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L’écriture et l’espace de la mort. Épigraphie et nécropoles à l'époque préromaine

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Marie-Laurence Haack

Discussion - 3

Texte intégral

1F.-H. Massa-Pairault : Dans la communication de K. Lomas, les exemples sont à la fois très importants et très clairs, grâce à des statistiques sur le nombre croissant des épitaphes au IIIe siècle avant J.-C. Cependant, si nous étions dans un contexte d’analyse historique traditionnelle, nous dirions: les épitaphes augmentent au cours du IIIe siècle pour des raisons de structures sociales ou de changements sociaux évidents. Comme toutes les sociétés indigènes d’Italie méridionale, entre la fin du IVe siècle et le IIIe siècle, il y a une augmentation des inscriptions publiques et également de la structuration des villes, ce qui est également le cas en Messapie. Alors est-ce que vous en avez tenu compte?

  • 1 On trouvera des attestations de dazimaihi dans MLM 2 Al; 7 Bal; 1 Bas; 1 Br; 21 Cae; 2 Fr; 12 Gn; 1 (...)

2Deuxième point, j’ai été très intéressée de revoir cette magnifique documentation des prêtresses de Déméter, en particulier, avec un signe qui n’est pas seulement épigraphique, qui est le signe de la torche à quatre branches des vases de l’outre-tombe apulien. Donc, ici, il y a intégration entre l’épigraphie et la signification d’un rite. Mais est-ce que c’est un rite qui était effectivement vécu par la tabara dazimaihi1 ou est-ce que c’est simplement un symbole qui est là simplement pour renforcer l’épigraphie, simplement pour renforcer la représentation épigraphique? Voilà ma question.

3K. Lomas: My first point is about the general increase statistically in the number of inscriptions in the 3rd century BC in this region and the fact that it isn’t unique to this region is entirely true, but the peaks and the troughs are much more exaggerated in Messapia than in other areas. This is in fact part of a comparative study between several regions and one of the things which have got me interested in this is the fact that the chronological discrepancies in Messapia are much, much larger than in other regions. Therefore I think there is something significant going on particularly in that region. I wouldn’t claim that it is entirely out of line with what is happening generally in Italy. I think there is something really quite significant going on that region particularly.

4L. Bonfante: I had a question about that symbol too, because I couldn’t quite hear what you said was the alternative idea of your colleague.

5K. Lomas: This was my colleague Edward Herring who’s examined the range of evidence for Demetricals quite extensively partly to do with the context of tabara inscriptions, and partly in connection with vase paintings and other representations.

  • 2 Cfr. Ed. Herring, Priestesses in Puglia? An archaeological perspective on the Messapic tabara inscr (...)

6His conclusions2 are that he doesn’t actually believe it is the torch of Demetra that you find on vases. He thinks it’s actually part of some sort of ritual implement of which there are archaeological examples in tombs, which are a long handle with three prongs on the end. It looks as something fire iron or toaster. It’s metal; it’s iron or bronze.

7L. Bonfante : Dunque il segno si trova solo nelle iscrizioni di tabara, che sono delle dee, giusto ?

8M. Torelli : Sono sacerdotesse, tabara vuol dire « portatore della divinità ». Il sacerdozio messapico è riferito, in genere, a Demetra e ad Afrodite : sarebbe lungo riprendere in questa sede la questione del sacerdozio italico di Cerere e Venere, strettamente legato a queste attestazioni salentine. Quella incisione è la fiaccola croce di Demetra, e basta.

  • 3 MLM 25 Me.
  • 4 MLM 20 Ur.

9K. Lomas: There is one inscription which took about the tabara in connection with Taotor3 who’s male, that also tabara aphrodita4, is one of the few with a personal name.

10F. Frisone : Le divinità sono Afrodite e Demeter. Quella carica è una carica sacerdotale.

11I miei dati sono sostanzialmente differenti, soprattutto per quanto riguarda le cronologie ; la cronologia delle iscrizioni e la cronologia delle tombe, perché nell’area ismica di quell’epoca non ce ne sono. Francamente, non mi risultano e non risultano neanche a nessun altro scavatore dell’area. È un fatto eclatante che non ci siano tombe arcaiche e di alto arcaismo in area ismica, anzi nel mondo messapico.

12M. Torelli : Anche perché non credo che cambi molto. Anche io non credo che siano queste grandi epigrafi di terzo secolo, non ci credo. Ma non cambia la sostanza, che resta quella che diceva la collega.

13F. Frisone : È l’orizzonte alto che mi sembrava più stridente…

Notes

1 On trouvera des attestations de dazimaihi dans MLM 2 Al; 7 Bal; 1 Bas; 1 Br; 21 Cae; 2 Fr; 12 Gn; 1 Hy; 20 Rud; 23 Rud; 32 Ur; MLM 18 Ve.

2 Cfr. Ed. Herring, Priestesses in Puglia? An archaeological perspective on the Messapic tabara inscriptions, in K. Lomas, R. Whitehouse et J. Wilkins (éd.), Literacy and the state in the ancient Mediterranean, London, 2007, p. 129-147.

3 MLM 25 Me.

4 MLM 20 Ur.

© Publications de l’École française de Rome, 2015

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