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Atlas of Jordan

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Myriam Ababsa

List of illustrations

Texte intégral

Chapter I

Figure I.1 — Jordan Landcover based on Landsat Satellites Images (RJGC and IFPO 2010)

41

Figure I.2 — Jordan Five Main Morphological Units

43

Figure I.3 — Jordan Four Main Physiographic Regions

45

Figure I.4 — Jordan Major Structural Features (A. al-Diabat, NRA Geological Mapping Division, 2012)

49

Figure I.5 — Geological Map of Jordan by F. Bender 1974 (Gebrüder Bornträger)

45

Figure I.6 — Combined Profiles of Jordanian Highlands and Jordan Rift Valley

52

Figure I.7 — The main east mediterranean tectonic features (JSO)

54

Figure I.8 — Earthquake distribution in Jordan and the Middle East from 1900 to 2005 (NRA 2007)

55

Figure I.9 — Seismic hazard zonation map of Jordan

57

Figure I.10 — Major historical earthquakes along the Dead Sea Transform during the past 2000 years

59

Figure I.11 — Jordan Mineral Resources

61

Figure I.12 — Jordan Average Rainfall (MWI - GTZ 1977)

65

Figure I.13 — Climographs of three meteorological stations (GTZ 2004)

67

Figure 1.14 — Jordan Water Sources in 2008

69

Figure I.15 — Flow Rate

69

Figure I.16 — Jordan Main Water Basins

71

Figure I.17 — Jordan Map of Soils

73

Figure I.18 — Jordan’s Four Main Biogeographical Regions

78

Figure I.19 — Jordan’s Nine Main Bioclimatological Regions

78

Figure I.20 — Vegetation Types in Jordan

87

Figure I.21 — Jordan’s Potential Landuse (Taimeh 1989)

89

 

Table I.1 — Rainfall distribution in Jordan

65

Table I.2 — Resource Availability in Jordan for the Years 2005 - 2020

70

Table I.3 — Surface Water Basins in Jordan

70

Table I.4 — Comparative soil names used during Jordan’s major soil surveys

75

Table I.5 — Strongly simplified description of the soil orders present in Jordan

75

Plate I.1 — Olive and arable cultivation in the hills above Ajlun amongst evergreen oak, Quercus calliprinos. Palmer, May 2007

81

Plate I.2 — Arbutus andrachne growing in wild Aleppo pine forest at Dibbin. Palmer, March 2004

81

Plate I.3 — Anemone coronaria. Palmer, March 2010

81

Plate I.4 — Deciduous oak forest at al-Alouk with arable cultivation. Palmer, March 2010

81

Plate I.5 — Artemisia herba-alba, Dharih, Bouchaud April 2011

83

Plate I.6 — Juniper forest at Rummana in the Dana Biosphere Reserve. Palmer; March 2004

83

Plate I.7 — Iris petrana - Petra Iris, one of the several black irises, and an endemic species in the southern highlands. All black irises are protected by law. Palmer, April 2010

83

Plate I.8 — Achillea santolina, Dharih, Bouchaud, April 2011

83

Plate I.9 — Haloxylon persicum in the Wadi Araba. Palmer, April 2006

85

Plate I.10 — Sparsely vegetated rocky plateau (chert hammada) in the Saharo-Arabian region, east of Ruweishid. Palmer, October 2010

85

Plate I.11 — Remnant evergreen oak forest, Quercus calliprinos, in al-Hisha in the south of Jordan showing grazing. Palmer, April 2010

85

Plate I.12 — Lush vegetation, including date palm, in a wadi beside the Dead Sea photographed after heavy rainfall. Palmer, March 2011

85

Chapter II

Figure II.1 — Main sites of the three Palaeolithic periods in Jordan

97

Figure II.2 — Wadi Qalkha (J-401): (1) amygdaloid biface, (2) cordiform biface (Henry 1995: 46)

100

Figure II.3 — The location of select Early Epipalaeolithic sites in the Middle East and East of the Jordan River.

