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A Life Under Russian Serfdom

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Boris B. Gorshkov

The Memoirs of Savva Dmitrevich Purlevskii, 1800–1868

Life outside the village observed

Texte intégral

(XII)

1In spite of everything, it turned out that our situation was not too bad. We had a neighbor, Ivan Ivanovich, who lived not far away from our village. He was a first-rate debauchee and was fond of urban beauties. He lived permanently in his village; endlessly, and without count, he took money from his peasants. Whatever he demanded had to be brought at once, otherwise a whipping would follow.

2In this way a landlord, who was by no means young, robbed his peasants and beat them with or without reason until they finally rebelled and threatened him... Ivan Ivanovich realized that things were bad and decided to get along with his men peacefully. He bought them two kegs of vodka and pledged that, in the future, he would never again mistreat them. The people were satisfied with that. Because Ivan Ivanovich was an incorrigible ladies’ man, he flirted with one local young lady from a modest family. The family realized that it might be good for them to entice and capture this goose. They seemed to pay no attention to his pranks until a certain moment when they finally caught the fellow and forced him to marry. But because he had run up so many debts in his youth that he could barely repay, his finances were in a terrible state. Since he could no longer get anything from his peasants, on the advice of his father-in-law he borrowed a large amount of money (I don’t know how much) from the Council of Trustees, having mortgaged twelve hundred souls.

3All hell broke loose. Visit after visit—the new couple wanted to live in the city no less—evenings, carriages, equipment: everything required money. The household finances, however, remained as they had been. In five years they repaid the loan interest, but afterwards the entire debt was placed on the shoulders of the peasants, as happened in our case, too. Only they did not have the trade and the commerce that we had.

4This person was not evil but just a sort of spoilt child, careless, and a poor manager. Our other neighbor, Lev Petrovich, was of a different type. He came from an old noble family and owned 300 souls and many wood lots. In his youth he had been in state service somewhere and had achieved the title of provincial secretary. He hung around the notables and skillfully cheated them at cards. By such tricks he gained himself a nice amount of bonds and securities in the savings bank. He married and moved to the countryside. His unhappy wife, exhausted by his cruel treatment, died after three years. She left him a son, Leonid L’vovich, who even in his childhood did not get on well with his father and moved to the city to live with his aunt. Later, this son found a bride in the city and married.

5After his wife’s death Lev Petrovich not only drove his men out to act as beaters while hunting, but he also coerced all the young female peasants to come to perform night duties at his house, one after the other. For disobedience he punished them with a birch rod or put an iron collar on their neck for an entire month.

6Eventually the peasants could take no more, and through his huntsmen they informed the landlord that they would no longer tolerate his misdeeds and, if he continued his misconduct, they would make short work of him their own way.

7Initially Lev Petrovich was angry and wanted to have them all flogged, but he then changed his mind because he had no one at hand to protect him. He was afraid that he would bring trouble on himself, as had happened in Pereiaslavl’ district, where the peasants, under cover of darkness, went for the landlord and his wife and left them for dead. He put an end to the night duties. He got married for a second time to a non-noble woman, since no noble-man would allow his daughter to marry him, despite all his money. No noble lady would be attracted to him, with his swarthy face and his habit of repeating a favorite saying: “Oh, business is business, earth is earth, everyone is Christian.”

8So for money, and with the help of his flunkies, he got married to a young woman from the petite bourgeoisie. He took this poor little thing to his estate house and boarded her up in a narrow wing. The unlucky woman languished there for fifteen years, giving her tormentor two sons.

  • 1 21.3 km or 13.3 miles.

9Meanwhile, Lev Petrovich, having been stymied with respect to night duties, began to plague his peasants on economic matters. His arable lands were not very large and the peasants had no problem ploughing them. But he wore them out with other burdens: cutting firewood in the forest and transporting it twenty versts1 to the city; extorting money and flax; and requiring each peasant woman to spin a certain amount of yarn during the winter and, in the summer, to weave and dye a certain quantity of linen cloth, gather a certain quantity of mushrooms, and pick a certain quantity of cherries. Each family was supposed to bring a number of eggs and a quantity of butter. Furthermore, no marriage could take place without Lev Petrovich’s permission, for which he took a special fee in money, flax, and home-made cloth. He was such a master of his affairs that, when he noticed that his peasants had had successful crops, he kept it in mind. Then, after they had sold their produce, he would appropriate the income from all of them, one at a time, under the pretext of “saving the money.” He would tell them, “You are a fool, you will squander everything on drink, but I will save it for you.” The peasant would hesitate, claiming that he needed to buy a horse or something else for the household, but Lev Petrovich would say, “You will waste your money, you rascal. When you need a horse, I will give you one.” Or he would simply say, “You blockhead, do you want the birch rod?”

