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New Cannibal Markets

 | 
Jean-Daniel Rainhorn
, 
Samira El Boudamoussi

Biographies of the Contributors

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Introduction

1 Jean-Daniel Rainhorn is professor of international health and humanitarian action and holds the Social Inequalities, Health and Humanitarian Action chair at the College of Global Studies, Fondation Maison des sciences de l’homme in Paris. Previously he was professor of international health at the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies in Geneva and director of the Geneva Center for Education and Research in Humanitarian Action. He was also invited professor of development studies and/or humanitarian assistance in various universities, including the Université libre de Bruxelles, Leopold Senghor University of Alexandria, Hanoi School of Public Health and Tel Aviv University, as well as former director of CREDES in Paris, and author of numerous articles, reports and books.

Part 1: Trading in the Human Body

2 Samira El Boudamoussi is a researcher at the College of Global Studies, Fondation Maison des sciences de l’homme in Paris, and visiting researcher at the Centre of Studies on International Cooperation and Development of the Université libre de Bruxelles (ULB). She earned her PhD in education from the Universitat Rovira i Virgili in Tarragona and conducted various research projects at the ULB and Universitat Autònoma of Barcelona. The overarching theme of her research is science–technology–society: how society relates to scientific knowledge and technical advances, and how these are used in personal and public decision-making.

3 Vincent Barras, doctor in medicine and historian, is professor of the history of medicine at the University of Lausanne, and also teaches sound theory at the Art University of Geneva. He has published books, essays, and articles on the history and theory of the body, medicine and psychiatry, contemporary poetry and music, and has translated works by Galen, Adorno, Cage, and Sanguineti among others. His recent publications include: “Neurosciences et médecine” (Revue d’histoire des sciences, 63, 2010), ed. with J.-Cl. Dupont; Le courrier du corps au XVIIIe siècle (with S. Pilloud and M. Louis-Courvoisier), Lausanne, 2013; Maladies en lettres, XVIIe-XXe siècle, Lausanne, 2013 (ed. with M. Dinges).

4 Jean-Jacques Courtine is professor of European studies at the University of Auckland (New Zealand), professor emeritus at the University of Sorbonne Nouvelle (Paris III) and at the University of California (Santa Barbara). He is working in cultural history and anthropology. Among his recent books: Histoire du corps, XVIe-XXe siècle (3 vol., Seuil, 2006) and Histoire de la virilité, de l’Antiquité au XXIe siècle (3 vol., Seuil, 2011), both in collaboration with Alain Corbin and Georges Vigarello.

5 Samia A. Hurst is professor of bioethics at Geneva University’s medical school, ethics consultant at the Geneva University Hospitals, and a member of the European Clinical Ethics Network, the Central Ethics Committee at the Swiss Academy of Medical Sciences, and the Swiss National Advisory Commission on Biomedical Ethics. Her research focuses on fairness in clinical practice, and the protection of vulnerable persons.

Part 2: Wombs for Rent

6 René Frydman is professor emeritus at the Faculty of Medicine, University Paris V, and Consultant at Foch Hospital (Paris Suresnes). His special areas of interest in gynecology and obstetrics include infertility and high-risk pregnancy. His work in infertility successively led to the first baby born in France as a result of in vitro fertilization in 1982, embryo freezing in 1986, preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) in 2000, in vitro maturation in 2003, oocyte cryopreservation in 2010, and PGD with human leukocyte antigen (HLA) matching in order to bring about the birth of a savior sibling in January 2011. His other areas of interest are biomedical ethics. His work has led to many invitations to debate the moral issues created by the use of artificial procreation techniques. He actively participated in the preparation on the French law on bioethics. René Frydman is an officer of the French Legion of Honor.

