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Which Socialism, Whose Détente?

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Maud Bracke

Index

Texte intégral

12th Congress PCI, 272(n), 280–281, 284, 286, 288, 291–292, 294, 315(n)

2000 Words Manifesto, 146, 160, 178, 181, 187(n)

20th Congress CPSU, 40(n), 110, 123(n)–125(n), 176, 178–180, 189(n), 193(n)–196(n),210, 224, 235(n), 240(n), 245, 252, 263, 266(n)–267(n), 269(n)–272(n), 280–281, 287–289, 316(n)

Acquaviva, Antoine, 150, 186(n)

Action Program, 136–137, 149, 151–152, 171, 207

Adenauer, Konrad, 53

Afghanistan, 37, 352

Africa, 53, 60, 62, 87, 120(n), 209, 329, 371

Albania, 84, 123(n), 209

Algerian war, 25, 29, 34, 73–75, 81(n)

Allargamento, 88, 108, 176, 212, 262, 265, 266(n), 282, 306, 369

Allende, Salvador, 328

Althusser, Louis, 112, 126(n), 188(n)

Amendola, Giorgio, 64, 69, 79(n), 104–105, 108, 124(n), 174, 179, 194(n)–195(n), 214, 224, 235(n)–236(n), 243–244, 266(n), 280, 286, 288, 293, 315(n), 317(n)
anarchism, 154–156

Andrieu, Rene, 165, 192(n), 221, 238(n)
anti-Americanism, 25, 43(n), 73, 96, 282, 307, 328, 338
anti-semitism, 152

Aragon, Louis, 119, 152, 158, 187(n), 189(n), 247, 267(n), 303, 319(n)

Asia, 60, 65, 87, 120(n), 371

Assistance Fund, 60, 78(n), 85, 97

Astrolabio, 215, 270(n)

Aveu, L’ 228, 303, 319(n), 356(n)

Beijing, 93, 113, 188(n)

Belgrade, 66, 87, 269(n)

Beria, Lavrentiy, 49

Berlinguer, Enrico, 3, 40(n), 43(n), 98, 121(n), 123(n), 179, 184(n), 185(n), 189(n), 194(n), 194(n), 195(n), 196(n), 200(n), 210, 224–225, 235(n)–238(n), 242–234, 252, 258, 263, 265(n)–272(n), 280(n)–284(n), 285–288, 292–293, 315(n)–317(n), 330–331, 343, 347–349, 352, 354(n)–355(n), 357(n), 359(n), 368, 377

Bertone, Franco, 167–168, 172, 192(n)–194(n)

Bilák, Vasil, 136, 145, 147–148, 199, 278, 314(n), 318(n)

Blackmer, D., 8, 39(n)–40(n), 42(n), 45(n), 48(n), 313(n)

Bolshevism, 17, 19, 22, 58, 71, 85, 268(n), 284–285, 305, 309, 349, 357(n)–358(n), 370

BP, 69, 76, 121(n)–123(n), 127(n), 150, 166, 186(n)–187(n), 191(n)–192(n), 217–219, 223, 237(n)–238(n), 240(n), 276(n)–268(n), 270(n)–272(n), 297, 301, 312, 318(n)–322(n), 356(n)–357(n)

Brandt, Willy, 95, 110, 140, 326

Brezhnev, Leonid, 14, 27, 41(n), 60, 84, 87, 93, 98, 100–111, 136, 145–147, 163–165, 178, 182, 183(n), 185(n), 190(n), 200, 202–203, 206–207, 217, 221, 233(n), 244, 256, 263, 268(n), 270(n), 272(n), 310, 312, 319(n), 338(n), 367, 370

Budapest, 40(n), 54, 78(n), 100, 139, 144, 166, 176–177, 184(n), 186(n)–187(n), 189(n), 192(n), 195(n), 243, 247, 255, 257–260, 267(n), 270(n)–272(n), 318(n)

Bufalini, Paolo, 245, 269(n), 288, 293, 316(n)

capitalism, 1, 14, 17, 19, 24, 6768, 76, 101, 104–105, 108, 113, 125(n), 129, 157, 172, 204, 221, 250, 282, 306–307, 334, 340, 349