101

Figure II.4 — The location of select Middle Epipalaeolithic sites in the Middle East and East of the Jordan River

103

Figure II.5 — EP microliths showing: (A) an obliquely truncated and backed form of the early EP, (B) a trapeze/rectangle of the Middle EP, and (C) a lunate of the Natufian

104

Figure II.6 — The location of select Late Epipalaeolithic sites in the Middle East and East of the Jordan River.

105

Figure II.7 — Distribution of Neolithic Sites

107

Figure II.8 — Shkarat Msaied PPNB small settlement with circular architecture (Drawing Moritz Kinsel)

108

Figure II.9 — PPNA Granary at Dhra’ Drawing Eric Casson

108

Figure II.10 — Ba’ja PPNB large settlement with rectangular architecture Drawing Moritz Kinsel

109

Figure II.11 — Sketch map showing relationship between temporary sites and large settlements.

110

Figure II.12 — Location map of major sedentary sites for the Chalcolithic period, along with pastoral nomadic camps in desert areas.

115

Figure II.13 — Flint tools from pastoral nomadic camps in al-Thulaythuwat area (southern Jordan).

116

Figure II.14 — Main fortified settlement sites and open villages in Jordan during the Early Bronze Age.

118

Figure II.15 — Tower Tombs and Dolmens in Ancient Bronze Time.

119

Figure II.16 — Main sites during the Middle Bronze Age in North Jordan.

123

Figure II.17 — Plan of MBA City Walls - Pella.

123

Figure II.18 — Typology of the main archaeological sites of Iron Age and Persian period (Jouvenel).

126

Figure II.19 — Size of the main archaeological sites of Iron Age and Persian period (Jouvenel)

127

 

Plate II.1 — Flint tools from Ain Soda site, Azraq (Surface collection). Collected by Gary O. Rollefson, Leslie Quintero and Philip Wilke

95

Plate II.2 — Photograph of pierced marine shell beads from Kharaneh IV

100

Plate II.3 — Photograph of the Early / Middle Epipalaeolithic aggregation site of Kharana IV

102

Plate II.4 — Photographofa human burial at the Middle EP site of Uyun al-Hammam

102

Plate II.5 — Photograph of the Natufian site of Shubayqa 3 showing stone-built and stone-paved dwellings

104

Plate II.6 — Location of Wadi Faynan ١٦ between the mountains and open lands (Finlayson)

106

Plate II.7 — Excavations in the village of Ayn Ghazal

111

Plate II.8 — Plaster statuary MPPNB Ayn Ghazal

112

Plate II.9 — General view of stone enclosure at site TH.126 in al-Thulaythuwat area (southern Jordan)

116

Plate II.10 — Aerial view of site TH.001 located in the area of al-Thulaythuwat. Semi-nomadic camp with dwelling and animal stone enclosures

116

Plate II.11 — Dolmen near Irbid

120

Plate II.12 — Satellite images of tower tombs near Azraq (Google Earth)

121

Plate II.13 — MBA Copper Dagger and Gypsum Pommel - Pella

123

Plate II.14 — MBA Egyptian Tell al Yahudiyeh Vessels - Pella

124

Plate II.15 — LBA Gold Earring - Pella

124

Plate II.16 — LBA Cylinder Seal - Pella

125

Plate II.17 — LBA Cylinder Seal 2 - Pella

125

Plate II.18 — Busayrah (A. Jouvenel).

128

Plate II.19 — Mesha Stone (Louvre, Paris).

129

Chapter III

Figure III.1 — Hellenistic Near East ca 260 BC

134

Figure III.2 — Iraq al-Amir and the Tobiad Territory

138

Figure III.3 — Restitution of the Palace (F. Larché)

139

Figure III.4 — Drawings of the lions (J.-P. Lange)

140

Figure III.5 — Drawings of the panthers (J.-P. Lange)

140

Figure III.6 — The Nabataean Kingdom (Villeneuve Nehme)

142

Figure III.7 — Main Trade Routes (3rd B.C. - 2nd A.D.).

144

Figure III.8 — Map of Petra by Laborde and Linant, 1830.

146

Figure III.9 — Petra localisation and main monuments (Villeneuve Nehme)

147

Figure III.10 — Map of Petra (Talal Akasheh, Chrysanthos Kanellopoulos, American Center of Oriental Research - ACOR).

