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The grammars of adjudication

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Zouhair Ghazzal

Annexes

Index

Texte intégral

We have adopted the transliteration system of the International Journal of Middle East Studies (New York: Cambridge University Press).

Translation and transliteration of Arabic and Turkish terms is provided in the Glossary, which is not indexed here. References to specific court and majālis cases, listed in the Table of cases, is not provided here. The index is mostly organized along thematic entries, many of which were crucial in the overall organization of the book.

Abū Íanīfa al-Nu‘mān

absence of defendants, 455f.

on custom, 99

Íanafi general rules, 22

original meaning of text, 100

revocability or irrevocability of waqfs, 480

Abū Yūsuf, Ya‘qūb b. Ibrāhīm (d. 182/798)

absence of defendants, 455f.

Amālī, 51

currencies, 220

custom and text, 95f.

kharāj, 285f., 299, 307

names, 135

revocability or irrevocability of waqfs, 323, 480

seven classes of anafī jurists, 48, 131

Adjudication

based on a favored opinion, 47

case histories. See Sharī‘a courts cases

and court procedures, 12-13

and judicial decision making, 11-12, 101-104

judges. See Qāī

jurists, 47

muftīs, 47

and procedural fictions, 12

sharī‘a courts. See Ottoman sharī‘a courts

American common law

assumpsit, 421

consideration, 172, 421

contract, 225

contractual liability, 267 n. 162

Analogy (qiyās), 225, 229, 274

Aouad, Ibrahim, 331f.

Arabi, Oussama, 172 n. 5

Atiyah, P.S., 186

Austin, J.L., 328, 506f.

‘Ayn (property of the tangible thing)

a‘yān versus amwāl, 604

haqq ‘aynī, 179, 181

and milk, 213

in relation to debt, 13, 174

tamlīk al-‘ayn, 261

in waqfs, 494

al-Azmeh, Aziz, 112 n. 5

Baer, Gabriel, 247

Barthes, Roland, 639 n. 61

Batatu, Hanna, 578 n. 6

Bāin (hidden meaning)

and āhir, 56, 622

Bāz, Salīm Rustum, 232 n. 104, 312 n. 72

Berque, Jacques

on the Moroccan judicial system, 7 n. 4

Bilād al-Shām (Greater Syria), 322

Birqāwī, Shaykh Muammad Efendi al-

as Íanbalī judge in Damascus, 147f.

Boltanski, Luc, 277 n. 1

Bourdieu, Pierre

on customary rules, 65 n. 45

Le sens pratique, 84, 341 n. 31

Braudel, Fernand

longue durée, 106

material civilization, 9

Cardozo, Benjamin N.

and the sens évolutif, 88 n. 60

Casuistry, 82

Chehata, Chafik, 203f., 208

Chevallier, Dominique, 341 n. 31

Code civil, French Civil code (1804)

and property, 10 n. 8

on tenancy contracts, 229

transplant into Ottoman law, 169, 599

Commanding right and forbidding wrong, 114

Contract

ajr al-mithl, 175, 231, 261, 269f.

bay‘ bāil, 191, 207

bay‘ fāsid, 191, 207

contractual loan, 190

contractual settlement, 13, 169f., 171, 693

contrat aléatoire, 179

as debt. See Dayn

economics of, 180f., 195f.

executory exchange, 174

ghab, 174

historical knowledge of, 182, 203f.

ījāb wa-qabūl, 172, 178, 185, 188, 204f., 422f., 427

istinā‘, 194, 229, 586

kadak (gedik), 227, 232f., 236f., 247, 273f.

khulū, 55, 228, 230f., 236f., 247, 273f.

language of, 267

lease, 260f.

as legal formulas, 169

loans with interest, 193, 209

māl, 174, 207f., 213, 217, 221

māl mutaqawwam, 206f., 212, 217, 221, 249, 403, 586, 591, 620, 628f.

marriage contract, 224, 262f.

marad, 208-209, 227, 237f., 242f., 272, 424, 568

mashadd maskeh, 227-228, 230, 248f., 271, 567f.

