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Globalization and Nationalism

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Natalie Sabanadze

Index

Texte intégral

bertzales (see also Izquierda Abertzale), 155

Abkhazia, 38, 43, 45, 93, 99, 100, 110, 111, 178, 180

agrarian, 82, 83, 86

Afghanistan, 44

Africa, 173

Alava, 118, 137

Alianza Nacionale, 51

anarchy, 11

ancient hatreds, 10

anonymity, 83–85

April 9, 91, 92

anti-colonial movements, 41

anti-globalization, 49, 52, 104, 158, 166

anti-globalist nationalism, 54, 104, 106, 113, 154, 157, 159, 166, 173

anti-statist nationalism, 43, 44, 50, 52, 154, 156, 158

anti-systemic nationalism, 26, 156–58

Andreson, M., 2

Arana, S., 117–19, 122–26, 130, 133, 134, 137

Aranism, 133

Armenia, 38

Armenians in Georgia, 38, 73, 93, 108

Arzalluz, X., 144

atomization, 30, 61

August war, 111

authoritarianism, 83, 89, 92, 97, 128, 130, 137, 139

autonomy, 2, 36, 72, 76, 79, 115, 118n9, 122, 123n29, 126, 128, 133, 141–44, 146, 148, 161, 171, 173, 178, 182

autonomous communities, region, 38, 43, 93, 116, 118, 140–142, 157

Azerbaijan, Azeri, 38, 93, 108

Baku–Tbilisi–Ceyhan, 102, 181n20

Balkans, 36, 38, 56, 59, 61, 185

Baltic States (Baltic Republics), 38, 40, 59, 60, 63, 89, 98, 103, 175, 177, 186

Barber, B., 154

Basque Country (see also El País Vasco), 6, 8, 36, 43, 115–67, 173, 174, 180

Basque nationalism, 5, 8, 9, 50, 65, 115–31, 133, 134n61, 135n64, 140, 141, 145, 149–56, 158, 160, 164–67

Basque Nationalist Party (see also PNV), 119, 121, 122, 124, 126, 130, 143, 175

“Basque problem” (el problema vas-ca), 130, 140

Batasuna, 140, 144, 148, 155, 157–59

batzokis, 145, 147

Bay of Biscay, 118

Beck, Ulrich, 18, 29, 59

belonging, sense of, 11, 17, 28, 30, 31, 47, 70, 172

Berlin, I., 48

Belgium, 36, 41, 50, 115

Benner, E., 47, 48, 79, 173, 177

Bilbao, 116, 155, 161, 162

Bilbao as a global city, 161, 162

Billig, M., 57

Blanco, C., 139

Blanco, M. A., 160

Bolsheviks, 77, 81

Bolshevik Revolution, 76, 77, 79

Bosnia, 56, 58

Bosnian Serbs, 45

Bourdieu, P., 29

Britain, 50, 52, 54, 174, 180

British National Party (BNP), 51–53

Brubaker, R., 9, 10, 39, 49, 83, 94

Brussels, 116

Burgos trial, 136

Canada (see also Quebec), 43, 50

Carlism, 120–23

Carlist Wars, 120, 121, 127, 129

case studies, 5, 6, 35, 54

Caspian Sea, 102

Caspian oil, 99

Castells, M., 24, 25, 28, 43

Castilian (castellano), 138, 142, 144

Catalans, 2, 8, 50, 116n5, 141, 150

Catalonia, 36, 43, 115, 126, 129, 130n50, 131

Caucasus (see also South Caucasus), 38, 59, 61, 69, 73, 74n14, 77, 80, 86, 102

Central Asia, 102

Chachia, A., 105, 106

Chavchavadze, I., 69–71, 74

CIS (Commonwealth of Independent States), 43

Citizens Union, 99

civic nationalism, 23, 51, 81

Clark, I., 1, 16, 17

Clark, R., 130, 131

Cold War, 1, 12, 23, 35, 37, 39, 63, 183

colonialism (see also neo-colonialism), 41, 64

communism (see also post-communism), 37, 62, 89, 94, 95, 114

communist party, 91, 93

communitarian, 44

communitarianism, 44

conciertos economicos, 129

conflict see ethnic conflict

Connor, W., 150n102

conspiracy, conspiracy theories, 52, 69, 96, 104

Constantinescu, E., 57

constructivism, 7, 88

Conversi, D., 124, 126, 150, 153, 157, 159

cosmopolitan, 21, 49, 77, 78–79n27

Cox, R., 20, 29, 32

Crimea, 43

Croatia, 56–58

cultural policy, 85, 162

decolonization, 35

Delanty, G., 12, 20n14, 24–26, 42, 43, 49

democracy, 24, 77, 78–81, 83, 89, 92, 95, 107, 117, 136, 139–43, 147, 148

democratization, 9–11, 13, 59, 79, 89, 104, 109, 112, 128, 140, 148, 149, 151, 152, 160, 172

