22, 45

and reprisals against Tutsi 12

historical relationship with Tutsi 13

population 13

early settlement in Rwanda 14

political organization 14

ruling head (mwami) 14

came under Tutsi rule 15

northern Hutu 15

ethnic identity 16, 17

ubuhake system 16, 17

becoming a Tutsi 17

heightened political awareness 19

Bahutu Manifesto 19

electoral victory (1960) 20

Hutu cont’d

fled from Rwanda (1994) 23

death of Ntaryamira 48 fn

political power, Burundi 48

extremists

training in Lumasi camp (Tanzania) 36

fear of reprisals 36-37

moved to Uganda (1994) 42

first Hutu president of Burundi (see Ndadaye, M) 27-28, 48, 49, 78

inter-ethnic Hutu rivalry 82 82fn

Front pour la Democratic au Burundi 48, 48fn, 59

militia in Zaire 69

leaders and Cairo Summit 89

hardliners in the camps 86

fear of reprisals in Kigali 86-87

-I-

IFRC 60

India 5

Initiative Humanitaire Africaine 57

Intergovernmental Committee for European Migration 5

International Committee of the Red Cross 64

International Conference on Assistance to Refugees 2

International Conference on Central American Refugees 2

International Monetary Fund (IMF) 22

International Red Cross 58

International Refugee Organization 4-5

Intersos 60

inyenzi 21

Iron Curtain 5

-K-

Kagame Paul (Major) Rwanda Patriotic Front 23

Kamanda wa Kamanda, Gérard 68

Kampala, headquarters of Rwanda Patriotic Front 23

Kayanza (Burundi) 62

Kayibanda Grégoire (Hutu)

elected president of Rwanda (1961) 20, 82

anti-Tutsi tactics 21-22

overthrown (1973) 22

Kent, Randolf

UN coordinator 78

Kenya 82

Kigali 12, 21, 49, 51, 59, 69

and pace of repatriation 44-45

and Tutsi returnees 49

reprisals against Hutu 86-87

Kigeri V (Mwami) 16, 20

Kinyarwandan 18, 18fn

Kirundo (Burundi) 51, 54, 55, 60-62

Kisangani (Zaire) 72

Kivu Province (Zaire) 66, 72

North 18, 66-67, 68

South 66-67, 68

refugee problem 76

Kivumbu (Burundi) 52

-L-

Lake Victoria 25

Lasearis, Dimtri 56

League of Nations 4

and Belgian administration of Rwanda 18

Lemarchand, René 18

Lindt, August 6

Loescher, Gil 3

-M-

Main d’Oeuvre Rwandaise 18

McWhinney, D. 57

Médecins du Monde 85

Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) 64, 85

Burundi 58

France 60

Mobutu [see Sese Seko, Mobutu]

Moi, Arap 82

Mombasa (Kenya) 64

Mozambique

refugees in Tanzania 34

refugees and Treaty of Rome 27

Museveni, Yoweri 23, 71

and Banyarwanda in Ugandan National Résistance Army 41

rival of Mobutu 71, 72

Muyinga (Bunindi) 60, 61, 62

Mwinyi (former President of Tanzania) 35

mzungu (strangers) 33

-N-

Nairobi 64, 69

Namibia

refugees in Tanzania 34

Nansen, Fridtjof 4

National Institute for Agronomic Studies and Research (INERA) 66, 69

National Résistance Army (Uganda) 23, 41

National Rwandan Union (UNAR) 21-22

Nazis 4

Ndadaye, Melchior (Hutu) 27-28, 48, 49, 78

first president of Burundi (1993) 51

political power in Burundi 48

Front pour la Democratic au Burundi 48

N’dow, Wally 9

Netherlands 77

aid to Rwanda 79 Newbury, C. 15

Ngozi (Burundi) 51, 59

UNHCR 54, 60, 62

World Food Programme 60

Non government organizations (NGOs)

in Burundi relief efforts 27, 28, 47, 52, 54, 55

in Tanzania 29, 30

Intersos 61

violence against in Burundi 56-57

efforts toward rehabilitation of refugees 79

North Kivu (Zaire) 18

Goma 18

Masisi 18

Rutshuru 18

Ntaryamira, Cyprien 11

death of (1994) 48fn

Nyerere, Julius

attitude toward refugees 34, 35

-O-

Obote, Milton

marginalization of Rwandan refugees 40

reprisals against’Banyarwandan 41

Operation Turquoise 72

Organisation of African Unity 2, 12

OXFAM 30

in Tanzania 29

in Burundi 55

-R-

Rally for Retum and Democracy in Rwanda 69

refoulement 76

Ruanda [see Rwanda] 18

Rudahigwa, Charles Mutura (Tutsi) 20

refugee

UN définition of 1-2

in Eastern Europe 4

post-Cold War era 3

post-World War II 4

Chinese 7

Algerian 7

Rwandan 7

Third World 7

problem in Great Lakes Région of East

Africa 75 (see Rwanda)

refugee camps in Great Lakes Region in Uganda 39, 40 ;

