Version classiqueVersion mobile
OpenEdition Books

Struggle over Identity

 | 
Nelly Bekus

Index

Texte intégral

A

Abdziralovich, Ignat, 206

Anderson, Benedict, 15, 24– 27, 42

Arsenneva, Natalia, 244

authoritarianism, 5, 85, 93, 101, 121, 282

B

Babkou, Ihar, 9, 55, 56, 166, 209

Bagdanovich, Maksim, 190, 244

Belarus and economic performance, 142
and statehood
70, 218, 273, 281
declaration of independence, 194, 248
European Belarus, 202, 204, 240, 255, 279

Belarusian aristocracy, 60

Belarusian Communist Party, 70

Belarusian economy, 108, 110, 112, 113, 142

Belarusian history, 4, 6, 59, 63, 79, 80, 105, 106, 133, 154, 179, 180–182, 184–186, 188, 191, 194, 196, 199, 202, 219, 227, 232, 242, 255, 256, 262, 270, 280

Belarusian language, 54, 56, 65, 71, 134, 151–154, 157, 163, 183, 188, 189, 200, 244, 278

Belarusian model, 108, 110, 274

Belarusian People’s Republic (BPR), 69, 167, 180, 194, 195, 264, 270

Belarusian Popular Front, political organization, 102, 116, 158, 270, 277

Belarusian Social Democratic Gramada (BSDG), 123, 137

Byelorussian Socialist Hramada, 54, 55, 58

Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic, 70, 119, 183, 265

Belarusianness, 2–9, 50, 60, 61, 67, 75, 79–81, 134, 135, 138, 143, 151, 157, 163– 168, 170, 179–181, 187, 195–198, 199–204, 206, 209, 210, 212, 215, 217– 220, 224, 225, 227, 229, 233, 235, 240, 241, 244, 246, 251, 253, 255, 258, 259, 261, 262–264, 266, 267, 269, 271, 272, 274– 276, 278, 279, 280–282
official, 8, 163, 165, 196, 201, 211, 217, 219, 224, 246, 258, 259, 264, 266, 267, 269, 271, 280–282
alternative, 3, 6, 8, 9, 50, 163, 164, 180, 181, 196, 197, 199, 204, 224, 225, 227, 229, 233, 235, 240, 241, 253, 255, 259, 267, 271, 272, 275, 279, 280–282

Belovezha agreement, 208

Bohushevich, Francishak, 54

Bogdankevich, Stanislav, 198

Breuilly, John, 14, 27

Bykau, Vasil, 1, 229

C

Calvinism, 63, 199

capitalism, 19, 20, 21, 23–26, 33, 34, 57, 95, 191, 215

Catherine II, 189

Catholic Church, 64, 65, 157, 158, 189

Catholicism, 64, 65, 157, 158, 188, 193, 199, 218

Central Election Committee, 2, 94, 103

Chernobyl, 114, 115, 133

Christianity, 41, 64, 157
See also Catholicism, Catholic Church, Orthodox Church

citizens, 33, 36, 40, 49, 87, 105, 114, 116, 121, 127, 140, 145–147, 150, 165, 172, 177, 197, 198, 213, 214, 272, 273
and the state, 28
Belarusian, 114, 116, 140, 172, 275

class, 4, 15, 19, 20, 23, 25, 28, 33, 34, 36, 40, 43, 47, 53, 56, 57, 58, 62, 66, 70, 87, 102, 112, 191, 216, 238, 254, 269
middle, 23, 25, 28, 54
ideology, 54 struggle, 4, 58

Command economy, 107, 121, 122

Commonwealth, 53, 62, 64, 169, 180, 185–192, 201, 202
division, 189, 191. See also Polish–Lithuanian–Belarusian Commonwealth