dialectics, 3, 16

dichotomy, 23

discourse (see also hegemonic discourse), 6–8, 18–20, 37, 40, 46, 49, 50, 56, 58, 60, 88, 90–97, 104, 106, 108, 109, 112–14, 117, 118n10, 119, 122, 128, 152, 160, 166, 175, 176n9, 177, 184

dissident movement, 89

Dniester Region (Transnistria), 43

doctrine, 3, 4, 22, 23, 42, 57, 122–25, 171, 173, 178

Droeba, 71

Droni, 94n54

Dugin, A., 52, 54

Durkheim, E., 150n100

Dutceac, A., 58

Eastern Europe, 2, 8, 10, 14, 32, 38, 39, 45, 46, 51, 56, 57, 60, 67, 151, 179, 185

economic globalization, 32, 60, 174

The Economist, 160, 174, 184, 185

Ekin, 132

elections, 39, 53, 91, 92, 100, 101, 103, 106, 107, 110, 140, 144, 157, 174

enforcement of peace, 110

Ertoba, 80

españolismo, 127, 139

Estatuto de Guernika, 143, 144

Estonia, 61, 64

ETA, 115n3, 116, 128, 132–40, 144, 146–49, 154–57, 160, 165

etarra, 139n77

ethnie, 171

ethnic cleansing, 111

ethnic conflict, 10, 36–38, 58, 62, 73, 99, 150, 151, 153, 178, 184

ethnic nationalism, 8, 23, 25, 26, 30, 36, 39, 42, 44–47, 50, 51, 109, 125, 133, 138, 150n100, 175

ethnicization, 12, 37

ethnoreligious nationalism, 24, 27, 29, 44, 89, 104, 106, 109, 112, 113, 156

ethnosymbolism, 11, 12

Eurasia, 51

Euro-Atlantic integration (see also EU and NATO), 60

Europe (see also Eastern Europe; Western Europe; post-Communist Europe, South-Eastern Europe), 2n5, 5, 9, 23, 28, 43, 47, 53, 56, 59, 61, 75, 76, 80, 97, 102, 108, 115, 116, 118, 120, 140, 152, 155, 159, 161, 166, 173–76

European Union (EU), 43, 52, 60, 103, 109, 158, 164, 175, 178, 180, 181, 184, 185

Euskadi, 117, 118, 128, 132, 134n61, 138, 142, 143, 146, 157

Euskal Herria, 117n7,

Euskara, 118, 119, 123n30, 124, 129, 133, 134, 142, 148

Eusko Alkartasuna, 144, 155

exo-socialization, 83, 84

“fifth column,” 93, 96n62, 106

FCNM (Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities), 108

federalism, 179

Financial Times, 54

Foreign Policy, 61

folk nationalism, 67, 86–90, 92, 95, 101, 112

folklorization, 67, 81, 82, 85, 86, 94, 108, 132

fragmentation, 1, 6, 8, 18, 23, 27, 30, 43, 55, 80, 117, 125, 153, 156, 164, 166, 185

France, 26n34, 51, 53, 118, 133, 161n129

Franco, 127–31, 133, 136–41, 146, 148

Francoism, 117, 128–32, 136–39, 147, 165

French National Front, 51, 53, 54

Freedom Party (Austria), 51, 53

fueros, 120–22, 127

fundamentalism, 15, 89, 100, 111, 123, 184

Fusi, J.P., 126, 127, 130, 131, 134, 137, 140

Gagauzia, 43

Gamsakhurdia, Z., 87n42, 90–92, 93n53, 96n62, 99, 108, 112, 114

Gehry, F., 162

Gellner, E., 83–85, 170

Georgia, 6, 8, 36, 38–40, 52, 54, 56, 61, 63, 64, 67–114, 149, 156, 171, 173, 174, 178, 180, 183