murābaa (markup contract), 539, 584f., 607

nasī’a, 190, 194, 209

nominated contracts, 179

obligation, 174, 180

partnership, 203

personal right, 184

property rights, 169f.

real versus virtual, 184

rent, 204, 229, 272

ribā, 190-191, 193, 584f.

and risk, 181, 189

salam, 190, 194, 218, 229, 232, 586

sale contract, 201f., 211, 229

self-correcting contractual settlements, 321

sharecropping, 227, 253f., 305, 317, 556

shuf‘a, 204

simultaneous performance, 181

sixth general anafī rule and khulū, 55

and status, 169f., 173

status to contract, 170

tamlīk al-manfa‘a, 177, 184, 202, 214

tenancy contracts, 229f.

as tradition, 171

transaction costs, 173

type-contract, 12, 169

with undetermined value of exchange, 58

unnamed contracts, 182

usury (unnamed), 584f.

voidable contracts, 191
witnesses, 185

Cook, Michael, 114 n. 10

Court. See Ottoman sharī‘a courts

Crime

‘āqila, 626, 631f., 663

body and value of organs, 619f.

content of typical crime case, 638f.

contractual settlements, 650f.

crime litigation as procedural fiction, 639f.

criminal evidence, 615f., 622

damaged body parts as māl mutaqawwam, 620, 626, 628f., 637, 654

debt (cycle of), 654f., 683f. See also Dayn

deliberate act, 631

diya, 620, 628, 638, 648, 664, 673, 684

economics of, 676f.

evidence-as-inquiry, 653

group settlement, 651f.

hard cases, 657f.

intention, 614f., 621f.

kinship settlements, 628f.

murderous triangle, 654f.

next of kin, 618, 632, 662f.

oath-taking, 656

parricide, 647f.

premeditated versus deliberate killings, 626f.

premeditation, 622

punishment (rarity of), 618

purpose, 622

regional councils (public jurisdiction of), 670f.

tool of the crime, 60

tool-of-killing as corpus delicti, 615f., 621f.

usurpation, 620

and victim’s inheritance, 663

visibility of premeditation, 622

Cuno, Kenneth M., 289 n. 31

Currencies, weights, and measures

and custom, 78

Custom. See ‘Urf

Damascus regional councils (1844-45), 525f., 670f.

Dayn (debt)

as action for damages, 233

and criminal settlements, 654f.

as dhimma, 183, 186, 188-189, 216, 219, 233, 403, 420

as gift, 185, 351

in marad contracts, 240-241

and obligation, 183

as obligation to deliver, 420

as personal right, 183

as a primitive contractual form, 427

in procedural fictions, 184, 187f., 233f., 346-352, 404-406

as property (tamlīk al-dayn), 13

pseudo-debt, 188

in relation to ‘ayn, 13, 183-184

time lag, 185

Debt. See Dayn

Derrida, Jacques

itérabilité, 131f.

répétition, 131f.

and textuality, 328

Discourse analysis

and author, 3

counterfactual juristic discourse, 279f.

definition of, 2-3, 277f.

and Ottoman historiography, 8-9

and performative role of discourse, 3, 328, 506f.

of pre-modern societies, 7-8, 61f.

as répétition, 131f.

and texts, 3, 328f.

Economic analysis

and capitalism, 4 n. 3

crisis of vision in, 4 n. 3

economics of justice, 512

and law, 4-5

and Ottoman societies, 5-6, 199f., 287

prices, 216f.

value, 216f.

Education

of Damascus ‘ulamā’, 38f.

Elias, Norbert, 112

English common law

compared to sharī‘a system, 472-476

contract as a promise, 208

lawyers and scholars, 21

plea rolls, 155 n. 48

Evidence, proof, and persuasion

as dalīl, 45

divine, 45

anafī fiqh, 45

in anafī general rules, 24f.