Kisoro 42 ;

Ntungamo, 42 ;Oruchinga 42 ;

Nakivale 42, 44 ; Rwembogo 42fn

in Zaïre : Rugome 55 ; Kibumba 66 ;

Mugunga 66, 69 ;Katale 66 ; Nyabirehe 66 ; INERA 69 ; Kitshushu 69

in Tanzania 28 [table 1] : Ngara 25 ;

Karagwe 25, 32 ; Kagera region 25 ;

Lumasi 29, 35-36 ; Musuhura 29 ; Kitale 29 ; Benaco 29, 30 (table 2)

in Burundi 51 ; Magara 51, 53, 59 ; Majuri 51, 53, 55 ; Kibezi 51 ;

Ruvumbu 51 ; Rukuramigabo 53, 55 ; Mugano 51, 53, 55 ; Ntamba 51, 52, 55

Ruhengeri (Rwanda) 63, 82fn

Ruyigi (Burundi) 60

Rwanda (Ruanda)

refugee problem (history of) 11-13

refugees in Zaire, Tanzania, Uganda and Burundi 11

death of Habyarimana and escalation of civil war 12-13

and exodus of Hutu 12-13, 25

Hutu/Tutsi history 13-15

German rule in 15

Belgian rule 18

Hutu/Tutsi pre-colonial relations 17

nineteen major clans 17

Rwanda cont’d

customs 17

geographic parameters 17

famine 18

colonial rule 18

and economic migration 18

independence (1962) 20

Hutu hegemony 20

coup and second republic (1973) 22

refugees in Tanzania 37

refugees in Uganda 39-45

refugees in Museveni’s NRA 41

mass exodus from Uganda (1994) 41-42

Kigali and Hum refugees returning from Uganda 44

Hutu refugees in Burundi 47-58, 59

Tutsi refugees in Burundi 49-55

refugee impact on Great Lakes Region 75

risk of renewed civil war 76

severe economic problems 78-79

proposed refugee resettlement schemes 82-84

deconcentration of refugees 86, 87

ability to reabsorb Hutu refugees 87

Rwanda Patriotic Front (RPF) 11

based in Kampala, Uganda 11

Tutsi dominated 11

signed peace accord with Rwanda in Arusha (1993) 12

and death of Habyarimana 23

logistic support in Uganda 41

exodus of Tutsi from Burundi (1994) 49

and Tutsi refugees in Burundi 49-50

and Hutu repatriation 59

and Rwandan civil war 63, 76

and donor reluctance toward 79

and Cairo Summit (1995) 85

and reprisals for genocide, 86

Rwandan Democratic Assembly (RADER) 21, 22

Rwandan National Army 12

Rwigyema, Fred (General) RPF leader 23

-S-

Savimbi, Jones 72

Sebi, Mashaka Mamba (Mayor of Goma), 66

Second World War 3

refugees 4

Sese Seko, Mobutu 66, 71-72, 73, 74, 83

his role in opening Zaire to Rwandan refugees 72

attack on Kigali 72

Cairo Summit 84-85

South Africa

refugees in Tanzania 34

-T-

Tanzania 11, 13, 18, 45

refugees from Rwanda 21, 23, 75-76

refugees from Burundi 37, 51, 52

Rwandan refugees in Burundi heading toTanzania 37

Kagera region

economic resettlement programme with Rwanda 18, 34-36

negative impact of refugees 30-34

environmental degradation 32

health services 32

refugee build up (1994) 25, 28

map of Kagera Region 26

Karagwe camps 25

Ngara refugee camp 25, 29, 30, 32, 33

influx of refugees from Burundi 28 statistics 29

camp sites, Lumasi, Musuhura, Benaco, Kitale 29, 32

relief agencies

World Food Programme 30

OXFAM 30

UNICEF 30

Murgwanza hospital (Ngara) 29, 35

official response to refugees 35-37

Julius Nyerere 34, 35

Mwinyi government 35

resettlement schemes 37

Lumasi camp and Hutu extremists 35-36

economic inflation 33

Tassi, Kabany Kimuha 67

Terres des Hommes 85

Third World refugees, 6, 7

vulnerability to communism 7

and Cold War 5-8

Treaty of Rome 27

Tutsi 11, 16, 17

and Rwanda Patriotic Front 11

Hutu reprisals against Tutsi in Rwanda 12

socio-historical relationship with Hutu 13

Tutsi cont’d

population of 13

earliest evidence of in Rwanda 14

came to dominate Rwandan politics 15

ethnic identity 16, 19 ubuhake 16, 17

Tutsi administration and colonial rule 19

defeated in 1960 national election 20

Tutsi refugees fled Rwanda 1959-1973 21

inyenzi incursions 21

decimation of Tutsi in Rwanda 21

1994 Tutsi take-over 23

Batutsi Council of Ritual Chiefs 20