Carrillo, Santiago, 209, 346, 349–351, 358(n)–359(n)

CC 69, 87, 90, 121(n), 125(n), 127(n), 146, 152, 159, 168, 175, 200, 207–208, 211, 213, 218, 225, 228–229, 240(n), 242, 245, 247, 262, 270(n), 288, 291, 293, 300–303, 305, 331, 334

Ceaușescu, Nicolae, 185(n), 254

censorship, 137, 141, 146, 163, 204–208, 276–277

Černík, Oldřich, 136, 138, 150, 198, 200, 205–207, 318(n)

CESPE, 108

CGIL, 68, 108, 124(n)–125(n), 173, 286, 290, 317(n)

CGT, 78(n), 156–158, 187(n)–189(n)

Charter, 77 233(n)–235(n), 351, 354(n), 357(n)

Che Guevara, 160, 173

China, 28, 84–87, 94, 97, 106, 120(n), 12(n), 143, 154–155, 159, 198, 209, 256–257, 270(n), 284, 287–289, 314(n), 325–326, 344, 371

CIR, 114

CISL, 173, 290

class, 9, 14, 23, 34, 52–53, 71, 73, 99, 150, 152, 159, 169, 201–202, 225, 283, 292, 311, 347–348, 356(n), 358(n)

CME, 113

CMEA, 16, 143, 255

Cohn-Bendit, Daniel, 154, 156, 158

Cold War, 2, 5–8, 10–11, 13, 16, 18, 20–21, 23–25, 27, 30–31, 36–37, 43(n), 45(n), 51, 59, 60–61, 73–74, 77(n), 81, 92, 93, 109, 123(n), 132, 174, 185(n), 211, 213, 215, 220, 224, 226, 230–232, 283, 307, 324–325, 329, 332, 335, 344, 362, 365–366, 370

Colombi, Arturo, 179, 196(n), 210–211, 213, 224, 239(n), 245, 266(n)–267(n), 269(n)–270(n)

Comecon, 16, 26, 139

Cominform, 15–16, 25, 41(n), 51(n), 57–58, 177, 202, 250, 255, 259

Comintern, 16, 41(n), 58–61, 77(n)–78(n), 177, 202, 255, 259, 319(n)

Communist party of Cyprus, 209

Communist Party of Luxemburg, 209

Communist Party of the United States, 259

Congress of the Union of Writers, 134–135

Courtois, S., 9, 12, 39(n)–40(n), 78(n), 126(n), 127(n)

Couve de Murville, Maurice, 100

CPCS, 26–27, 44(n), 60, 98, 116–117, 121(n), 126(n), 135, 139–141, 144–148, 150–152, 160–161, 163, 165–170, 172, 176–178, 180, 185(n)–186(n), 190(n)–192(n), 198–200, 204, 208, 210–211, 216, 220, 222, 233(n)–238(n), 270(n)–271(n), 276–278, 294–298, 301, 314(n), 318(n)–319(n), 352, 357(n)

CPE, 209, 341, 346, 358(n)

CPN, 41, 44(n), 120(n), 260

CPS, 135, 183(n), 185(n), 195(n), 269(n), 321(n)

CPSU, 15, 44(n), 49–50, 55, 57–59, 61, 64, 77(n), 86, 88, 111, 118, 122(n), 126(n), 158–159, 161–162, 166–167, 171, 187(n), 190(n)–191(n), 193(n), 195(n), 198, 202, 211(n), 212, 215, 234(n), 244, 247–248, 265(n), 267(n), 269(n), 272(n), 293, 306, 340, 347, 356(n)

Cuban Missile crisis, 37, 84, 92

Cultural Revolution, 84, 173, 288, 291

Czechoslovak Communist Party, 12, 26, 116, 133–134, 149, 162, 166, 170, 179, 191(n), 199, 210, 270(n), 356(n)