148

Figure III.11 — Qasr al-Bint Map (French Mission to Petra, L. Borel, Ch. March).

150

Figure III.12 — Khirbet al-Darih General Map (Villeneuve and al-Muheisen).

152

Figure III.13 — Map of Dharih and Khirbet Tannur

154

Figure III.14 — Roman Roads and Cities

157

Figure III.15 — The Decapolis.

159

Figure III.16 — Map of Jerash

161

Figure III.17 — Jordan under the Byzantins

163

 

Plate III.1 — Iraq al-Amir: Hyrcan Palace (Ifpo 2004).

137

Plate III.2 — Nabataean Drawing and Inscriptions in Wadi Mukatab, Sinai, by Laborde and Linant, 1830.

143

Plate III.3 — Nabataean Pottery

145

Plate III.4 — Nabataean Silver Coin, Arethas IV and Queen Huldu, Paris, BNF

145

Plate III.5 — Tyche sculpture found near Qasr al-Bint, Petra

145

Plate III.6 — Drawing of the Khazne by Laborde and Linant, 1830.

146

Plate III.7 — Qasr el-Bint in 1830 (Laborde and Linant).

149

Plate III.8 — Qasr el-Bint in 1976 (Dentzer)

149

Plate III.9 — General View of Dharih

151

Plate III.10 — Cistern - Dharih

153

Plate III.11 — Oil Press - Dharih

153

Plate III.12 — Twins - Dharih

153

Plate III.13 — Emperor Marcus-Aurelius Portrait found near Qasr al-Bint (French Mission to Petra, 2004, F. Bernel)

155

Plate III.14 — Hadrien Silver Coin

156

Plate III.15 — Umm al-Rasas Church with Lions Mosaique

164

Chapter IV

Figure IV.1 — Islam expansion under the Umayyads

169

Figure IV.2 — Military Districts and Desert Castles in Umayyad Jordan.

173

Figure IV.3 — Amman Citadel reconstitution (A. Northedge, CBRL 1992)

174

Figure IV.4 — Amman Citadel general map (A. Northedge, CBRL 1992)

174

Figure IV.5 — Amman Citadel general map (A. Northedge, CBRL 1992).

175

Figure IV.6 — Sketch of the north wall ot the Umayyad Congregational Mosque (A. Northedge, CBRL 1992)

175

Figure IV.7 — Qusayr Amra fresco, drawing (C. Vibert-Guigue)

177

Figure IV.8 — The Abbassid Caliphate and its fragmentation

179

Figure IV.9 — The Suete Territory in Jordan and the Kingdom of Jerusalem

181

Figure IV.10 — Map of Shawbak Castle

183

Figure IV.11 — Jordan under the Mamluks with main post road.

185

Figure IV.12 — Administrative ottoman divisions of Liwa Ajlun in 1596 (A. Bakhit)

189

Figure IV.13 — Administrative ottoman divisions of the Bilad al-Sham in 1596.

191

Figure IV.14 — Population Distribution in Bilad al-Sham in 1596.

193

Figure IV.15 — The changes in density of settlement between 1596 and 1880.

195

Figure IV.16 — Population and land use at the end of the XIXth century (M. Mundy)

197

Figure IV.17 — Bilad al-Sham Ottoman administrative division in 1914

200

Figure IV.18 — Holy Places known from the 19th century near Kerak

203

Figure IV.19 — The Hijaz Railway in 1914

207

 

Plate IV.1 — Qusayr Amra general view (C. Vibert-Guigue)

176

Plate IV.2 — View of Shawbak castle (C. Devais)

182

Plate IV.3 — Hisban Tell and village (B. Walker)

187

Plate IV.4 — Malka caves (B. Walker)

187

Plate IV.5 — Ja‘far b. Abi Talib mausoleum (Père R. Savignac, 1935. Fonds de l’Ecole biblique et archéologique française de Jérusalem)

204

Plate IV.6 — Nabi Harun mausoleum (Père R. Savignac, 1935. Fonds de l’Ecole biblique et archéologique française de Jérusalem)

204

Chapter V

Figure V.1 — The Middle East Transformations (1880 – 1950)

213

Figure V.2 — Wandering Territory of Jordan Major Bedouin Tribes in the 1950’s

218

Figure V.3 — The Territories of Jordan Main Families and Tribes in 1929

219

Figure V.4 — Agricultural land productivity by Hawd in 1931 (Fischbach 2000)

223

Figure V.5 — Cadastral limits in 1933

223

Figure V.6 — Distribution of Landholding in 1950.