Communist Party of Belarus, 102

Communist rule, 86, 124. See also Soviet Union, USSR

Communist ideology, 94

Communist regime, 74, 124, 125

concept of nation, 20

Connor, Walker, 18

constitution, 31, 75, 101–104, 106, 266

culture(s) 15–18, 20–22, 24, 25, 28, 31, 45, 47, 48, 57, 60, 62–65, 73–76, 86, 88, 91, 122, 134, 151, 153, 159, 179, 181, 182, 188, 190, 192, 193, 196–198, 205, 206, 209, 215, 216, 231, 233, 240, 242, 244, 254–256, 258, 259, 261–263, 265
and economy 192
Belarusian, 75, 151, 153, 182, 190, 240, 244, 255, 262, 263, 269 class, 62
high, 21, 65, 266 national, 16, 21, 65, 74, 151, 196, 198, 205, 265, 266
symbolic, 16, 17, 18, 28

D

democratization, 5, 6, 9, 13, 14, 35, 36, 37, 90, 99, 101, 103, 116, 118, 121, 123– 126, 128, 136, 163, 168, 196, 205, 272, 277, 282

demography, 26

discourse 2–4, 6, 7, 9, 14, 30, 31, 43, 46, 50, 57, 67, 91, 112, 163, 164, 168, 170, 196

197, 204, 210, 212–214, 216, 217, 220, 225, 230, 273, 274, 278–280, 282
historical, 2
nationalist, 43, 278
political, 3, 6, 14, 196, 197, 204, 213, 278, 282 public, 170, 196

Dubavets, Siargei, 54, 55, 137

Dunin-Martinkevich, Vincent, 54

E

economic performance, 142

elections, 2, 8, 13, 79, 80, 82, 90, 91, 94, 101, 106, 117– 119, 164, 165, 248, 278, 280
parliamentary, 117, 119
presidential, 2, 13, 79, 80, 82, 94, 164, 165, 248
ethno-symbolism, 18

Europe, 20, 22–24, 28, 29, 33– 36, 38, 39, 40, 63, 64, 75, 88, 96, 100, 113, 121, 126, 143, 159, 171, 172, 186, 196, 197, 199– 202, 204, 205, 207–209, 215, 219, 230, 238–240, 254, 256, 274, 275, 279 and Belarus, 256

Eastern, 20, 28, 33, 34, 35, 36, 38, 40, 75, 121, 126, 208
united, 96, 209

European union, 112, 113, 141, 173, 204, 273–275

F

foreign trade, 111

fraternity, 45, 66, 67

Freedoms various, 25, 38, 39, 58, 88, 93, 109, 171, 215, 239–242, 245, 248–250, 270
economic, 109
of press, 38, 171

G

Gellner, Ernest, 14, 15, 18, 20, 21, 22, 24, 26, 27, 34

Giddens, Anthony, 27

golden age(s), 63, 77, 81, 106, 181, 200, 279

Goncharik, Vladimir, 164

Grand Duchy of Lithuania (GDL), 53, 63, 64, 79, 180– 183, 186, 188, 192, 199, 200, 202, 204, 230, 242, 253, 279

Great Patriotic War, 220. See also World War II.

Greek Catholic Church, 158, 188, 189. See also Uniate Church

H

History of Belarus, 90, 183, 186, 200, 230, 256

historical narration, 219

Hobsbawm, Eric, 14, 15, 17, 18, 21–27, 33, 34, 37, 43, 45, 74, 179, 267

Hroch, Miroslav, 3, 15–20, 33– 36, 57, 216

Human Development Index, 110

human rights, 205, 235, 240

I

identity (various meanings) cultural, 18, 163, 210, 223, 278
ethnic, 36, 46, 145, 211
national, 5–7, 13, 17, 23, 24, 26, 29, 35, 37, 43, 47, 48, 50, 57, 81, 96, 129, 135– 137, 145, 146, 214, 223, 267, 268, 277, 281
regional, 31

ideology, 2, 4–6, 9, 14, 16, 17, 24, 25, 28, 36, 38, 40, 41, 43, 46–48, 54, 55, 60, 61, 72, 80, 93, 94, 95, 101, 133, 135, 197, 212–216, 217, 219, 220, 225, 250, 253, 256, 257, 261, 264, 278, 281, 282
national, 36, 38, 60, 211, 214
political, 5, 6, 17, 24, 25, 41, 95, 129, 134, 163, 175
socialist, 4, 72, 280
Soviet, 46, 80
state 6, 43, 48, 115, 179, 213, 214, 220, 261