10So, in a word, the peasants reached the point where they no longer cared about their household economy, “Because, in any case, Lev Petrovich will find out about our earnings and take them away.” He was very devious too, so that even outsiders were careful to keep away from him. From among many episodes, I recall one in particular.

  • 2 He was an Old Believer.
  • 3 6.4 km or 4 miles.

11He had a landless peasant, a not particularly young man. This man followed the schism.2 He often lived as a vagrant and stayed, sometimes nearby, with one or another of his fellow-believers. He had nothing that one could take, but Lev Petrovich thought up the following trick. He filed a complaint in a local court against this peasant, Ivan Kondrat’ev, claiming that on a certain day of a certain month he had disappeared without saying a word. In fact, Lev Petrovich knew perfectly well that this peasant was either on the estate, walking back and forth from one home to another, or was visiting his fellow-believers who welcomed him as a guest. They did not see him as a runaway, since the estate where he lived was only six versts3 away and they knew that he had not escaped but had just traveled back and forth between them and home. A long time passed after the landlord filed his charges. Ivan Kondrat’ev continued to walk back and forth between his village and his fellow-believers. Then, Lev Petrovich sent to the same court an appeal that “such and such a runaway peasant was hiding at such and such a place” and requested an official search.

12They sent an officer, who took Ivan Kondrat’ev right from a prayer house. The evidence was clear. They arrested several other people for “harboring” him and delivered them all to the city to stand trial. Lev Petrovich demanded from the peasants two thousand rubles in compensation, but, since the court members themselves received payments from the Old Believers, after some red tape they reduced the amount to six hundred by way of compromise...

13So there’s your Ivan Kondrat’ev! He was remembered for a long time. Lev Petrovich only laughed, saying, “One needs to teach the peasants to become smarter.” But when he came to our local marketplace, the neighboring landlords were unwilling to give Lev Petrovich so much as a bow as they passed him...

14In the end, even Lev Petrovich became kinder during the year before his death. He set free his domestic servants and stopped demanding the earlier requisitions from his peasants. Even some poor peasants got things from his farmyard, some a horse, some a cow. He gave others some lumber for building and a little money.

15Lev Petrovich was quite a fine fellow, but there were even better examples. One old nobleman, along with a band of spongers, moved to his countryside estate and took to hunting with hounds. One day, a peasant boy (the nobleman had three thousand souls there) accidentally hit a hound from the landlord’s kennels in the leg with a stone. When he saw that his Nalet was limping, the landlord became incensed and asked, “Who injured the dog?”

16The kennel attendants had to reveal the boy’s identity. They produced the boy. He confessed.

  • 4 Fyodor Dostoevsky apparently describes this incident in his Brothers Karamazov. In a conversation w (...)

17In the morning, the landlord ordered preparations for the hunt in full complement. They went to the field and took their places near the forest, the hounds were let out, and the borzois were held on leads. There they brought the boy. The landlord ordered that the boy be stripped of his clothes and set loose in the field to run. Then they let out the dogs from all the packs to chase him—literally to hunt him.4

18The borzois approached the boy, sniffed at him, but did not touch him... His mother got there in time; she had run through the forest. She clasped her child in her arms. They dragged her back to the village and again set the dogs loose. The mother went insane and died within three days.

  • 5 Alexander I (r. 1801–1825). On the reign of Alexander I see Alan Palmer, Alexander I, Tsar of War a (...)

19It was said that when Emperor Aleksandr Pavlovich5 learned about this incident he ordered the landlord to be put on trial. But the latter, when he heard that news of the affair had reached the tsar, committed suicide.

  • 6 Purlevskii probably meant the Tula entrepreneurs, brothers Andrei and Ivan Batashov, the sons of a (...)

20I also remember two brothers, A* and I* B.6 They were not locals, but many rumors circulate in our country. The news about them reached us, too.

  • 7 Here Purlevskii refers to the Shepelevskie works, which belonged to Ivan Batashov. See note 108.