225

Figure V.7 — Administrative divisions in 1975

228

Figure V.8 — Administrative divisions in 1985

228

Figure V.9 — Administrative divisions in 1994

228

Figure V.10 — Administrative divisions in 2004

229

Figure V.11 — The exodus of the Palestinian Refugees in 1948.

231

Figure V.12 — Palestinian Refugees displaced from rural and urban areas in 1948.

232

Figure V.13 — Palestinian Refugees displaced in 1948

233

Figure V.14 — The Territory of Jordan in 1949 on both banks of the Jordan River

235

Figure V.15 — Palestine Refugees Spatial Distribution in 1954 in Jordan according to UNRWA Survey.

237

Figure V.16 — Palestine Refugees Spatial Distribution in 2005 in Jordan and the West Bank according to UNRWA 2005 Survey on 4489 refugees.

237

Figure V.17 — Jordan Main Cities in 1961

240

Figure V.18 — UNRWA Camps and Distribution of Palestinian Refugees in the Middle East in 2010

244

Figure V.19 — The increase in the Legal Workers number by Sex between 2001 and 2009

251

Figure V.20 — Legal Migrant Workers per Nationality and sector activity in 2009

251

 

Table V.1 — Size of Lanholdings in 1950

224

Table V.2 — Jordan : The Palestine Refugees’ Main Host Country

234

Table V.3 — Demographic growth of Palestinian Refugees in Host Countries, according to UNRWA

243

Table V.4 — Camps of Jordan, main characteristics according to UNRWA sources 1

243

Table V.5 — Various estimates of subpopulations present in Jordan in the late 2000.

248

Chapter VI

Figure VI.1 — Correlation between rainfall and population distribution

257

Figure VI.2 — Jordan Population Density by Governorate in 2004 (inhabitants per km2)

258

Figure VI.3 — Jordan Population Distribution in 2004 (proportional representation)

259

Figure VI.4 — Jordan Population Distribution in 1979

262

Figure VI.5 — Jordan Population Distribution in 1994

263

Figure VI.6 — Jordan Population Distribution in 2004

264

Figure VI.7 — Population Annual Average Growth Rate by Subdistrict, 1979-1994

266

Figure VI.8 — Population Annual Average Growth Rate by Subdistrict, 1994-2004

266

Figure VI.9 — Jordan Population by Governorate in 1994, 2004 and 2010

267

Figure VI.10 — Distribution of Jordanian Population living in Jordan by Place of Birth in 2004

267

Figure VI.11 — Prevalence of family planning methods rate by governorates in 2009 (%)

269

Figure VI.12 — Fertility Rate and Finale Descendance, 1976-2009

269

Figure VI.13 — Fertility and Women Education Level, 2009

270

Figure VI.14 — Fertility by Wealth Quintiles, 2009

271

Figure VI.15 — Total Fertility Rate in 2009 (%)

272

Figure VI.18 — Jordan Age Pyramids 1979 and 2004

273

Figure VI.16 — Total Fertility Rate from 1960 to 2000 in five countries (mean number of children per woman)

274

Figure VI.17 — The Gap between the Wanted Fertility Rate and the Total Fertility Rate, 2009.

274

Figure VI.19 — Population by Broad Age Groups. Various Surveys, 1983 – 2009.

275

Figure VI.20 — Household Composition in Percentage in 2008

275

Figure VI.21 — Household Size in 2008.

277

Figure VI.22 — Household Head below thirty years in 2008

277

Figure VI.23 — Trends in Child mortality rates in Jordan 1990- 2009 and targeted by 2015

277

Figure VI.24 — Infant Mortality by selected demographic caracteristics in 2007.