Independent Institute of Socio-economic and Political Studies (IISEPS), 1, 8, 94, 117, 140, 141, 145, 146, 148, 149, 154, 174, 205, 272–275

Index of Economic Freedom, 109

Index of pride, 147, 278

inflation, 109

integration, 96, 108, 110, 112, 139, 141, 142, 151, 153, 163, 170, 205, 212, 218, 220, 254

intellectuals, 28, 45, 46, 60, 80

invented traditions, 22

K

Kalinouski, Kastus, 61, 190, 218, 219, 227, 248, 270

Kebich, Viacheslav, 82, 86, 89, 133, 203

Krejci, Jaroslav, 53

Kohn, Hans, 28

Kolas, Yakub, 60, 61, 67, 244, 269

Krauchanka, Piotr, 204

Kupala, Yanka, 60, 61, 67, 210, 244, 262

L

language, 7, 16, 17, 23–25, 28, 30, 42, 44–46, 48, 58, 62, 63, 66, 73, 120, 137, 139, 157, 158, 163, 182, 183, 188–201, 211, 223, 229, 244, 250, 263, 273, 278
Belarusian, 54, 56, 65, 71, 134, 151, 152–154, 157, 163, 183, 188–200, 244, 278
national, 56, 58, 134, 200

language policy, 42, 46

legacy, 5, 62, 101, 103, 121, 122, 125, 128, 129, 135, 172, 181, 199, 214, 243, 265, 272, 273, 279, 280, 282
cultural, 62, 199, 243
institutional, 103, 122, 128 Soviet, 5, 265, 280, 282
liberal democracy, 90, 99, 198
liberalization, 14, 107, 112, 122, 128, 196, 282
literacy, 60
Lukashenka, 14, 82, 85–89, 94, 95, 96, 106, 112, 114, 117, 124, 133, 136, 148, 149, 152, 154, 164, 165, 211, 212, 216, 218, 245, 247, 250, 266, 269, 270
and authoritarianism, 5, 85, 93, 121, 282
and dictatorship, 91, 102, 113, 121, 225
and lukashenkism, 94, 122 See also Belarusian president

M

Marinich, Mikhail, 207

market economy, 95, 102, 107, 108, 123, 207

Masherau, Piotr, 77, 106

media 3, 8, 9, 23, 24, 31, 45, 87, 90, 94, 114, 115, 118, 127, 152, 153, 165, 170–177, 205, 213, 214, 249, 255, 271, 281
electronic, 115, 152, 255
printed, 153

N

nation, nationalism, passim

nation-building, nation-formation, 13, 16, 26, 28, 30, 74, 80, 81

national movement, 4, 9, 17, 19, 47, 50, 53, 55, 57, 58, 60, 67, 70, 80, 81, 135, 280

nation-state, 21–23, 25, 26, 27, 35, 36, 39, 46, 48, 76, 136

national identity 5–7, 13, 17, 23, 24, 26, 29, 35, 37, 43, 47, 48, 50, 57, 81, 96, 129, 135–137, 145, 146, 214, 223, 267, 268, 277, 281

National Assembly, 104, 117

National Bank, 197 nomenclature, 82, 89, 102, 103, 133

O

official Belarusianness, 8, 163, 165, 196, 201, 211, 217, 219, 224, 246, 258, 259, 264, 266, 267, 269, 271, 280, 281, 282

Orthodox Church, 63, 157, 158, 159, 189

P

Pazniak, Zianon, 96, 102, 139, 158

party system, 104, 116, 118, 133

Polish–Lithuanian–Belarusian Commonwealth, 53.
See also Commonwealth political development, 87, 91, 99, 107, 128

political discourse, 3, 6, 14, 196, 197, 204, 213, 278, 282

political parties, 6, 100, 102, 114, 115, 117–120, 133, 165

polyethnic state, 154, 182

population 15, 26, 42, 44, 53, 55, 58, 64–67, 69, 71, 77, 88, 95, 106, 114, 116, 117, 120, 126–128, 134, 136, 137, 139, 145, 148, 151, 153, 158, 163, 176, 177, 181, 183, 189, 193, 205, 212, 277
Belarusian-speaking, 163, 277
rural, 53, 55, 88