Czechoslovakia, 1–6, 10–15, 18–20, 25–31, 37–38, 40(n), 43(n)–44(n), 47, 50, 54–55, 58, 60, 77(n), 92, 99, 110, 116, 131, 133–135, 138–153, 158, 160–172, 175–182, 184(n)–187(n), 189(n)–193(n), 195(n)–196(n), 197–203, 205–211, 215–220, 222–226, 228–229, 231–232, 233(n), 235(n)–240(n), 242–249, 253–258, 263, 265, 266(n)–270(n), 273, 275–281, 283, 289, 291–296, 298–305, 308–310, 312, 314(n), 316(n)–320(n), 323–326, 329, 333–337, 342–343, 346, 351–352, 254(n)–356(n), 361–362, 365–370

Daix, Pierre, 152–153, 186(n)–189(n), 319(n)–321(n)

DC 24, 40(n), 102–105, 124(n), 194(n), 239(n), 330–332, 355(n)

de Felice, Franco, 21–22, 24, 40(n), 42(n)–43(n)

de Gaulle, Charles, 24, 29, 34, 73–74, 74, 76, 80(n)–81(n), 96, 99–111, 115–116, 123(n), 126(n), 130, 157–159, 189(n), 230, 268(n), 305, 309, 312, 335, 338, 371

decolonization, 21, 24, 74, 106

democratic centralism, 9, 14, 246

Démocratie nouvelle, 152, 301

Denis, Jacques, 122(n), 189(n), 267(n), 301, 318(n), 344, 345
de-Stalinization, 27, 49–51, 55–56, 62–65, 69–71, 76, 76(n), 118, 134, 148–149, 181, 285
dictatorship of proletariat, 14, 71, 209, 310–311, 336, 341, 350

Direzione, 64, 66, 68, 78(n), 123(n), 167, 171–172, 178–178–180, 190(n), 193(n)–196(n), 210, 214, 216, 224, 225, 227, 235(n), 242, 244, 252, 258, 262–263, 266(n), 269(n)–272(n), 277, 279, 287–288, 314(n), 317(n)
domestic strategy, 2, 11–12, 29, 34, 42(n), 48, 55–57, 64, 67, 71, 76, 89, 96, 104–105, 111, 113, 115–118, 120, 129, 159, 169, 175, 212–213, 217, 219–220, 229, 231–232, 246, 249–250, 273, 275, 280–282, 285–286, 289–291, 294, 299, 302, 304–306, 308–309, 313, 331, 336–337, 341, 344, 349–350, 352–353, 361, 369, 371–372

Dubček, Alexander, 136–138, 140–141, 143–147, 150–152, 159–165, 169–172, 176, 180, 182, 182(n), 184(n)–186(n), 190(n)–191(n), 193(n), 198–200, 204–205, 207–208, 216, 222, 224, 231, 233(n)–235(n), 246, 276–278, 295, 297–298, 314(n), 318(n)

Duclos, Jacques, 71, 112, 126(n), 151, 187(n)–188(n), 217–218, 227, 247–248, 300–301, 312

East Germany, 4, 32, 38, 53, 78(n), 91, 95–98, 100, 107, 110, 116, 118, 122(N), 142–145, 159, 168, 177, 180, 192(n), 198, 200, 209, 229, 241–243, 246, 248, 250, 255, 260–262, 264, 303, 316(n)–317(n), 326–327, 351, 371

Eastern Europe, 9, 26, 28, 39, 41(n)–42(n), 51, 65, 73, 77(n), 84, 99, 109, 117, 123(n), 144–145, 166, 175, 192(n), 210, 217, 233(n), 244, 262, 270(n), 280, 283, 326–328, 331, 337, 350–351, 353, 356(n), 359(n), 365, 366(n), 370

EEC 68, 90, 100, 108–109, 115, 123(n), 331, 338, 342, 345, 349, 356(n), 358(n), 371

Erhard, Ludwig, 95

Eurocommunism, 3, 8, 30–31, 39(n)–40(n), 449n), 77(n), 89, 91, 99, 120(n)–121(n), 235(n), 323–324, 332–333, 336, 339–343, 346–353, 354(n)–355(n), 357(n)–359(n), 361–363, 370, 372

fascism, 15, 21–23,61, 63, 68, 73–74, 102, 174, 202, 243, 310, 329, 330, 334

Ferrara, Maurizio, 210–211, 235(n)–236(n), 243, 265(n)