21These two brothers, T–skie nobles, were the founders of the Sh* works in 1755, which subsequently became famous and encompassed vast resources.7 The works earned enormous profits. Of the two brothers, I* was especially capable and industrious, but extremely mercenary. He was a past master at appropriating other people’s property without caring much about how he did it. He armed all his people and was a sort of leader. He always traveled with a group of twelve staunch fellows and gave out orders like a bandit. The initial setting up of the works required a lot of land and forests, which belonged to the Kasimov Tartars, who would not agree to sell the lands. So, I* took it upon himself to cut down and set fire the trees, and wound up killing many people. And the neighboring landlords, whose lands I* needed and desired, suffered a great deal at his hands as well. He would make a deal and offer a generous price, complete the transaction, invite the person to his place to receive the payment, pay everything in full, and then treat everyone with great generosity. But in the evening, as the drunk and overfed guests made their way back home, I* would send his special lackeys to murder them and take the money back. I* would then give his men a generous reward for this service. Nobody dared to resist I* or expose him. There was no way to bring him to justice in the local courts. He even arranged special protection in the Imperial Senate, when his affairs became known there. In the factory management office there should still be a letter from Senator L., who urged I. B., “Van’ka, your affairs stink, you should stop. Otherwise you will get into serious trouble and we, too, will fall into disgrace.”

22But I* did not stop. Proof of his savageness emerged—human skeletons were found in the walls when they tore down the old mill building.

23However, I will say this: all these examples are exceptions. Among the nobles there were many intelligent individuals, practical and deserving of respect. And people from other social estates also did evil things. Here is an example. It comes from the very Sh* works I spoke of.

  • 8 These were the Vyksunskii, Veletminskii, Doschatyi and Unzhenskii plants. After 1783 Ivan founded s (...)
  • 9 D. D. Shepelev.

24In 1783 the whole estate was divided between the brothers B. Ivan gained four plants,8 one hundred and fifty thousand desiatinas of land, including about one hundred and ten thousand desiatinas of forest, eighteen thousand peasant souls, nine thousand of whom worked in the plants, and an industry valued at one million two hundred thousand rubles of circulating capital and two thousand rubles of net profit. After his death all this passed to his only daughter, who married General D. D. Sh.9 The general initially took good care of the estate’s economy but soon got bored with such a demanding task. Under his control the financial situation worsened, and they eventually needed a loan of eight hundred thousand rubles from the Council of Trustees. Almost all this amount they spent on building an enormous theater near the plants and on supporting a group of foreign actors. The management of the plants was exclusively in the hands of serfs. There was no proper landlord’s control and direction but only stupid strictness. On the surface, production at the works was maintained in proper order, but in reality there were various kinds of fraud and plundering going on. After the death of the general, his two sons, Ivan and Nikolai, educated and titled gentlemen, inherited the property. But they, too, paid little attention to the estate’s affairs. The youngest, Nikolai, did not even want to be personally involved in the estate management and handed it over to his brother and brother-in-law. Their activities in connection with the plants were limited merely to signing various official papers without any proper attention.

  • 10 50,000 puds equals 800,000 kg.

25Just at that moment a certain man appeared on the scene. In a tavern near the main works a townsman from Elabuga, by the name of C., had served as a barman for many years. He made himself popular with the mill workers by acting as a fence for commodities stolen by them. In this way he made a fortune for himself. Once he and the plant manager, a serf, made an agreement to deceive the mill owners. That year there had been a poor grain harvest. The price of rye flour approached one silver ruble a pud, while, in contrast, the price of iron fell. In cahoots with the plant manager, C. cooked up a contract and slipped it among other papers waiting for the owner’s signature. The contract gave C. the right to supply grain for three years, fifty thousand puds10of grain a year in exchange for iron of any kind that C. needed, at an equal pud per pud rate. During the first year the plant did not lose very much, but in the two following years, when good grain harvests lowered the price to twenty-five kopecks a pud and the price of iron rose, the plant lost almost ninety kopecks per pud.

26Having noticed the error, the mill owners attempted to withdraw from the contract, but C., following a formal court decision, forced the plant to fulfill it. An investigation disclosed the manager’s violations and, after a whipping, he was exiled to Siberia, but the con-tract remained in force. Other underhanded affairs were also carried on by C., but this did not prevent him from becoming rich and, with the powerful backing of Z., an influential man of that time, from receiving medals, and eventually the Order of Empress Anna, to hang round his neck.