7 Seema Mohapatra, associate professor at the Barry University School of Law in Orlando, Florida, is an expert in the areas of health-care law, public health law, and bioethics. Her research focuses on the intersection of biosciences and the law, and she has published and presented extensively about international surrogacy, egg freezing, and assisted reproductive technologies. Professor Mohapatra received her JD degree from Northwestern University School of Law. Prior to attending law school, she received her master’s degree in Public Health from Yale University, and her bachelor’s degree in Natural Sciences (with a minor in Women’s Studies) from Johns Hopkins University.

8 Elisabeth Beck-Gernsheim was professor of sociology at Hamburg University and Erlangen University, and visiting professor of sociology at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology in Trondheim. At present, she is senior research fellow at Munich University’s Institute of Sociology, Institute for Cosmopolitan Studies. Her research focuses on migration, gender, family, and reproductive technology. Her publications include: Das halbierte Leben (1980), Die Kinderfrage (1988), Das ganz normale Chaos der Liebe (1990, with Ulrich Beck), and Wir und die Anderen. Kopftuch, Zwangsheirat und andere Mißverständnisse (2007). Her latest book is Fernliebe. Lebensformen im globalen Zeitalter (2011, with Ulrich Beck; English edition: Distant Love, Polity Press, Cambridge, 2014).

9 Sarojini Nadimpally has been working on women’s health and rights issues for over eighteen years and is one of the founder members of Sama–Resource Group for Women and Health. She was involved in the coordination of two national-level studies on assisted reproductive technologies and their implications on women. Nadimpally has co-coordinated “Reproductive Tourism in India: actors, agencies and contemporary transnational networks”, a joint project of Centre for Social Medicine and Community Health, Jawaharlal Nehru University, Sama and Kings’College London. She has coordinated two multisite studies on participant’s perspectives in clinical trials in India, and has contributed several articles/papers to national as well as international journals. She was the Social Justice Practitioner-in-Residence in 2013 at University of Massachusetts.

10 Etti Samama is the director of the Division of Medical Technology Policy at the Israeli Ministry of Health and teaches medical policy at Haifa and Tel Aviv Universities. She holds a BA in nursing, an MA in social work—both from The Hebrew University of Jerusalem—and a PhD in health systems management from Ben-Gurion University of the Negev. Her master’s thesis as well as her doctoral dissertation researched the topic of surrogacy in Israel over 15 years. She coauthored a report on the state of surrogacy in Israel, published by the Woman to Woman (Isha L’Isha) feminist organization in 2011.

Part 3: Brain Theft

11 Alex Mauron is professor of bioethics at the University of Geneva Faculty of Medicine and director of the Institute for Ethics, History, and the Humanities. He initially trained as a molecular biologist. He moved to the field of bioethics during the late nineteen-eighties and initiated the bioethics program at the University of Geneva. He has worked and taught on a wide range of bioethical issues and has been a member of the Swiss National Advisory Commission on Biomedical Ethics.

12 Delanyo Dovlo was the WHO Representative to Rwanda until July 2014. Prior to this, he was Health Systems Adviser at WHO-HQ in Geneva. He trained as a general practice physician and public health specialist in Ghana, UK and USA, and has had over thirty years clinical and public health practice experience and is an expert in Human Resources for Health issues. He was a former director of Human Resources for the Ministry of Health of Ghana and has consulted widely on this subject and on health-sector reforms. In July 2014, he was appointed to his current position as director of the Health Systems and Services Cluster, at the WHO Regional Office for Africa in Brazzaville, Congo.

13 Sheila Mburu is currently an MSc candidate at the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine. Prior to this, Sheila worked as a consultant in the WHO Rwanda Country Office. During this time she co-wrote and edited WHO’s biennial report, supported national nutrition programs, managed WHO’s online communications and participated in implementation of the UN Communications Strategy. Sheila graduated from the University of Nottingham, with an MSci degree in biochemistry and genetics.

14 Nicola Suyin Pocock is a doctoral student at the Gender Violence and Health Centre at the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine (LSHTM). Her thesis explores the health needs of men trafficked for commercial fishing in Thailand. Prior to her studies at LSHTM, Nicola was the health systems researcher at the Asian Trends Monitoring Bulletin, a Rockefeller-foundation-funded project on pro-poor development based at the Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy, National University of Singapore.