278

Figure VI.25 — Singulate Mean Age at Marriage in Jordan, 1961-2004.

278

Figure VI.26 — Proportion of 15-19 years-old girls ever married, pregnant or gave childbirth

280

Figure VI.27 — Percentage of Never-Married Women 15-39 by age

280

Figure VI.28 — Polygyny - percentage of Marriages with a married man in 1990-1994 by registration office

281

Figure VI.29 — Polygyny - percentage of Marriages with a married man in 2009

281

Figure VI.30 — Consanguinity rate by governorate in 2007

282

Figure VI.31 — Consanguinity rate in the world. © 2009 Tadmouri et al. license BioMed Central Ltd

282

Figure VI.32 — Consanguinity in Jordan in 2007 (% of marriages with a cousin or a relative)

283

 

Table V.1 — The distribution of population according to locality size

260

Table VI.2 — Demographic Indicators from 1961 to 2010

268

Chapter VII

Figure VII.1 — The evolution of Jordan’s GDP growth rate compared to the Arab World 1990-2009

290

Figure VII.2 — The evolution of Jordan‘s GDP

293

Figure VII.3 — Trade Balance Evolution 1989-2009

293

Figure VII.4 — Major Imports in 2010 (JD Million).

294

Figure VII.5 — Major Domestic Exports in 2010 (JD Million)

294

Figure VII.6 — Geographic Distribution of Imports, 2010

294

Figure VII.7 — Geographic Distribution of Domestic Exports, 2010

295

Figure VII.8 — Jordan’s Trade by Country, 2010

295

Figure VII.9 — Foreign Direct Investment in Jordan, Israel and the Arab World as % of GDP, 2000-2009.

296

Figure VII.10 — Foreign Direct Investment in Jordan as % of GDP and amounts, 2005-2010

297

Figure VII.11 — Main Recipient of Inter Arab investments in 2010

297

Figure VII.12 — Inter Arab investments in Jordan (1995-2010)

298

Figure VII.13 — Arab Countries Market Capitalization in 2010

299

Figure VII.14 — ODA received per capita in 2009 (current US $).

299

Figure VII.15 — Jordanian Expatriates’ Remittances in amounts and % of GDP (1961-2011)

300

Figure VII.16 — Jordan among the 20 first developing countries receiving remittances

302

Figure VII.17 — Arab countries GDP per capita according to population size 2011.

302

Figure VII.18 — Gross Domestic Product by Economic Activity at current basic prices in million JD (2002-2008).

303

Figure VII.19 — The Relative Importance of Economic Sectors to GDP at constant Basic Prices in 2010.

304

Figure VII.20 — Percentage of Household head working for the public sector by governorate in 2008

306

Figure VII.21 — Distribution of employment by sector and governorate in 2008

306

Figure VII.22 — Distribution of Enterprises by Governorate in 2006

307

Figure VII.24 — Number of Enterprises per 1000 persons in 2006

307

Figure VII.23 — Total registered Capital of Enterprises in 2006

307

Figure VII.25 — The distribution of Medium and Large Enterprises in 2006

307

Figure VII.26 — Dominance of Micro, Small and Medium Entreprises Including Number of Employees and Establishments by Sector

308

Figure VII.27 — Number of Entreprises and Workers in the six jordanian Qualifying Industrial Zones in 2010

309

Figure VII.28 — Jordan Agricultural Land Use

313

Figure VII.29 — Tourism Receipts and Employment, 2010

314

Figure VII.30 — Tourism by Source (latest available year)

314

Figure VII.31 — Middle East Airports Traffic in Million Passengers (2010)

315

Figure VII.32 — Main touristic sites in Jordan by number of visitors, 2010

317

Figure VII.33 — Origin of Medical Tourist in Jordan in 2006 (Crouzel)

319

Figure VII.34 — Religious Tourism Sites in Jordan and Popes’ Pilgrimages

321

Figure VII.35 — Jordan territorial divisions (Special Economic Zones, QIZ, GAM, ASEZA)

325

Figure VII.36 — North Jordan Land Use and Population in 2004

326

Figure VII.37 — Center Jordan Land Use and Population in 2004

327

Figure VII.38 — South Jordan Land Use and Population in 2004

328

 