27Still, God’s judgment awaited him and he was punished. As he was on his way to his patron to receive the Order, blood began to pour from his nose and he died within the hour. His unlawful wealth was gradually dispersed and his family lived in Moscow in virtual poverty.

28I can tell you more about these plants: as time went by, things got worse and worse. The debts grew to such an extent that the operation could get no credit at all and they only managed with great difficulty to continue to pay off the loan from the Council of Trustees. The matter ended as follows: the richest part of the estate, with woods and mines for the plant’s production and with mills in central Russia near Moscow and the Nizhnii Novgorod fair and with excellent water transportation, declared itself bankrupt in 1846, after which everything came under the management of the Council of Trustees.

(XIII)

29These examples illustrate the affairs of nobles and peasants. But are there no bad merchants, who pick on nobles and shout at peasants?

30I will retell a story about one former Muscovite celebrity, the wool manufacturer P. M. A. His wool production was of irreproachable quality and brought him quite a nice profit. But his greed and self-interest could not be satisfied by honest labor. He decided to gain even more wealth and, out of the blue, declared himself bankrupt.

31He got away with it. Nor was it too difficult to do. For the deal he made was not entirely unprofitable for his lenders, and they all hoped that his business would bring them returns in the future. But A. already had in mind another trick. Having tasted the success of his first experiment, and with the help of two accomplices, he started to keep double accounts. In one book he listed the real transactions and in the second he recorded bogus losses. He did this insidiously for ten years, during which time he nonetheless managed to secure another loan for his business. After making a nice profit from the loan, A. sent out circular letters to all his creditors inviting them to visit him one evening. Although they had no knowledge of what was going on, they foresaw something unpleasant, as a consequence of which those who lived in Moscow came to him in person. When the visitors saw that two assistants of A. (his very accomplices) were greeting them and that the manufacturer appeared only after everyone had gathered, they realized that something nasty was going to happen. Pretending to be ill, and under the guise of emotional stress, he started his performance by making a bow, then, with false humility and meekness, spelled out the fact that, due to the difficulties of his situation, he was unable to repay his debts, which reached two million. In order to prove this statement he presented his accounting books, which showed a deficit of one million...

32This caused some commotion among the creditors, who took a look at the books, turned over the pages, went back and forth across the room, thought the matter over this way and that, and reached an agreement to reschedule the debt payment for four years.

33Well, things moved on, but when the first payment was due he paid nothing. They again considered the issue and agreed that, since A. could indeed not repay in full, they would let him pay fifty kopecks per ruble within a year. One unfortunate creditor was so dismayed by this shameless plundering that, on his way home, he jumped from the Kamennyi Bridge into the river and drowned himself.

34To our scoundrel this was water off a duck’s back. He did not even fulfill the new terms. Using ruses and tricks he compelled his creditors to take his enterprise under wardship. He managed to worm himself into the main factory administration. The debits were repaid by profits from the factory. But in the end A. repaid scarcely anything and the million remained in his pocket.

35Well, there is nothing more to say. He fooled people with his cunning. But could he deceive God? God’s judgment suddenly struck A. in the form of a painful disease. For seven years he looked more dead than alive; no medical treatment could help. For three years he could eat nothing but a spoonful of broth. He sought help from the monasteries, and even enriched one with large donations, but finally died amid terrible suffering. After his death his million went in part to his accomplices and in part to his distant relatives, because he had never married and had no family.

36Yet there is another case I can recall regarding the merchant way of life. There were two brothers, wealthy, hearty, and hospitable persons, all of which did them credit. Their hospitality, however, was not limited to keeping their house open to people but involved a passion for the noble way of life. This applied not only to themselves, but, after their lavish dinners, they displayed antique possessions about which they understood nothing. Furthermore, one of the brothers decided to impress people with a greenhouse, which cost him fifty thousand. The other built a house near his factory for one hundred thousand rubles, not for permanent residence, but just for occasional visits. And their mama made equal efforts. She had built, at her own expense, a huge five-domed church, also for a hundred thousand rubles in silver. So they wasted money endlessly and, when their business got into trouble, left their creditors with nothing.