15 Barbara L. Brush is the Lake Professor of Nursing in Population Health and an associate professor at the University of Michigan. Her research focuses on international nurse migration and nurses’ work around the globe, including controversial aspects related to racial segregation and immigration policy, for which she is regularly consulted. She completed her baccalaureate degree from the University of Massachusetts and her master and doctoral degrees from the University of Pennsylvania.

Part 4: Organs for Sale

16 Philippe Steiner is professor of sociology at the Paris-Sorbonne University and senior member of the Institut universitaire de France. He has recently published La transplantation d’organes: un commerce nouveau entre les êtres humains, Paris, Gallimard, 2010; Durkheim and the Birth of Economic Sociology, Princeton, Princeton University Press, 2011; and Calcul et morale. Coût de l’esclavage et valeur de l’émancipation, (with C. Oudin-Bastide), Paris, Albin Michel, 2015.

17 Jacob A. Akoh, MBBS, FMCS, FRCSEd, FWACS, FRCS (Gen), FICS, is a consultant general/transplant surgeon at Derriford Hospital, Plymouth. He is also associate professor of surgery with University of Plymouth and a member of the Training Committee of the British Transplantation Society (BTS). He was a member of BTS Council, director of the South West Transplant Centre and clinical director of the Surgery and Renal Services, and is an examiner for the Intercollegiate Specialty Board in General Surgery. He is a member of many medical societies and has published many articles and co-edited a book on dialysis access. He is an expert referee for the Health Technology Assessment program.

18 Rafael Matesanz is founder and director of the Spanish National Transplant Organisation (ONT), and has been president of the Transplant Committee of the Council of Europe for seven years. He has also been president of the Iberoamerican Council of Organ Donation and Transplantation since 2005, and was president of the Public Health Group of the European Union in 2010 and was in charge of the elaboration and approval of the EU Directive & Action Plan for Organ Transplantation. He advises the World Health Organization in the global strategy for transplantation.

19 Beatriz Mahíllo is a medical doctor specialized in epidemiology, with a master’s degree in public health and a master’s degree in research methodology in health sciences. After several years working in health technology assessment and HIV clinical research, she joined the medical team of the Spanish National Transplant Organisation (ONT) in May 2006, where she is mainly involved in the management and statistical analysis of the organ donation and transplantation databases. She is chief executive officer of the Global Observatory on Donation and Transplantation.

20 Mitra Mahdavi-Mazdeh is a professor in the division of nephrology at Tehran University of Medical Sciences. She has been director of the Iranian Tissue Bank Research Center since 2007. Her major research interests lie in the field of tissue engineering and epidemiologic features of renal replacement therapy, especially renal transplantation in developing countries.

21 Nancy Scheper-Hughes is professor of anthropology at University of California, Berkeley, where she also directs the doctoral program in medical anthropology. Her research and writings focus on violence, suffering, and premature death as these are experienced on the margins of the late modern world. She has written or edited several award winning books including Death without Weeping: the Violence of Everyday Life, Violence in War and Peace (with Philippe Bourgois), and Commodifying Bodies (with Loïc Wacquant). Scheper-Hughes is the founding director of Organs Watch, a fieldwork-based, medical human-rights and documentation project, based at the University of California, Berkeley. She has participated in the production and filming of several documentaries on the human organ trade.

Part 5: The Human-Product-Banking Industry

22 Vinh-Kim Nguyen is an HIV physician and medical anthropologist. As both a practitioner and researcher, he is concerned with the relationship between science, politics, and practice in global health. His current work focuses on molecular epidemiology, global health, and social theory. He practices at the Clinique médicale l’Actuel and in the Emergency Department at the Jewish General Hospital in Montreal (Canada). He is associate professor at the Department of Social and Preventive Medicine at the University of Montreal and heads the chair in Anthropology and Global Health at the College of Global Studies in Paris. He is the author of The Republic of Therapy: Triage and Sovereignty in West Africa’s Time of AIDS; the coauthor, with Margaret Lock, of An Anthropology of Biomedicine, and also the co-editor, with Jennifer Klot, of The Fourth Wave: Violence, Gender, Culture, and HIV in the 21st Century, as well as numerous articles in biomedical and anthropological journals.