Table VII.1 — Jordan cultivated land in 2010

310

Table VII.2 — Jordan cultivated land in 2000

310

Table VII.3 — Distribution of livestock (number of heads) in 2010 - DOS 2012

311

Chapter VIII

Figure VIII.1 — Human Development Index: Ranks of the main arab countries in 2010 (World Databank 2011)

333

Figure VIII.2 — Illiteracy rate in 2008 by subdistrict (caza)

334

Figure VIII.3 — Percentage of persons with preparatory education in 2008 by subdistrict (caza)

334

Figure VIII.4 — Percentage of persons with high education in 2008 by subdistrict (caza)

334

Figure VIII.5 — Poverty rates by governorates in 2006 and 2008

337

Figure VIII.6 — Poverty pockets in 2009

339

Figure VIII.7 — Poverty Ratio and absolute number of poor by subdistrict in 2009

340

Figure VIII.8 — Poor repartition according to age classes

342

Figure VIII.9 — Daily calories intake per quintile in 2008.

342

Figure VIII.10 — Yearly cost of food per person by quintile in JD in 2008

343

Figure VIII.11 — Daily calories intake per quintile in 2008

343

Figure VIII.12 — Annual goods produced by household for self- consumption by governorate in 2008.

343

Figure VIII.13 — Social Classes according to the Average Annual Household Expenditure for several Governorates in 2008.

345

Figure VIII.14 — Percentage of Households belonging to the Lowest Wealth Quintile by Governorate in 2009

347

Figure VIII.15 — Percentage ofHouseholds belonging tot he Highest Wealth Quintile by Governorate in 2009.

347

Figure VIII.16 — Sources of Income by Social Segments in 2008.

348

Figure VIII.17 — Breakdown of Transfers in 2008

348

Figure VIII.18 — Source of Aid by Governorate in 2008 (DOS 2010)

350

Figure VIII.19 — The Gap between Yearly Household Expenditure and Income by Subdistrict in JD in 2008

352

Figure VIII.20 — Percentage of dwelling owners (2008)

352

Figure VIII.21 — Percentage of Household with a car in 2008

352

Figure VIII.22 — Percentage of Households with a computer by caza in 2008

353

Figure VIII.23 — Percentage of Households with an internet connexion by caza in 2008.

353

Figure VIII.24 — Refined Participation Rate according to Area of Residence (urban/rural) in 2010

354

Figure VIII.25 — Refined Participation Rate among Jordanians aged 15+ by sex (percent) 1979-2009

355

Figure VIII.26 — Unemployment rate (Jordanians aged 15+) in % by age groups, 2010

358

Figure VIII.27 — Unemployment trends from 2000 to 2010

361

Figure VIII.28 — Unemployment rate and the distribution of unemployed persons in 2010

361

Figure VIII.29 — Men’s Unemployment rate in 2010

362

Figure VIII.30 — Female’s Unemployment rate in 2010

362

Figure VIII.31 — Distribution of Male and Female Employed Jordanian by economic activity in 2010

363

Figure VIII.32 — The distribution of Informal employement by economic sector in 2010 (Mopic 2012)

364

Figure VIII.33 — Selected Economic Activity Sectors and their Jordanian and Migrant workforce (2004 and 2009).

365

 

Table VIII.1 — Social classes related to quintiles (according to expenditure)

346

Chapter IX

Figure IX.1 — Jordan’s Cities Categories

375

Figure IX.2 — Municipalities types and codes in 2008

378

Figure IX.3 — Municipal budgets in 2006 (in millions JD).

378

Figure IX.4 — Municipal budgets per inhabitant in 2006 (in JD).

378

Figure IX.5 — Municipal Balance Accounts in 2006 (in JD)

378

Figure IX.6 — Percentage of roads with public lighting in 2004.

380

Figure IX.7 — Differences between solidwaste daily production and solidwaste collection capacity (in tons).

381

Figure IX.8 — Number of Parliamentary seats per governorate and beduin areas in 2010 compared to the equired seats proportional to the voters

383

Figure IX.9 — Greater Amman Municipality Main Functions.