FGDS 114–116, 126(n), 155–158, 160, 188(n)–189(n), 230, 232, 240(n), 309

Fiat factory, 290

FLN 74–75, 125(n)

Frachon, Benoit, 72, 80(n), 151, 181, 187(n), 189(n), 217, 228, 300

France, 1–2, 4–5, 7–10, 12, 20–25, 33–38, 39(n)–40(n), 42(n)–45(n), 48, 56, 58, 60–62, 66, 72–76, 77(n)–78(n), 80(n)–81(n), 83, 85, 90, 96, 98–101, 111–112, 114–119, 120(n), 122(n)–123(n), 126(n)–127(n), 130, 140, 149, 151, 153–154, 156–163, 165, 167, 170, 173–174, 176, 178, 180–182, 186(n)–192(n), 195(n)–196(n), 198, 209, 218, 220–221, 224, 229–230, 232, 236(n), 238(n), 246–253, 259–261, 265(n), 268(n)–269(n), 271(n), 273, 296–299, 302–303, 306–310, 312–313, 317(n), 319(n)–322(n), 324, 326, 332, 335–341, 344, 347, 349, 353, 356(n)–358(n), 365, 370–371

Franco, Francisco, 346

French Left, 12, 21, 36, 40(n), 117, 126(n), 149, 153–154, 156, 159–160, 189(n)–190(n), 296, 298–299, 309, 312, 339, 371

French Revolution, 22

Galluzzi, Carlo, 110, 123(n), 124(n), 125(n), 178, 179, 180, 189(n), 193(n), 194(n), 195(n), 1969(n), 200(n), 210, 216, 235(n0, 240(n), 245, 252, 263, 266(n), 267(n), 269(n)–272(n), 280(n), 281, 287–289, 316(n)

Garaudy case, 11, 302, 319(n)

Garaudy, Roger, 11, 112, 126(n), 134, 151–152, 158, 217–218, 228, 237(n), 239(n)–240(n), 267(n), 301–303, 317(n), 319(n)–321(n)

Gerõ, Ernõ, 54

Giscard d’Estaing, Valéry, 38, 335

Gomułka, Władysław, 51, 142, 146, 151, 256

Gottwald, Klement, 134, 139

Gramsci, Antonio, 22, 42(n), 61, 65, 78(n), 134, 176, 286, 315(n)–316(n)

Great Leap Forward, 84

Grechko, Andrei, 207, 276–277

Guyot, Raymond, 121(n), 123(n), 148, 159, 162, 165, 186(n), 189(n), 191(n)–192(n), 217, 240(n), 248, 267(n), 297, 300, 307–308

Hallstein doctrine, 95

Hegel, G.W. Friedrich, 134

hegemony, 26, 28, 35, 43(n), 73, 84, 94, 99, 101, 135, 143, 158, 161, 286–287, 289, 350, 365–366

Helsinki agreements, 38, 354(n)

Ho Chi Minh, 93–94, 160

Honecker, Erich, 121, 245, 272(n), 335

Hot Autumn, 11, 289–291, 293, 316(n)–317(n)

Humanité, 63, 115, 119, 127(n), 150, 152, 162, 166, 186(n)–192(n), 221–222, 228, 238(n)–239(n), 247–248, 267(n), 270(n), 295, 301, 318(n)–220(n), 357(n)

Hungarian Communist Party, 54, 63, 163

Hungarian Socialist Workers’ Party, 54

Hungary, 14, 40(n), 43(n), 47, 51, 54–56, 63, 65, 67, 72, 77(n), 142–143, 146, 163–164, 177, 193(n), 198, 256, 271(n)

Husák, Gustáv, 204–208, 234(n), 276–278, 295, 297, 314(n), 318(n)–319(n)