  • 11 The Kiakhta commodities exchange was an important commercial site between Russia and China.
  • 12 A tea chest which weighs between 40 and 80 Russian pounds (one Russian pound being 409.5 grams).

37There is also the case of a first guild merchant in Moscow, P. I. Kzh., who traded with tea on a large scale. His activities were carried out in Kiakhta11 through his assistants, while here he traded with tea wholesale, not trusting anybody but himself to sell even one single tsibik12. He was so mistrustful and tightfisted that he even went himself to the marketplace every day to buy provisions for the family, expenses which, on weekdays, amounted to no more than one paper ruble. The cooking and all the other housework was done by one single female cook. On holidays his wife made pirogi herself and obediently carried out all her husband’s orders. He seemed satisfied only when he could save a penny on the tiniest thing. He was an incredible niggard! His assistants from Kiakhta returned to Moscow each April with personal reports. In these reports they would never state the real expenses, on pain of being fired by the merchant. They had to be cunning and round all the numbers down in order to make the appearance of the strictest thrift in everything, otherwise even the most honest and naturally economical among them would lose his position.

38Unintentionally, in order to cover up the difference between the amount they had actually spent and the amount they reported, they developed the habit of deceit. One of his assistants told me that when they returned to Moscow from Kiakhta and were staying in Moscow in order to buy goods for Kiakhta they secretly obtained funds from the salesmen, which they used afterwards to cover up the merchant’s unreported expenses. They did the same in Kiakhta, too, when they exchanged goods. They retained for themselves only small amounts equal to their wages. After all, during those three months when they lived in Moscow and stayed in the merchant’s house, they were supposed to lay in firewood for the entire year, clean up his courtyard and stable, mend the driveway in front of the house, and do all the dirtiest work in person. By doing this work, they were supposed to prove their zealousness in meeting the merchant’s needs. Otherwise he would have fired them, saying kindly, “Well, dear, I am dismissing you because you don’t want to bother yourself with hard work in my presence. Think for yourself: How can I rely on your work in my absence?”

39Kzh. was stingy not because of concern for his family and heirs but only because he enjoyed opening his chest, looking at the sacks of gold coins, and re-counting his Treasury bonds. He never gave anything to the church, the needy, or any charitable institution. He never even participated in public charities. And what about his family? Even the most modest pleasures were denied them. The gates of his house were always locked in the evenings: there was neither entrance nor exit for the family or anyone else. Even his only son and heir was denied a proper education. His learning was limited to reading, writing, and counting on an abacus. When this son was seventeen, the merchant forced him to marry the daughter of his favorite assistant, V. I. Sh. His sole intention was to avoid big wedding expenses and to have a new daughter-in-law from a modest family, who would be more obedient to the existing household order... In a word, the merchant’s family regarded him as an oppressor and looked forward eagerly to his death as they would a holiday.

40In 1819 he died. It turned out that the merchandise and securities he had were valued at sixteen million in paper money and that he had four million rubles deposited in the Savings Bank on the condition that his direct heirs were to use only the interest and that the capital would remain for the next generation. All this passed to his only son, who, while his father was alive, was not able to touch even a single ruble. And now he had suddenly acquired millions! Even an experienced person would have felt giddy, so what hope was there for a merchant’s son who had depended totally on his father and hardly even knew of the existence of the theater...

  • 13 The headdress of an Orthodox priest.

41At that moment a certain Kv., also the young son of a merchant, turned up. A spoiled fellow, he had no difficulty in getting close to the none-too-clever Kzh. After a short while Kv. introduced him to a company of debauchees and gradually enticed him into dissipation. The family business was handed over to his father-in-law, the Vereisk merchant V. I. Sh., who was concerned only about his own interests and cared little about helping his son-in-law. Even he took part in the revelries. In two years Kzh. and Kv. became famous for their pranks. Once they got an archimandrite drunk and gave him a ride across the city with a pumpkin on his head instead of his klobuk.13

  • 14 Here Purlevskii is referring to the Order of Vladimir of the Fourth Degree and the Order of Empress (...)

42For this piece of mischief Kv., as the instigator, was sent into military service while Kzh. got away with a fine. Later on he became so arrogant that once, in 1824, as an honored member of the Moscow Commercial and Practical Academy, and having learned that it needed money, he had the insolence to offer it thirty-five thousand rubles on condition that the academy nominate him to a Vladimir of the Fourth Degree or Anna of the Third.14 This did not work out, of course, and he cut his donation down to two hundred rubles.