Fatwās, 268, 271, 273f., 277, 282 n. 15, 441f., 505, 518, 638, 659, 665

Fiqh (Islamic jurisprudence)

definition of, 3 n. 1

discursive origins, 35f.

jurists. See Fuqahā’

Foucault, Michel, 221 n. 78, 325 n. 5, 326 n. 7, 623 n. 22

Foundations. See Uūl

Fungibles, 219

Fuqahā’ (jurists, s. faqīh)

discourse of, 40

sorting out conflicting opinions, 48

Garapon, Antoine, 278 n. 3

Geertz, Clifford, 345

Gernet, Louis, 171

Ghazālī (d. 505/1111)

on intention (niyya), 60

Gilmore, Grant, 225 n. 86, 267 n. 162

Gilsenan, Michael, 412 n. 14

Ginzburg, Carlo, 138 n. 31

Guys, Henri, 342

Habermas, Jürgen

contrafactual (or counterfactual) idealizations, 131-132

facts and norms, 278 n. 2, 279 n. 5

universal pragmatics, 507 n. 48

Hallaq, Wael

fatāwā (role of), 485 n. 23

anafī juristic typology, 49

qādī’s dīwān (sijill), 151f.

anafī practice, anafism

Amālī texts, 46

contextualization, 62

custom, 58

fatwās. See Fatwās

fictitious sales, 335

founders’ texts, 46

āditha, 454

hādithat al-fatwā, 454

hierarchy of texts, 46

iyal, 138

ijtihād, 49, 62, 136, 575

judges. See Qāī

juristic typology, 49, 61, 130, 326, 466

jurists. See Fuqahā’

khuūma as faked litigation, 321f., 489

language, 58, 72

legal doctrine, 101-104

and the mīrī-iltizām system, 4

muftīs. See Muftī

and non-Muslims millets, 319, 335f., 337-339, 339 n. 28, 570, 609

obligation, 348

private communal law, 564

private versus public guardianship, 602

and property transfers, 4

in relation to Ottoman qānūn, 118, 574

in relation to regional councils, 564f.

representations of judicial and political power, 113

sorting out conflicting opinions, 48

sultanic ordinances, 573f.

sultanic power, 120, 574

abaqāt (status-as-class), 48f.

utterance and purpose, 58

anafī general rules. See al-Qawā‘id al-kulliya

Íarfūshs of Ba‘albak (Emirs), 525f.

Harik, Iliya, 329 n. 10, 330 n. 13

Hart, H.L.A.

custom becoming law, 106

Íaydar, ‘Alī

Ottoman Majalla (Shar), 94f., 225f., 229, 377 n. 83, 487 n. 24

Hermeneutics

and the external manifest meaning of text, 7, 57

hermeneutical process, 57-58

of texts, 7. See also Texts

utterances (meaning of), 57

Heyd, Uriel, 116 n. 15

Hobbes, Thomas, 112 n. 6

Hodgson, Marshall, 115, 173, 396

Holmes, Oliver Wendell, 225, 421, 637

Horwitz, Morton J., 681 n. 108

Íukm (ruling)

and custom, 83

and fatwās, 277

judges. See Qāī

‘Ibādāt (religious rituals)

in first general rule (niyya), 59

in anafī general rules, 22

Ibn ‘Ābidīn, Muammad Amīn (1198/1783-1252/1836)

appointment of judges, 120

‘ayn as property, 261

biography, 37f.

Book of judging, 109f.

bribery, 121

custom and text, 55-56, 73, 223

diya, 621

farāgh, 230f., 248

fatwās, 483

fiction of state ownership of lands, 287f.

fictitious litigations, 124, 139

gender inequality, 635

anafī abaqāt, 51-52

Íāshiyat radd al-mutār, 37f., 217, 255, 284, 288, 424, 483, 621, 625f., 635, 659

hierarchy of anafī texts, 46

ijtihād, 39, 136

iltizām system, 92-93, 115, 280, 288

judge’s ruling, 136f.

kharāj and ‘ushr, 284f., 302f.

khulū, 139, 230

Kitāb al-buyū‘, 202f., 214

Kitāb al-jihād, 284f.

on labor, 76

linguistic roots of custom, 85f., 223

māl, 217

manfa‘a, 235

marriage contract, 224, 262f.

marad, 139, 238f.

modality of rule, 41

Muqaddima, 37f., 42

premeditated versus deliberate killing, 627f.

procedural fictions, 124

Rasā’il, 37, 39, 73f., 93, 130, 223

rents and taxes, 90f.

sharecropping, 255f.

sultanic lands, 288f.

sultanic power, 111

surtaxes, 558

testimony of women, 625

timār, 92-93, 115, 230, 288, 309

waqfs, 90, 483

āhir al-riwāya, 51-52

Ibn Khaldūn, 197f.