International Department, 58–59

identity, 1–2, 7, 9, 12–13, 17–20, 23, 26–27, 29, 34, 36–37, 41(n), 47, 49–50, 55, 62–63, 65, 69, 72–74, 102, 104, 131, 138, 155, 197, 211, 214, 223–224, 226, 231–232, 249, 262, 275, 279, 283, 286, 309–310, 312, 323–324, 333, 338, 342, 352–353, 367, 370–371
ideology, 5, 7, 9, 14, 25–29, 34, 39(n), 41(n), 43(n), 62, 67, 112, 173, 260, 317(n), 320(n), 327, 339–340

imperialism, 17, 19, 21–22, 24–25, 43(n), 53, 56, 73–74, 84, 93–94, 97, 106–108, 129, 159, 173, 179, 202, 212, 215, 220–221, 227, 231, 249–250, 275, 282, 289, 307, 310, 347, 361, 370–371

Ingrao, Pietro, 64, 104–107, 124(n)–125(n), 174–175, 179, 194(n), 210, 237(n)–239(n), 263, 266(n), 269(n), 280–281, 288, 292–293, 315(n)

international balance of forces, 7, 178

Iron Curtain, 28, 38, 92, 96, 132
isolationism, 15, 37, 49, 62, 67, 86, 99, 102, 111, 129–130, 165–166, 176, 209, 263, 280, 285, 292, 303, 347

Italian Left, 22, 149, 167, 170, 193(n), 279, 286, 292

Italy, 1–2, 4–5, 7–10, 20–24, 33–38, 39(n)–43(n), 45(n), 48, 58, 60–62, 64, 66–70, 72, 74–75, 77(n)–79(n), 81(n), 83, 85, 87–88, 90–91, 96, 98, 101–106, 108, 112–113, 120(n)–121(n), 123(n)–126(n), 129–130, 140, 149, 159, 161, 163, 167–168, 170, 173–178, 1812, 184, 189(n), 192(n)–195(n), 198, 209–213, 215–216, 224, 226–227, 231–232, 234(n), 236(n)–237(n), 240(n), 243, 245–246, 253, 261–264, 265(n), 271(n), 273, 283, 285–287, 289–292, 303, 308, 314(n)–316(n), 324–325, 329–332, 338, 341, 344–345, 355(n)–356(n), 358(n), 365–366, 371

K213, 141

KAN, 140, 206

Kanapa, Jean, 11, 13, 40(n), 111, 125(n)–126(n), 151, 162, 165, 181, 187(n), 189(n)–192(n), 217, 221, 227–229, 237(n)–239(n), 242, 247, 257, 267(n)–269(n), 296–298, 300, 302, 318(n)–322(n), 334, 337, 339–340, 347, 352–353, 356(n)–359(n), 368

Karlovy Vary Conference, 91, 95, 97–98, 107, 109, 122(n), 251, 266(n)

KGB, 137, 320(n), 352, 359(n)

Khrushchev, Nikita, 3, 14, 47, 48(n), 49–51, 53, 57–58, 60, 69, 71–72, 76(n), 79(n)–80(n), 84, 86 93, 97, 106, 113, 126(n), 148, 202, 239(n), 367

Kirilenko, Andrei P., 163, 177–178, 195(n), 243, 265(n)–266(n)

Kliszko, Zenon, 98, 123(n), 177, 195(n)

Kommunist, 301

Komocsin, 163, 190(n)

Kovalev, Sergei, 200–201, 221, 233(n), 247

KPÖ, 98, 209, 235(n), 252–253, 269(n), 357(n)

Kremlin, the, 49, 54, 80(n), 93, 111, 117, 130, 136, 145–146, 182(n), 185(n), 190(n)–191(n), 233(n), 238(n), 268(n), 354(n)

Kriegel, Annie, 8, 17, 39(n)–42(n), 48(n), 62, 77(n)–78(n), 80(n)–81(n), 111, 120(n)–121(n), 125(n), 136, 145(n), 198–199, 205, 233(n)–234(n), 313(n), 322(n), 356(n), 358(n)

Krivine, Alain, 75, 187(n), 322(n)

Kundera, Milan, 135, 303

Lama, Luciano, 196(n), 239(n)

Latin America, 53, 60, 87, 173, 209, 328

Lazar, M., 9, 12, 39(n)–40(n), 42(n)–43(n), 45(n), 77(n)–81(n), 120(n), 126(n)–127(n), 187(n)–188(n), 238(n), 322(n), 357(n)–359(n), 375(n)–376(n)