repatriation and land claims 38

refugees in Uganda 21, 39

exodus from Uganda 41, 42

exodus from Burundi 49

history of Tutsi movement in Burundi 49-52

exodus & influx (1994) from Burundi 50-51

extremists in Burundi 57, 58

Twa (pygmy) 15, 16-17

minority group in Rwanda 13

population of 13

original inhabitants of area 14

marginalized in Rwanda 16

-U-

Uganda 25, 39-45

Kigezi 18

refugees from Rwanda 21

base of Rwanda Patriotic Front 11, 23

and political instability in Rwanda 45

30-year history of Rwanda refugees 39

economic migrants 39 resettled refugees 39-40

Banyarwandan

under Obote 40-41

under Amin 40-41

in National Résistance Army 41

mass exodus (1994) 41-42

Luwero triangle 41

Museveni, Yoweri and National Résistance Army 3, 41

Ugandan Peoples’ Congress 40

Ugandan Peoples’ Démocratie Movement 41

ujaama 35

Umotomi, Christine

Rwanda Deputy Rehabilitation Minister 85

Union pour le Progrès National (Burundi) 48 fn

United Nations

Geneva Conventions (1951) 1-2

Works and Relief Agencies for Palestine Refugees 5

Korean Reconstruction Agency 5

Security Council and Peace-keeping and Rwanda 12

United Nations Assistance Mission to Rwanda 65, 85

United Nations Centre for Human Settlements [HABITAT] 9, 77

United Nations Children’s Fund 29, 30, 31

and malnutrition in Burundi 50

violence against in Burundi 60-61

United Nations Development Programme (UNDP)

food survey in Burundi 49, 50

violence against 61

in Zaire 66 donor conference in Dar-es-Salaam 77

United Nations Environmental Programme 77

United Nations High Commission for Refugees 5

expansion of 6, 7

first established by League of Nations (1921) 4

re-established under United Nations (1950) 5,6

and Hungarian Revolution 6

and Third World crises 6

after Cold War 8

peace-keeping efforts in Rwanda 12

and Hutu refugees in Burundi 27-28

Burundi Emergency Relief Assistance 28

relief operations in Tanzania (table 2) 30

in Ngara, (Tanzania) 32

in Uganda 40, 42

in Burundi 51-52, 53, 55, 57

and indemnization of private lands in Burundi 53

violence against 56, 57, 58, 60-62

mass exodus of Rwandan refugees in Zaire 64

food and water crises in Goma, Zaire 64

UNREO 60, 61

United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Agency 4

United Nations Round Table 79

United States

Escapee Programme 5

and aid to Great Lakes Region 64, 65, 77

Urundi [see Burundi] 18

-V-

Violence

in Burundi 54, 55, 57, 60-62

against international aid agencies 57-59

against World Food Programme Trucks 56-57

in Zaire 70, 68-70

in Rwanda (1944) 75

inter-ethnic 47

against UNICEF in Burundi 60-61

against UNDP 61

against UNHCR 60-63

Virunga National Park 66

-W-

Watson, Catherine

women refugees, 79

status of 80

disrupted family life 80

single-parent households 80

self-help groups in the Zaire camps 80-81

World Food Programme

in Tanzania 29, 48fn, 49, 50, 54

in Burundi 55-56

survey in 49-50

and transport vehicles 54

food hand-outs and self-reliance 56

violence against 56-57, 60-62

in Zaire 64

and relief to women 80

-Y-

Yalta Agreement (1945) 4

-Z-

Zaire 11, 13, 18

map 73

Rwandan refugees in 21, 23, 42, 45, 63-74, 75

refugees in Tanzania 34-35

Hutu refugees 45

en-masse arrival of Rwandan refugees (July 1994) 63, 63fn

cholera epidemic 29

Rwandan refugees and crime 68

attitude of host community 68

Hutu hardliners in the camps 69, 70

arming and training Hutu insurgents 71

Mobutu’s position in Great Lakes Region, 71-72, 74, 83-85

and possible effect of a Hutu/Tutsi civil war 76

Zimbabwe

refugees in Tanzania 34

Zolberg, A. 5

© Institut français de recherche en Afrique, 1995

Conditions d’utilisation : http://www.openedition.org/6540

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