Ibn Nujaym, Zayn ad-Dīn b. Ibrāhīm (d. 970/1562)

al-Ashbāh wa-l-naā’ir, 21f., 36, 55, 76, 94, 135, 204, 265, 614, 641, 665

al-Bar al-rā’iq, 485f., 492f.

criminal evidence, 613f.

on custom, 27, 55-56, 71f.

custom and language, 72

doubt and certitude, 642

first general rule, 23, 59

anafī general rules, 21f., 36, 94, 204, 614, 641

anafī juristic typology, 50

al-ukm bi-l-‘aqd, 382-383

al-ukm bi-l-mūjab, 382-383

al-ukm āditha, 382

khulū, 55-56, 93, 265

khuūma, 374

Kitāb al-waqf, 491f.

legal fiction of death of kharāj payer, 601, 608

legal fiction of sultanic lands, 289f., 444f., 601

ra‘iyya as orphans-cum-minors, 289f., 444, 598

Rasā’il, 289f., 374, 382, 392, 444, 598, 614

revocability or irrevocability of waqfs, 485f.

sixth general rule (on custom), 71

waqfiyyas (alteration of), 491f.

writing cannot be trusted, 135

Iftā’ (juridical consultation)

in Damascus, 274

fatwās (drafting of). See Fatwās

and ijtihād, 41

practice of, 47

Ijāb wa-qabūl. See Contract, ījāb

Ijtihād (independent reasoning)

and custom, 80

and anafī judges, 15, 136f.

anafī ijtihād, 49, 178

‘Ilm (knowledge)

Ibn ‘Ābidīn, 43

‘ilm al-fiqh (knowledge of the fiqh), 37

as ma‘rifa, 6

in Ottoman societies, 6

Iltizām-mīrī land-tenure system

Damascus regional council, 525f.

dismissal in anafī literature, 296f.

Ibn ‘Ābidīn, 92-93, 296

mīrī domanial lands. See Mīrī-iltizām

‘Imādī, ‘Abdul-Rahmān, 274

Imber, Colin, 207 n. 49, 294 n. 39, 488 n. 25, 674

İnalcık, Halil, 314f.

Intention (niyya)

in crime, 614f.

in first general anafī rule, 23, 59-60

Interpretation

and the hermeneutic circle, 6

in the madhhab, 6

of texts. See Texts

Istinā‘ (type of labor contract)

and custom, 75f., 80

Johansen, Baber, 289 n. 31

Joyce, James, 613

Judge. See Qāī

Judging

cases and texts, 109f.

enterprise of, 109f.

and judges. See Qāī

judicial writing, 281f.

Judicial policy making

and collectivities, 543f.

politics of adjudication, 560

politicization of the legal, 538

and the regional councils, 15, 525f.

and sultanic legislation, 15, 538

Jurisprudence. SeeFiqh

Jurists. See Fuqahā’

Kant, Immanuel

casuistical questions, 82

Metaphysics of Morals, 82, 263-264

Kantorowicz, Ernst H., 598f.

Karpat, Kemal, 578 n. 4

Kharāj (land-tax)

and custom, 90f.

discourse on, 271, 280, 284f.

kharāj muqāsama, 300f.

legal fiction of, 271, 280, 284f., 289f., 293f., 445

old taxation system (table), 299

Khulū (type of contractual settlement)

Ibn Nujaym, 55-56, 93, 265

sixth general rule, 55

as type-contract. See Contract, khulū

Knowledge. See ‘Ilm

Lammens, Henri, 111 n. 3

Land Code (1858), 282, 292 n. 36, 383-384, 427, 544 n. 32, 680, 691

Language

in contracts, 267

and customary practices, 58, 85f.

hermeneutical process, 58

idealizations, 131f.

metaphorical meaning, 58

performative utterances, 87, 328, 477f., 506f.

répétition, 131f.

speech-act theory, 87

of sultanic firmans, 576f.

and texts. See Texts

types of utterances, 100

use of language, 477, 505f.

visibility of texts, 576

Lavie, Samadar, 284 n. 18, 602 n. 55

Law court case. See Sharī‘a courts cases

Legal school. See Madhhab

Legal transplants, 169f.