384

Figure IX.10 — Amman Ruseifa and Zarqa urban growth between 1946 and 2008.

386

Figure IX.11 — The expansion of Amman Municipal Boundaries between 1925 and 2011

387

Figure IX.13-16 — Types of Housing in Amman at the block level in 2004

389

Figure IX.17 — Percentage of population under 15 in Amman at the block level in 2004

390

Figure IX.18 — Percentage of elder in Amman at the block level in 2004.

390

Figure IX.19 — Percentage of Men in active population in 2004.

392

Figure IX.20 — Percentage of Women in active population in 2004.

392

Figure IX.21 — Percentage of Workers in Active Population in 2004.

392

Figure IX.22 — Percentage of Job Seekers in active population in 2004

392

Figure IX.23-26 — Spatial distribution of Foreigners in GAM districts in 2004

395

Figure IX.27-30 — Education level by districts in 2004.

396

Figure IX.31-34 — Active population distribution by type of occupation in GAM districts in 2004.

397

Figure IX.35 — HUDC Housing and informal settlements upgrading projects in Amman, Ruseifa and Zarqa from 1980 to 2008

399

Figure IX.36 — Synthetic Map of the Social Disparities in Amman

400

Figure IX.37 — Development corridors and peripherical industrial and housing projects

402

Figure IX.38 — Re-Appropriation of Amman Public Spaces.

404

Figure IX.39 — Irbid area urban expansion (1961-2005)

405

Figure IX.40 — Irbid and Ramtha municipalities land use in 2005

406

Figure IX.41 — Aqaba City Landuse Plan 2005 (ASEZA GIS section)

407

Figure IX.42 — Aqaba urban growth between 1961 and 2008

408

Figure IX.43 — Aqaba spatial divisions

410

 

Table IX.1 — The 2001 Municipal Amalgamation Process

376

Table IX.2 — Amman, Ruseifa and Zarqa Built-Up Expansion Annual Growth Rate

387

Table IX.3 — Amman, Ruseifa and Zarqa Population Average Annual Growth Rate

388

Table IX.4 — Aqaba Built-up Expansion Annual Growth Rate

409

Table IX.5 — Aqaba Population Average Annual Growth Rate

409

Chapter X

Figure X.1 — Main Jordanian Dams and Jordan Valley Authority Irrigation projects

415

Figure X.2 — Water resources development in the Lower Jordan River Basin around 1950.

417

Figure X.3 — Water resources and uses in the Lower Jordan River Basin around 1975

418

Figure X.4 — Water resources and uses in the Lower Jordan River Basin around 2000

421

Figure X.5 — Water resources and uses in the Lower Jordan River Basin around 2025

423

Figure X.6 — Amman Internal Water Resources in 2000

425

Figure X.7 — Greater Amman Municipality Water Catchment in 2000.

426

Figure X.8 — Disi project

429

Figure X.9 — Jordan Groundwater Status and wells in 2005 (Venot 2009).

432

Figure X.10 — Abstraction from Azraq Basin since 1983.

432

Figure X.11 — Dead Sea Level evolution since 1800.

433

Figure X.12 — Dead Sea reduction between 1931 and 1998.

433

Figure X.13 — Red Dead Canal and development project.

436

Figure X.14 — Gas Pipeline from Egypt for Jordan electrical power stations. Bahjat Aulimat; NEPCO.

437

Figure X.15 — Jordan Main Energy Projects.

438

Figure X.16 — Energy Mix 2008-2020.

438

Figure X.17 — Investments in Energy 2008-2020.

439

Figure X.18 — Main Transportation Projects.

443

Figure X.19 — Existing natural reserves and projected ones.

445

Figure X.20 — Amman Urban Metabolism Diagram (Lorraine Sugar 2010).

447

Figure X.21 — Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2) concentration in various locations in Amman and Zarqa in 2007.

449

 

Table X.1 — Jordan Megaprojects Breakdown

414

Table X.2 — Price of water based on the volume pumped from private farm wells.

431

Qasr Bashir.

Qasr Bashir.

Ch.-H Gros

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