Lenin, Vladimir Ilyich, 14–15, 17, 24, 51, 53, 202, 228, 247, 305–307, 367, 370

Leninism, 9, 14, 18, 27, 41(n), 47, 50, 52, 57–59, 77(n), 105, 112, 117, 120, 126(n), 135, 138, 147, 150, 194(n), 201, 246, 259, 279, 286, 305, 309–311, 313, 336, 340, 344, 346, 348, 353, 362, 370

Leroy, Roland, 127(n), 151, 152, 158, 191(n), 192(n), 217, 300, 320(n), 359(n)

Lettres françaises, Les, 112, 152, 158, 186(n)–187(n), 189(n), 247, 267(n), 303

Limited Test Ban Treaty, 84

Literarni Lysti, 153, 193(n)

Literaturnaya Gazeta, 247, 267(n)

Lombardo Radice, Lucio, 293, 303, 317(n)

London, Arthur, 148, 186(n), 289, 298, 319(n)

Longo, Luigi, 84, 90, 98, 109, 120(n)–121(n), 124(n), 168, 171–172, 174, 177, 178–180, 193(n)–196(n), 210, 215, 225–226, 235(n)–237(n), 243–244, 252, 254, 268(n)–270(n), 281, 286, 288, 293, 314(n)–317(n)

Lutte ouvrière, 160, 189(n), 228, 239(n)–240(n)

Macaluso, Emanuele, 197, 214, 224

Malenkov, Georgy, 49

Manifesto affair, 227, 289, 293, 361

Manifesto of the, 121 75

Mao Zedong, 84–85, 93, 107

Maoism, 32, 48, 84–88, 93–94, 105, 107, 112–113, 118, 120, 120(n), 126(n), 154–157, 173–174, 188(n), 194(n), 225, 227, 239(n), 279, 288, 290–292, 294, 328

Marchais, Georges, 121(n), 127(n), 152, 156, 158, 188(n), 192(n), 217, 228, 237(n)–238(n), 247–249, 265(n), 267(n)–268(n), 297–300, 302, 307, 314(n), 318(n)–321(n), 335–337, 339–340, 345, 347–349, 352–353, 368

Marcuse, Herbert, 134, 154, 194(n)

Marx, Karl, 14, 41(n)

Marxism, 9, 14, 18, 41(n), 52–53, 57, 59, 61, 64, 70, 80(n), 87–88, 101, 107,112, 119, 133–135, 138–139, 147, 150, 152, 154–155, 158, 168, 170, 173, 201, 243, 246, 272(n), 279, 304, 311, 328, 344, 346, 348, 353

May ’68, 38, 75, 113, 139, 153, 158, 181, 187(n)–188(n), 194(n), 230, 232, 247, 249, 279, 300–301, 303–305, 309–310, 312, 322(n), 335, 362, 371
meritocracy, 34, 75

Middle East, 53, 115, 143, 251, 328, 335

Mitterrand, François, 114–116, 157

MLF, 100, 235

Mlynář, Zdeněk, 44(n), 134, 136, 139, 182(n), 185(n), 205, 351

modernization, 33, 67, 75, 103–104, 154, 312

Mollet, Guy, 72, 74, 114–116, 126(n), 163, 231

Molotov, Vyacheslav, 49, 66, 80(n)

Monde, Le, 160, 189(n), 231, 240(n)

Moranino, Frank, 121(n), 168, 192(n), 278, 314(n)

Moro, Aldo, 103, 329–330, 355(n)

Moscow, 2, 9, 23, 33, 40(n), 44(n), 55, 59–61, 66, 72, 78(n)–79(n), 85, 93–95, 100, 113, 115–118, 120(n), 122(n), 126(n), 144–146, 163–164, 166, 176–179, 185(n), 190(n), 192(n), 195(n), 200, 202, 204–205, 207, 209–210, 216–217, 222, 226, 228, 233(n), 237(n), 241, 243–245, 248–249, 252–257, 250–260, 268(n), 271(n), 278, 280–282, 291, 300, 302, 308, 313, 315(n), 317(n), 319(n)–320(n), 326–327, 329–330, 332, 336, 340, 343–344, 346, 357(n), 367–369