Lévi-Strauss, Claude, 341 n. 31, 393

Llewellyn, Karl N., 282 n. 12

Luhmann, Niklas

on Habermas’ discursive analysis, 131f., 283

sociology of law, 279 n. 4, 280 n. 7, 629 n. 39, 667 n. 95

Madhhab (legal school)

consensus, 47

fiction of, 35

foundations of, 6

founders of, 36

juristic typology of, 38

in Ottoman societies, 6

Maine, Sir Henry, 170

Majālis al-Tanīmāt. See Damascus regional councils

Majalla (Ottoman Civil Code, 1877)

article 2 (judgment), 102

article 3 (contracts), 102

article 4 (doubt), 102, 642

article 5 (presumption), 102

article 6 (time), 169

article 8 (debt), 103

article 9 (contingent things), 103

article 10 (proof), 102

article 12 (speech), 169

article 15 (analogy), 229

article 36 (custom), 71, 103

article 37 (custom), 97

article 39 (time), 104

article 40 (custom), 103

article 45 (custom), 103

article 67 (silence), 103

article 102 (contract), 205

article 125 (property), 212

article 152 (price), 216, 219

article 153 (price), 219

article 154 (average price), 219

article 167 (offer and acceptance), 205

article 168 (utterances), 223

article 173 (offer and acceptance), 222-223

article 363 (sale), 213

article 414 (rent), 220

article 417 (lease), 230

article 612 (dhimma), 216

contextualization of utterances, 100-101

contractual liability, 217

on custom (art. 36), 71

custom, repetition, and proof (art. 37), 97

explanatory memorandum (1922), 172

anafī general rules (first 99 articles), 22f., 94f.

offer and acceptance, 172, 182, 204f., 208

as rejuvenation of anafism, 170, 279

sale contract, 172, 210f.

types of utterances, 100

Māl (exchangeable commodity). See Contract, māl

Māl mīrī, 91, 531f., 554, 558, 567

Māl al-iltizām, 318

Marino, Brigitte, 658 n. 78-79

Marad. See Contract, marad

Marx, Karl

beginnings of Kapital, 35-36

political economy, 196

Mattei, Ugo

on comparative law and economics, 10 n. 8

Mauss, Marcel, 205

Meriwether, Margaret L., 138 n. 30

Mervin, Sabrina

Shī‘ī reformism in Lebanon, 39 n. 6

Milk (private property)

and manfa‘a, 184, 222f.

and possession, 184

as private property, 179, 184, 239

subdivisions of, 215

tamlīk al-bua‘, 262f.

tamlīk al-manfa‘a, 184, 226, 239

wa‘ yad, 225, 305, 307, 311, 359-360, 369, 380, 401, 447, 496, 500, 548

Mīrī-iltizām (rent and taxation) system

a‘yān-multazims class, 92, 497, 525f., 688

definition of, 4

and anafī practice, 4, 280

mīrī domanial lands, 239, 601

rents and taxes, 92, 544 n. 32

Mishāqa, Mikhāyil, 329 n. 10

Mu‘āmalāt (pecuniary transactions)

as contracts, 204

and the economy, 200

anafī general rules, 22

and the ‘ibādāt, 191

Muftī (jurisconsult)