populism, 94, 96

President, 6, 85, 87, 101, 104– 106, 172, 211, 212, 215, 245, 248

presidential administration, 250

presidential vertical, 104

print capitalism, 25

privatization, 107, 108

Protestantism, 64

R

reenactors, reenactor group, 8, 253, 254–456, 258, 259

Reformation, 63, 64, 200, 202

regime, 5, 9, 13, 14, 35, 37–39, 49, 55, 67, 74, 76, 77, 80, 85, 87, 90, 91, 93–97, 106, 111–113, 116, 118, 119, 121, 122, 124–127, 129, 152, 163, 164, 166, 167, 174, 175, 198, 213, 249, 269, 271, 272, 274, 275, 277, 278, 281, 282
authoritarian, 5, 13, 85, 90, 93, 97, 121, 275, 277, 282 Soviet, 49, 76, 77, 80

religion, 23, 24, 28, 30, 40, 63– 65, 150, 157–59, 180, 181, 189, 190

reification, 7, 9, 30, 31, 211, 221, 223, 224, 233, 259, 261, 266, 279, 280, 281

Russia, 29, 41–43, 45, 53, 58, 67, 69, 70, 79, 91, 94–97, 102, 108, 109–113, 122, 138–144, 147, 148, 153– 155, 163, 180, 184, 185, 187, 190–197, 200, 203–205, 208, 212, 218–220, 239, 262, 264, 274, 275, 277–279

Russification, 42, 62, 75, 151, 152–155, 163, 193, 200, 277

S

Self-determination, 2, 22, 23, 38, 47, 54, 56, 71, 72, 145, 210, 224, 240, 248, 273, 278, 281

Shushkevich, Stanislav, 94, 102

Smith, Anthony D., 15–18, 24, 27, 28, 36, 38, 46

Socialism, 20, 33, 34, 41, 55, 61, 67, 95, 215, 220

Socially oriented economy, 213.
See also Belarusian model

Sovereignty, 27, 36, 39, 49, 79, 91, 97, 123, 189, 195, 198, 205, 212, 219, 264

Soviet era, Soviet period, 4, 42, 43, 67, 76, 80, 94, 135, 150, 151, 216, 219, 227, 257, 279, 280. See also Soviet regime

Soviet Union, 4, 5, 41–43, 45, 46, 48, 49, 53, 70, 71, 76, 77, 79, 94, 122, 124, 140, 142, 213, 214, 220, 230, 240. See also USSR

stagnation, 124 Stalin, 42, 46, 151

T

tradition(s), 2–6, 15, 18, 21, 37, 41, 50, 53, 60, 61, 103, 125, 153, 157, 159, 179, 180, 181, 184, 185, 191, 195, 196, 198, 199, 207, 209, 213, 215, 217–219, 244, 254–258, 264, 271–273
invented 22, 179

triple transformation, 99, 100

transition, 5, 19, 20, 36, 60, 95, 99–102, 107–109, 121, 133

U

Ukraine, 29, 65, 91, 95, 102, 108–110, 121, 126, 127, 137, 140, 147, 148, 185, 195, 239, 274

Uniate Church, 63, 64, 65, 158, 180, 188, 189, 190.
See also Creek Catholic Church

Union state, 112, 138, 140, 194, 218, 262, 277

United Civic Party, 197

USSR, 3–5, 33, 34, 41, 42, 48, 73, 75, 85, 93, 107, 122, 123, 140, 146, 204, 208, 211, 264.
See also Soviet Union.

W

West, 29, 62, 79, 87, 105, 115, 121, 141, 146, 155, 158, 173, 181, 191, 197–199, 202–210, 212, 215, 275, 279

World War II, 8, 42, 76, 77, 219, 227, 229, 247, 257, 258, 264

World Values Survey, 147

© Central European University Press, 2010

Conditions d’utilisation : http://www.openedition.org/6540