Georgian nationalism, 5, 54, 67–114, 181

Gernika, 128

GSSR (Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic), 81, 83

Germany, 47, 48

German Ideology, 48

German nationalism, 47, 48

Giddens, A., 16, 18, 24, 27, 31, 62, 169

glasnost, 89

globality, 19, 30

globalization hypothesis, 5, 6, 9, 15, 34, 35–65, 97, 101, 141, 154, 156, 165–67

globalization index, 61

Greece, 41, 75

Gogebashvili, I., 72, 75

Guggenheim Museum, 116, 154, 155, 162, 163

Guibernau, M., 28, 30, 116n5, 152

Guipúzcoa, 118, 129, 136

Gurr, T., 37

Hall, S., 1

Harvey, D., 20

HB (see also Herri Batasuna, Batasuna), 155–60

Held, D., 33

Hegel, F., 13

hegemony, 29, 140, 147,

hegemonic discourse, 20

Heiberg, M., 123, 125, 127, 134n61, 136, 137, 143, 148

Herri Batasuna (see also Batasuna, HB), 140, 144, 148, 155

Hobsbawm, E., 13, 41, 170

Hroch, M., 68, 71, 77, 125

human rights, 29, 89, 95

Hungary, 60, 63, 176, 177

Hungarian minorities, 38

Hurrell, A., 7, 19n13, 56, 183, 184

identity, 1, 6, 7, 19n13, 25, 26–34, 37, 43, 46–48, 51, 55, 59, 60, 69, 71, 74, 76, 77, 82, 86, 88, 90, 93n53, 97, 103–05, 108, 109, 113, 114, 118n10, 119, 124, 129, 130, 134, 144, 146–48, 151, 160, 163, 171–73, 177, 178, 180, 185, 186

identity politics, 12, 13, 15, 27, 41

ideology, 2, 4, 20, 21, 23, 30, 39, 41, 47, 48, 51, 55, 77, 94, 117, 120, 122–25, 127, 129, 133, 135n63, 147, 151, 165, 171

Ignatieff, M., 1, 63

ikastolas, 125, 132

ikurriňa, 142

IMF, 102

immigration, 21n20, 36, 51–54, 96, 138, 153, 181, 184–86

imperialism, 20, 26n34, 29, 158, 166

industrialization, 9, 82, 116, 123, 125–27, 139, 150, 165

industrial society, 83–85, 165

interdependence, 16, 17, 64

integration, 1, 6, 8, 9, 13, 16, 17, 21n20, 28, 55, 58, 60, 108, 117, 118n10, 174, 176, 180, 184, 186

internationalism, 6, 57, 79n27, 93, 158

international community, 1, 6, 43, 99, 105, 140

international organizations, 19, 40, 98, 99, 101, 154, 181

international society, 17, 18, 114

international system, 3, 5, 6, 15, 26, 42, 55, 56, 65, 170, 172, 177, 181, 182, 185

international trade, 17

Italy, 41, 75, 115, 116, 161n129

Iran (see also Persia), 44

isolation, 1, 4, 6, 9, 44, 55, 56, 59, 65, 74, 92, 100, 102, 111, 113, 114, 124, 159, 172, 174, 177, 184

Iveria, 70, 73

Izquierda Abertzale, 144

Jackson, R., 17, 18

Jehovah’s Witnesses, 104

Jorjadze, A., 78–79n27

Jones, S., 70, 72

Juaristi, J., 139n77

Jurgensmeyer, M., 24, 27, 44

Kaldor, M., 9, 16, 23, 32, 34, 45, 46, 115

Kautsky, K., 80

Khomeini, 44

kinship, 31, 83, 86

kin-state, 179, 180

King, C., 77, 86, 92

King Juan Carlos, 141n80

Kohn, H., 45, 46

Kosovo, 43

Krebuli, 71

Krutvig, F., 135n64

Kvali, 71

Kymlicka, W., 179

left, 20, 50, 51, 74, 137, 140, 144, 146–48, 157, 158

lehendakari, 144, 157

Le Pen, Jean Marie, 54

liberalism, 60, 71, 75, 120, 124, 134, 186

liberal, 13, 17, 23, 32, 41, 59, 71, 77, 78, 88, 89, 95, 108, 112, 121.122, 123,127, 132, 136, 143, 171, 177, 178-79, 186

localization, 1, 12, 16

localism, 23, 52

MacFarlane, N., 11n16, 151, 152

Madrid, 116, 133, 137, 138, 142, 146, 147, 157, 163

Magyar Gárda, 51

Mamardashvili, M., 94

Manzanas, M., 136

market economy, 8, 32, 92

Marx, K., 47, 48, 79, 150n100

Mazzini, G., 41

McGuggenisation, 155

Medrano, J.D., 121, 146

Mensheviks, 77, 80, 81

Meore Dasi, 71

Mesame Dasi, 71

Meskhi, S., 71

Michnik, A., 94

Middle East, 61

migration (see also immigration), 13, 21, 36, 51–54, 96, 138, 153, 181, 184–86

Milošević, S., 56, 107

minorities, 2, 38, 40, 50, 62, 82, 88, 92, 93, 96, 103, 105, 108, 112, 116, 173, 179, 180, 185