Ebu’s-su‘ud al-‘Imādī (1493-1574), 294, 419, 425, 660 n. 82, 674

fatwās. See Fatwās

Íusayn Efendi Murādī (Damascus), 658

Ibn al-Humām, 289, 598

ijtihād, 41, 128-130

Kemalpashazade (d. 1534), 293

in relation to qaā’, 128, 660, 665

Muammad ‘Alī of Egypt, 384, 677

Mujtahid (innovator)

and anafī judges, 15

latecomers, 81

seven classes of anafī jurists, 48

Opinions

sorting out conflicting, 48

Ost, François

Le temps du droit, 106 n. 76

Ottoman historiography

and discourse, 8-9, 283

feudal grant system, 313f.

and anafī practice, 314

sharī‘a courts. See Ottoman sharī‘a courts

Ottoman judiciary

as an apparatus of justice, 40

judges. See Qāī

niāmī courts, 150 n. 44

sharī‘a courts. See Ottoman sharī‘a courts

Ottoman legal system

anafī fiqh, 44

judges. See Qāī

Majālis al-Tanīmāt. See Damascus regional councils

methodological problems of, 3-4

qānūn, 118

qānūnnāme, 292, 575, 636, 637 n. 59, 671, 680

sharī‘a courts. See Ottoman sharī‘a courts

Ottoman sharī‘a courts

absence of defendants, 455f.

cases of. See Sharī‘a courts cases

court narratives, 17

and cross-examination, 14

evidence, 279

and fact-finding, 14

gap with fiqh (table), 310-311

and individual cases, 17

khuūma, 174, 282, 312, 321, 374

Lebanese National Archives, 322 n. 1

and niāmī courts, 150 n. 44, 174

oath-taking, 279

reliability, 61

Ottoman Shaykh al-Islām

Amad Ibn Kamāl Pāshāzādeh (d. 940/1533), 49

Yaya Efendi, known as al-Minqārī, 116

Ottoman societies

a‘yān-multazims class, 322, 396, 592, 658, 688

censuses, 577f.

çift-hane system, 314f.

çiftlik farming system, 548

creditors and lenders, 542

customs, 592f.

economic analysis of, 5-6, 195f., 199f.

knowledge (‘ilm) in, 6

labor laws, 554f.

lump-sum assignment, 552, 562

Majālis al-Tanīmāt. See Damascus regional councils

military conscription, 583

millet system, 580f.

mīrī-iltizām system. See Mīrī and Iltizām

muqāa‘a system, 314f., 533

orphans (status of), 600f.

peasantry, 541f., 688

private communal law, 564

right of lot, 577f.

sharī‘a courts. See Ottoman sharī‘a courts

Shī‘a (status of), 526f.

Tanīmāt, 174, 526f., 671

Pocock, J.G.A.

on custom, 64

Posner, Richard A., 512-513, 677 n. 104, 680

Practice of law

judges applying the law, 16

Ibn ‘Ābidīn, 42

ideal of judging, 125

in relation to theory, 9, 62

sharī‘a courts. See Ottoman sharī‘a courts

Premeditation (‘amd)

hidden purpose, 60

quasi-premeditation, 60

premeditated versus deliberate killings, 627f.

Procedural fictions

as contractual settlements, 140-141, 175, 177, 318, 382, 401, 443, 471

conundrum, 137f.

and debts, 188

and judicial inventiveness, 16

oath-taking, 26, 443

in Roman law, 138 n. 32

table of, 164-167

three-founders technique, 415f.

and waqfs, 401f.

Property

mīrī property (domanial lands). See Mīrī-iltizām

as a normative construction, 10

private property. See Milk

waqf property. See Waqfs

and women, 343-344

Qāī (judge)

applying the law, 16, 504

appointment of, 113, 122

as author, 509

biographies of, 141f.

book of the judge, 133

bribery, 121-123

culture, 141f.