23 Jean-Paul Pirnay was born in 1967 in Antwerp (Belgium). He graduated a biotechnology engineer at University College Ghent and received a PhD in medical sciences from the Université libre de Bruxelles. In 1993 he completed his military service in the military blood bank, but could not break clear of his military orbit. He is currently head of the Laboratory for Molecular and Cellular Technology, which harbors the human tissue banks and the GMP bio-manufacturing facility of the military hospital in Brussels.

24 Jean-Daniel Tissot, MD, specialized in internal medicine, hematology and transfusion medicine. He is managing director of Interregional Blood Transfusion SRC, Switzerland. He is professor of hematology at the Faculty of Biology and Medicine of the University of Lausanne. His main research interests deal with iron deficiency, ethical issues in transfusion as well as storage lesions of blood products. He has authored about 200 scientific articles, and co-edited a book entitled L’Immortalité – Un sujet d’avenir.

25 Olivier Garraud holds a MD and a PhD degree, along with a MSc in anthropology. He trained both in onco-hematology, and infectious diseases. He is tenured professor of immunology with the University of Lyon/Saint-Étienne (France) and specialized in transfusion medicine, with two major topics: transfusion and inflammation, and ethics in transfusion. He headed a regional blood center in France for twelve years and moved a year ago to the (French) National Institute for Blood Transfusion in Paris.

26 Jean-Jacques Lefrère held a degree in French literature and has contributed several books on French poets by the dawn of the 19th century. Besides, he held a MD and PhD and graduated in hematology, with specialization in transmissibility of viruses by blood and transfusion. He shared interest in humanities and particularly in blood in history (encompassing ethics). He was tenured professor of hematology (Paris V) and was the CEO of the (French) National Institute for Blood Transfusion.

27 Jean-Claude Osselaer got a MD in 1982. He trained in internal medicine and clinical pathology, and is a specialist in clinical pathology (1993). He also holds special degrees in insurance law and forensic medicine. From 1992 to 2013, he was medical director of Mont-Godinne Blood Transfusion Service. He also was transfusion consultant at MontGodinne University Hospital, Université catholique de Louvain, Belgium.

28 Bernice S. Elger studied medicine and theology in Germany, France, Switzerland, and the US and obtained a specialty degree in internal medicine. She is the head of the Institute for Biomedical Ethics, University of Basel, and of the Unit for Health Law, Ethics and Humanitarian Medicine, Center for Legal Medicine, University of Geneva, Switzerland, and obtained several awards for her work, including the Bizot Award for her work on biobanks (2005) and the Swiss Research Award in Primary Care (2010).

Part 6: The Bigger Picture

29 Philippe Goyens is a pediatrician, head of the Nutrition and Metabolism Unit at the University Children’s Hospital Queen Fabiola, Brussels, Belgium. Since 2006, he has been in charge of the Newborn Screening Laboratory at the Université libre de Bruxelles. He has a long-lasting experience of nutritional problems in developing countries (Central Africa and South-East Asia). Since 2013, he has been permanent secretary of the Royal Academy for Overseas Sciences (Brussels).

30 Firouzeh Nahavandi has a PhD in social sciences. She is full professor at the Université libre de Bruxelles (ULB), where she is in charge of the Research Center on International Development and Cooperation (CECID). She currently is the director of the Graduate School of Development Studies of the French community of Belgium, and a regular member of the Royal Academy for Overseas Sciences (Brussels). Her research focuses on development issues, particularly in Islamic countries.