minority nationalism, 8, 43, 45, 50, 173, 175

minority rights, 52, 108, 109, 177–79, 185

modernization, 19, 48, 84, 116, 125, 126, 139, 149–54, 165

modernization theory, 13n22, 126, 149–54

Moldova (see also Gagauzia and Dniester region), 43, 61, 165

multiculturalism, 180

multinational companies, 19, 59, 99, 158, 174, 181, 183, 185

multilateralism, 16, 19, 43, 183

myths (national myth), 11, 24, 46, 51, 55, 87, 88, 114, 119, 140, 151

“Nacionalismo democratico,” 155

nacionalidades, 142

Nagorno-Karabakh, 38

nation, 6, 21–24, 45–48, 51, 56, 57, 61, 68–70, 74, 77, 78, 80, 82, 83, 86–88, 94, 95, 105, 106, 108, 113, 114, 119, 124, 127–31, 134, 137, 138, 142, 146, 152, 153, 158, 165, 170–72, 176

nation-state, 4, 9, 13, 23–25, 27, 31, 42–44, 52, 63, 64, 131, 151, 158, 163, 164, 170, 175

nationality, 13, 19, 45, 47–48, 67, 81–83, 112, 126, 170

national interest, 39, 40, 53, 57, 58, 94, 174

national question, 82

national liberation movement, 41, 77, 79n27, 89, 100, 115n3, 121, 134n60, 135

national movement, 8, 76, 77, 79, 81, 90, 93n53, 94, 97, 107, 113, 125, 171

national security, 57, 179, 181

nationhood, 55, 76, 82, 83, 85, 87, 112, 113, 163, 172, 174

NATO, 56–58, 103, 109, 158, 175, 181

Navarra, 118, 128, 137

neoliberal, 32

neoliberal reforms, 17, 32

neocolonialism, 20

Nervión, 161

Netherlands, 180

new nationalism (see also postcommunist nationalism), 23–26, 28, 30, 32, 35, 40–50, 52, 54, 65, 66, 82, 113, 116, 125, 156, 158, 166

Nikoladze, N., 71, 73

Nodia, G., 97, 109

norms, 17, 18, 21, 32, 40, 42, 60, 114, 122, 176, 181, 183, 184

O’Mahony, P., 12, 25, 26

Onaindía, M., 117n8, 145

Orange Revolution, 107

order, 2, 10, 17, 23, 26, 29, 44, 57, 74, 120–23, 137

Orthodox Christianity, 93n53, 104

Orthodox Church, 104, 105

OSCE (Organisation for Security and Cooperation in Europe), 108

Ottoman Turkey, 72

Owl of Minerva, 13, 170

País Vasco, 117n7

paradox, 1, 2, 6, 9, 15, 26, 27, 56

Payne, S., 119n14, 120, 122, 124, 151

parochialism, 9, 13n22, 24, 27, 31, 72, 74, 113, 159

particularism, 9, 15, 23, 125–27, 154

Partido Nacionalist Vasco (PNV), 119, 122, 126, 131, 133, 134n61, 135, 139, 140, 142–48, 155, 156, 160, 162, 164, 166

partido comunidad, 154

Patriot Movement, 51

patriotism, 45, 75, 108

perestroika, 89

Persia, 68, 72

populism, 34, 36

populist nationalism, 50–54, 112

post-Cold War, 2, 5, 10, 15, 27, 35–37, 39, 184

post-Communist Europe, 67, 151, 173, 179

post-communist nationalism, 5, 8, 49, 50, 67, 89-112, 158,

post-Soviet, 49, 88, 113

postmodern, 21, 44, 161n127, 175–77

positivism, 7

political power, 4, 50, 140, 144, 148, 152, 173, 178

power-sharing, 38, 178

primordialism, 87, 134

pueblo trabajador vasco, 134, 158

Quebec, 8, 27, 115

racism, 51 radicalism, 50, 184

rationality, 7

realpolitik, 111, 163

revolutionary socialism, 133, 138

revolutionary tax, 139

right-wing extremism, 32

Robertson, R., 30

Romania, 38, 57, 176

Rosens, E., 55

Rose Revolution, 104, 106, 107, 109

Round Table-Free Georgia, 91

Runaway World, 24

Russia, 43, 47, 48, 52, 54, 70, 72, 75–77, 80, 89, 92, 96, 97, 102, 104, 106, 110, 111, 113, 173, 177, 178