Damascus judges, 143f., 157-163

decision-making process, 325f.

difference with iftā’, 126f.

dīwān (sijill) of, 151f.

and experts, 245

fear, 110-111

Íanbali judge’s ruling, 243-244

ideal of judging, 125

ijāzāt, 142

ijtihād, 130f., 518

iltizām, 122

as an individual, 327

the judge of Damascus, 145

language of, 477f.

legal duration of a lawsuit, 116f.

memory, 134

and predecessor, 133

as private citizen, 513

seal, 135

Shāfi‘ī judge’s ruling, 243, 258

signature, 133, 326, 508

sijill, 133, 151f.

sultan’s authority, 110f.

testimony, 245

witnessing, 245, 279, 454, 483

al-Qāsimī, Muammad Sa‘īd, 197f., 475

al-Qawā‘id al-kulliya (anafī general rules)

on certainty, 24

custom rule, 27, 55

evidence, proof, and persuasion, 24f., 26

first rule (intention, niyya), 23, 59

Ibn Nujaym’s contribution. See Ibn Nujaym, anafī general rules

khulū, 55

Ottoman Majalla (1877), 22f.

significance of, 21f.

sixth general rule (on custom), 71

Rafeq, Abdul-Karim, 587 n. 24

Ramlī, Khayr al-Dīn, 130, 273, 304, 306 n. 63, 309, 558

Revel, Jacques

and micro-history (microstoria), 9 n. 7

Ricardo, David, 196, 221, 287

Ricœur, Paul, 507 n. 48

Rodinson, Maxime, 222 n. 79

Roman law

contract, 184

definition of the legal problem, 19

and fictions, 138 n. 32

formula, 281

ownership, 179

pignus, 403

possessio and proprietas, 425

Reception of, 169

stipulatio (or sponsio), 185, 422

Rosen, Lawrence, 345, 442 n. 3

Sahlins, Marshall, 408 n. 8

Sanhūrī, ‘Abdul-Razzāq

Maādir al-aqq, 176f., 204 n. 44

Sarakhsī, Muammad b. Amad (d. 490/1097)

Mabsū, 52, 131, 223

seven classes of anafī jurists, 48, 52

Schacht, Joseph, 185, 190, 207, 227, 357 n. 65, 358 n. 66, 501 n. 45, 632

Schumpeter, Joseph A., 197 n. 35, 221 n. 77

Sharī‘a courts cases

analysis of, 17f.

arbitrariness of, 20

authorship of, 509

the case-as-event, 14

as cases and texts, 19, 278

construction of, 6-7, 508f.

as discourse, 277f., 505f.

and facts, 18, 323, 478

fictitious sales, 335

framing of, 19

as āditha, 14, 454

hierarchy of, 20

information costs, 512

interpretation of, 323f., 477

as legal narratives, 17, 503

as performative utterances, 506f. See also Speech-act theory

positivist approach to, 477

precedent, 20

and regional councils, 554, 564f.

registration in sijills, 133-134

as summaries, 328

third-person (use of), 511

wakāla, 371

Shaṭṭi, Muammad Jamīl al-

A‘yān Dimashq, 38, 145f.

Shaybānī, Muammad b. al-Íasan al- (d. 189/804)

on iyal, 138

revocability or irrevocability of waqfs, 323, 480

seven classes of anafī jurists, 48, 131

six founding manuals, 51

Shihābs of Mount Lebanon

and the Abillama‘s, 332, 342

and credit, 171

Emir Bashīr II, 321f., 339f.

Emir Bashīr III, 402f.

Emir Khalīl b. Bashīr Shihāb, 187

Emir Milim (r. 1729-54), 330, 340

estate of Bashīr II, 339f.

Íusn Jīhān (wife of Bashīr II), 341f., 360, 370

and the Khāzins, 332, 377

Maronite Church, 330

Maronite law, 331f.

Maronitism of, 329f.

non-Muslims in anafī courts, 171, 335

silk loans, 190

sons of Bashīr II, 352f.

Smart, Alan, 351

Smith, Adam, 195, 197 n. 35, 221

Speech-act theory

language of judges, 477f., 506f.

and performative role of discourse, 3, 477f., 506f.

performative utterances, 87, 506f.

Skinner, Quentin, 115 n. 12

Sultanic firmans, 552, 576

abaqāt (s. abaqa, status-as-class, bio-biographies)

of the anafī fiqh, 48f.

arābulsī, Burhān al-Dīn Ibrāhīm al-, 494f.