31 Judit Sándor is full professor at the Faculty of Political Science, Legal Studies and Gender Studies of the Central European University (CEU), Budapest, Hungary. She has participated in many national and international law and policy-making activities in the field of biomedical law and bioethics. In 2004–2005 she served as the head of the Bioethics Section at the UNESCO. She has published seven books in the field of human-rights and biomedical law. Since 2005, she has served as a founding director of the Center for Ethics and Law in Biomedicine (CELAB) at the Central European University.

32 Debra Budiani-Saberi, PhD, is a medical anthropologist and the executive director and founder of the Coalition for Organ-Failure Solutions. She has conducted extensive research on trafficking in persons for the removal of organs (TPRO), beginning in 1999 as a part of her study on refugee health. She has provided consultation on TPRO to the Office of the High Commissioner for Human-Rights (OHCHR), the World Health Organization (WHO), the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC), and has worked in alliance with various medical and civil society organizations to combat the organ trade. Dr. Budiani-Saberi has also worked more broadly on health and human-rights in various parts of the Middle East and Asia.

33 Seán Columb is lecturer in law at the University of Liverpool. His primary research area is human trafficking and exploitation. In particular, he is interested in the organ trade and the legal expression of exploitation in international law. His current research examines how the organ trade fits into the anti-trafficking framework at national (UK), international and regional (EU) levels; its link to organized crime and the wider political economy. Columb is committed to advancing academic scholarship in this area. His research is empirically driven and takes an interdisciplinary perspective.

Part 7: Mapping National and International Responses

34 Edward Kelley, PhD, is director for the Department of Service Delivery and Safety at the World Health Organization. He leads WHO’s efforts at strengthening the safety, quality, integration and people centredness of health services globally and manages WHO’s work in a wide range of programs, including health services integration and regulation, patient safety and quality, blood safety, injection safety, transplantation, traditional medicine, essential and safe surgery and emerging areas such as mHealth for health services and genomics. Dr Kelley worked for ten years in West and North Africa and Latin America, directing research on the Integrated Management of Childhood Illness in Niger. Recently, he was asked to lead the Infection Prevention and Safety and the Health System Recovery teams for WHO’s Ebola Response effort.

35 Carmel Shalev is a professor of law whose work focuses on health and human-rights, bioethics and biopolitics. She is head of the Department for Reproduction and Society at the International Center for Health, Law and Ethics, Haifa University, Israel, and a member of Israel’s National Bioethics Council. In the wake of this symposium she has initiated a long-term project on the Ethics and Regulation of Intercountry Medically Assisted Reproduction (ERIMAR).

36 Luc Noël was in charge of the Hematology and Transfusion Centre of Versailles and part-time advisor at the French Blood Agency. In 1999, he joined the World Health Organization (WHO) as coordinator, for Blood Transfusion Safety and later Clinical Procedures. He developed the topic of transplantation with WHO updated Guiding Principles on Human Cell, Tissue and Organ Transplantation. He led the WHO initiative for medical products of human origin and is now an independent part-time advisor on issues pertaining to medical products of human origin.

37 Dominique Martin is lecturer in health ethics at the Centre for Health Equity, School of Population and Global Health, University of Melbourne, Australia. Her bioethics research focuses on ethical issues related to procurement, distribution and use of medical products of human origin, particularly where these arise in the transnational setting. She is a member of the Council of the Declaration of Istanbul Custodian Group, and cochair of the Ethics Committee of The Transplantation Society.

38 Alexander M. Capron holds the rank of university professor at the University of Southern California. He directed the President’s Commission for the Study of Ethical Problems in Medicine and Biomedical and Behavioral Research (1979–1983) and the Department of Ethics, Trade, Human-Rights and Health Law at the World Health Organization (2002–2006). An elected member of both the Institute of Medicine (National Academy of Sciences) and of the American Law Institute, he is the author or editor of six books and more than 300 articles and chapters.

© Éditions de la Maison des sciences de l’homme, 2015

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