43Nevertheless, his silly ambition did him some good. Deeply offended by the refusal, this rich man wished to get an award at any cost. He set up a model wool factory, of a sort that no reasonable owner would ever have built. C. bought a plot of land in the countryside, seven versts from Moscow, erected factory buildings and living apartments there in gothic style, and secretly ordered from England steam engines and factory equipment. At the time this was no easy thing to do because machine imports from England were prohibited and Kzh. got them only for a huge amount of money. After a while the factory began to operate and produced woolen cloth of the best quality. For this Kzh. became well known and finally got the Vladimir Order for the public good he had done.

44But Kzh. had no luck. Helped by the tariffs in those days he might have returned a profit, but he took no personal interest in the business. He turned over the factory’s management to a careless and mercenary person. Consequently, in 1830 he lost ten million rubles at one stroke. His enthusiasm for the factory waned. On Kzh.’s appeal the government allowed him to withdraw the four million from the Savings Bank in order to continue to support factory production. But because of his carelessness and drunkenness even this money did not last long. Subsequently he began to take loans at high interest, and finally the factory went into bankruptcy. After numerous sequestrations the factory literally fell into ruin. They got only thirty thousand for it, just enough for repaying out-standing debts, although its original cost had been more than three million. The owner found himself in a very unpleasant situation.

45This was sad, because it was at his enthusiastic initiative that Moscow factories began to produce woolen cloth for the Chinese market, as a consequence of which it was no longer necessary to order from abroad woolen cloth of the so-called Miziritskii brand for the Kiakhta fair. Also, Russia began to manufacture other types of woolen cloth needed for internal consumption, particularly after the introduction of the shpanskii breed of sheep and after foreign machinery imports became easier and cheaper (80 percent cheaper than those bought by Kzh.).

46I have become so absorbed in my stories that I have jumped from the twenties to the thirties and forties, and have got bogged down in the realm of notorious merchants. Now let me get back to my former life under serfdom.

11.
Peasant women’s head dress

12.
Peasant women’s autumn dress

Notes

1 21.3 km or 13.3 miles.

2 He was an Old Believer.

3 6.4 km or 4 miles.

4 Fyodor Dostoevsky apparently describes this incident in his Brothers Karamazov. In a conversation with his younger brother Aleksei, Ivan Karamazov refers to a similar episode, of which he had learned from a journal. See The Brothers Karamazov by Fyodor Dostoevsky, trans. Andrew R. MacAndrew (New York: Bantam Books, 1981), 292, or F. M. Dostoevskii, Brat’ia Karamazovy (Petrozavodsk: Karel’skoe knizhnoe izd., 1970), 266.

5 Alexander I (r. 1801–1825). On the reign of Alexander I see Alan Palmer, Alexander I, Tsar of War and Peace (New York: Harper and Row, 1974).

6 Purlevskii probably meant the Tula entrepreneurs, brothers Andrei and Ivan Batashov, the sons of a wealthy Tula metallurgy entrepreneur Rodion Batashov. The family initially belonged to the peasant and petit bourgeois social estates, but later Andrei and Ivan obtained noble titles. Between 1755 and 1783, the two brothers possessed about eleven metal mills. Metallurgicheskie zavody, 1: 225.

7 Here Purlevskii refers to the Shepelevskie works, which belonged to Ivan Batashov. See note 108.

8 These were the Vyksunskii, Veletminskii, Doschatyi and Unzhenskii plants. After 1783 Ivan founded several more plants. After his death, the Ivan Batashov enterprise passed to the Shepelev family through the marriage of Ivan’s only daughter to D. D. Shepelev. After that, the enterprise was known as the Shepelev Works. Metallurgicheskie zavody, 1: 225.

9 D. D. Shepelev.

10 50,000 puds equals 800,000 kg.

11 The Kiakhta commodities exchange was an important commercial site between Russia and China.

12 A tea chest which weighs between 40 and 80 Russian pounds (one Russian pound being 409.5 grams).

13 The headdress of an Orthodox priest.

14 Here Purlevskii is referring to the Order of Vladimir of the Fourth Degree and the Order of Empress Anna of the Third Degree.

Table des illustrations

Légende 11.Peasant women’s head dress
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Légende 12.Peasant women’s autumn dress
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Fichier image/jpeg, 186k

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