Tarjī (sorting out opinions)

process of, 47

anafī abaqāt, 53

Taylor, Charles, 681 n. 109

Teubner, Gunther, 329 n. 9

Texts

author, 326

authority, 327, 453, 518f.

bāin, 56

and cases, 132-133, 324f.

contextualization, 62, 328

custom and text, 55-56, 95-96

différence, 132

as discourses, 325f.

equalization (technique of), 598f.

anafī hierarchy of, 46

anafī abaqāt, 48f., 53

I/We form of speech, 576

performative utterances. See Speech-act theory

philological analysis of, 325 n. 6

punctum, 639

repetition, 132

society as text, 688f.

strategy of, 453

textual construction, 596-597

use of language, 477

visibility of, 576

āhir, 56, 622

Theory of law

as fallacy, 9, 42, 62, 277, 504

Thévenot, Laurent, 277 n. 1

Tomlins, Christopher L.

law and labor in the American republic, 41 n. 9

Truth

primary truth (aqīqa aliyya), 45

‘Ulamā’ (holders of knowledge, ‘ilm)

Damascus, 38, 658

and judges, 142f., 658

madhhab, 38

Shī‘ī reformism, 39 n. 6

social authority of, 41

tarājim, 143f.

Universal

custom, 43

versus specific, 43

‘Urf (custom)

and analogy, 77

bodily custom, 106

and change, 68f.

currencies, weights, and measures, 78

custom and text, 55-56, 77, 95-96

customary law, 63f.

customary linguistic truth, 58

customary practices, 58

customary statements, 56

customary truth, 44

as deed and word, 70

discursive nature of, 56

economic necessity of, 58

judge’s ruling, 83

labor, 75f.

linguistic component of, 45, 56, 70, 72, 85f.

as a linguistic tool of contextualization, 58

local, 43

private custom, 69f., 74

public custom, 69f., 74

regional nature of, 63

and text, 77f.

universal, 43

utterances and meaning, 58, 70

and the sharī‘a, 69

‘Ushr (tithe)

and custom, 90f.

discourse on, 284f.

Usuwānī family (Damascus)

judges from, 147

Uūl (foundations)

Ibn ‘Ābidīn, 41

of the madhhab, 6, 36

van Leeuwen, Richard, 332 n. 18, 396 n. 1, 682 n. 110

Vogel, Frank E., 585 n. 12

Watson, Alan

Roman Law, 138 n. 32, 182, 185 n. 24

Waqfs

administrator as person, 399

bequeathing lands, 291-292

beneficiaries (grammars of), 497f.

beneficiaries as foreigners, 517

as contractual settlements, 395f.

conversion from milk or mīrī, 319

dismemberment of, 247-248

economics of, 396f.

Emir Bashīr III Shihāb (waqf of), 402f.

general properties, 398-401

grammars of, 479f.

al-Íaramayn (waqf of), 555f.

irrevocability of, 323

juristic personality (lack of), 399

Maronite waqfs, 335-336

marad type-contract, 208-209, 237f., 242f., 568

procedural fictions, 401f.

revocability or irrevocability of waqfs, 323, 480f., 550

Shaykh Bashīr Junblā (waqf of), 398

taxes and rents, 410 n. 13

three-founders technique, 415f.

waqfiyya, 398, 481f., 491f., 550

Weber, Max

capitalist ethic, 197 n. 35

casuistical logic, 82

casuistry, 82 n. 56

on convention, 65

on custom, 64f.

law communities, 610

law and economy, 67

legal coercion, 67

legal order, 39

modality of rule, 40-41

Wheeler, Brannon M., 575 n. 1

Wittgenstein, Ludwig, 226, 326 n. 8

Young, George, 173 n. 7, 228

āhir (manifest meaning)

and bāin, 56

āhir al-riwāya (Shaybānī’s six founding texts, the uūl)

and fatwās, 128

and anafī general rules, 23

six founding manuals, 51

Zarqā’, Mutafa, 295 n. 43

Ze’evi, Dror

on the Ottoman sharī‘a courts, 9 n. 7

Ziyāde, Khālid, 321 n. 1

Zuaylī, Wehbeh al-, 354 n. 60, 480 n. 4-5

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