Russian Empire, 68, 70–73, 77

Russification, 73, 76, 88, 95, 98

Russian Liberal Democratic Party, 51

Russian nationalists, 52, 57

Russian minorities, 40

Russian Social Democratic Labor Party (RSDLP), 77

Saakashvili, M., 106–10, 112–14

Sarkozy, N., 54

Scotland, 36, 115, 174, 180

Scottish National Party (SNP), 174

Serbia, 36, 56

secession, 21n20, 34, 36, 42, 90, 98, 99, 115, 123, 164, 180

security (see also national security), 4, 11, 31, 33, 35, 58, 125, 174–86

self-determination, 56, 69, 77, 81, 116, 126, 135, 146, 164, 165

separatism, 41, 50, 52, 72, 129, 157

Sharadze, G., 105

Shevardnadze, E., 99–101, 103, 104, 106

Shvidi Dghe, 100

Singapore, 61

Slavophile movement, 47

Slovakia, 38, 176

Slovak Party of National Unity, 51

Smith, A., 1, 12, 22, 30, 171

Snyder, J., 10n16, 151, 152

Social Democrats, 71, 73, 77–81

Soviet Union (see also USSR), 8, 10, 31, 36, 38, 39, 45, 57, 60, 62–64, 67, 82, 87, 88, 90, 92, 94, 95, 101, 103, 107, 112, 151, 175

Soviet people, 88

South Caucasus, 63, 86, 151

South East Asia, 61

South East Europe, 58, 59

South Ossetia, 38, 43, 93, 99, 110, 111

sovereignty, 18, 21n20, 22, 43, 50, 52, 55, 58, 64, 68, 76, 80, 94, 143, 162, 176, 177

sovereign statehood, 23, 55, 165

Spain, 9, 43, 50, 115, 116, 118, 120–23, 126–29, 133, 136–43, 146, 149–51, 154, 157, 158, 161, 163, 166, 171, 174, 180

Spanish Civil War, 126, 128, 129

Spanish Constitution, 143

Spanish dictatorship, 131

Spanish Republic, 126

Stalin, I., 82

state failure, 11, 64, 67, 113

Status Law, 175–77

Statute of Autonomy (see also Estatuto de Guernika), 126, 133, 143, 144, 161

Sullivan, J., 134n60, 143

Suny, G., 68, 71, 78n24, 80, 85, 91

symbols, 11, 55, 107, 124, 145, 155, 176

Tajikistan, 64

Talbott, S., 99

Tbilisi (also Tiflis), 69, 81, 90, 91, 102, 105, 106, 107, 110, 111

tergdaleulni, 69–71, 75, 80

territorial integrity, 93, 98, 141, 179, 182

terrorism, 15, 21, 137, 184

terrorist organization, 133

Third World, 41, 135n64

“traitor provinces,” 129

Transcaucasian Federation or Trans caucasian Federal Republic, 79

transition, 8, 10, 32, 39, 67, 77, 80, 83, 85, 88, 89, 92, 103, 117, 139n76, 140, 141, 147–52, 159, 172

transition economies, 32

transnational, 18, 19, 21, 162, 177, 182–84

tribalism, 1, 9, 44, 173

Tsarism, 71

Tuđman, F., 56

Txilladergi, 138

UK, 27

Ukraine, 43, 96n63, 107

Unamuno, M., 125

United States (US), 51, 57, 99

unity, 42, 52, 70, 73, 74, 79, 110, 117, 128, 133, 137, 141, 142, 175, 181, 186

universalism, 13, 29, 30, 60

Universidad de Deusto, 132

USSR, 31, 39, 50, 62n52, 63, 82

value-rationality, 7

violence,

ethnic or integroup (see also ethnic cleansing, ethnic conflict, war), 15, 35, 38, 61, 128, 135, 139, 148, 154–56, 165

Vizcaya, 118, 119n14, 137

Vlaams Blok, 51

war, 2, 35, 37, 56, 58, 67, 76, 96–97n63, 99, 108, 110, 111, 120, 125, 126, 128, 129, 135n63, 135n64, 141, 149, 153, 156, 183, 185

Weber, M., 7

West, 29, 54, 59, 75, 76, 87, 92, 97, 98, 109, 113, 114

Western Europe, 2, 5, 9, 10, 36, 50, 53, 54, 118, 140, 179, 180

World Bank, 102, 103

xenophobia, 34, 51

xenophobic nationalism, 32

Yoldi, C., 157

Yugoslavia, 36, 45, 50

Zhordania, N., 77, 80

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