Moscow Conference, 254, 278, 281–282, 291, 300, 302, 308, 317(n), 343–344, 346, 369

Moscow Protocol, 200, 204–205, 216, 222, 228, 233(n), 243, 245

MSI, 102, 330

Muhri, Franz, 209, 269(n)

Munich Agreement, 149

Nagy, Imre, 54

Napolitano, Giorgio, 210, 235(n), 239(n), 263, 266(n), 288, 315(n)

National Front, 136–137, 141, 172, 206

NATO, 15, 38, 43(n), 45(n), 68, 73, 79(n), 92, 95–96, 100, 103, 115, 121(n), 123(n), 130, 145, 166, 198, 231, 282–283, 307, 315(n), 325–326, 331–333, 338, 351, 355(n), 370–372

Natoli, Aldo, 244, 281, 291–293

Natta, Alessandro, 237(n), 266(n), 293, 315(n), 317(n), 318(n)

Natta report, 293

Nazi Germany, 21–23

Nenni, Pietro, 103, 170, 193(n)
neo-Keynesianism, 103–104

New International Journal, 343
new Left, 8, 13, 30, 35, 154, 160–161, 290, 309

New Times, 346

Noirot, P, 152, 186(n), 301, 303, 321(n)

normalization, 1–2, 26, 28, 203–204, 208, 222, 225–226, 230–231, 233(n)–234(n), 238(n), 242, 257, 276, 292, 294–298, 303, 308, 317(n), 323, 368, 371

Nouvel observateur, Le, 160–161, 182(n), 188(n)–190(n), 231, 240(n), 320(n)

Novotný, Antonín, 134, 136–138, 142, 145, 148, 153, 183(n)

Nuovi argomenti, 64–66, 68

Occhetto, Achille, 179, 196(n), 266(n), 316(n)

October Revolution, 22, 305, 358(n), 362

October War, 328

Oder–Neisse line, 95, 110

Operation Danube, 198

Ostpolitik, 37–38, 93, 95, 98–99, 109–110, 116, 122(n), 125(n), 132, 140, 233(n), 307, 325–326

Pajetta, Giancarlo, 40(n), 64, 66, 79(n), 176, 178–180, 190(n), 194(n)–196(n), 210, 213, 224–225, 252, 269(n)–270(n), 281, 288, 292, 314(n)–315(n), 317(n)

Paris Commune, 22

PCP, 209, 328–329, 347

Peasants’ Party, 136

Pelikán, Jiří, 180, 182(n), 205, 233(n)–235(n), 277, 303, 314(n), 352
personality cult, 40–50, 64, 285

Pintor, Luigi, 225, 239(n), 244, 280–281, 286, 291–293

Pirelli factory, 290

Plissonnier, Gaston, 127, 151, 186(n), 192(n), 217, 222, 228, 267(n), 272(n), 300, 318(n), 320(n), 378

Poland, 38, 43(n), 51, 54, 63, 95–96, 98, 100, 142–144, 151–152, 164, 168, 177, 185(n), 198, 256, 270(n), 326–327, 339

Polish Communist Party, 63, 200, 221

Politika, 234(n), 276–277, 314(n)

polycentrism, 47, 49, 64–66, 70, 79(n), 87–90, 106, 129, 169, 252–253, 260, 282, 306, 333, 342, 451, 355(n), 372

Pompidou, Georges, 38, 312–313, 322(n), 329, 335, 356(n)

Ponomariov, Boris, 58–59, 76(n), 123(n), 163, 176, 178, 191(n), 210, 266(n), 280

Popular Front, 23, 51, 61, 73, 104, 114, 158, 310, 328

POUP, 78

Poznań, 63

Prague Spring, 1–2, 26–28, 35, 44(n), 131–135, 137–140, 142–153, 159–163, 165, 167–172, 176–182, 182(n)–186(n), 189(n)–190(n), 193(n), 200, 202–206, 208–209, 212, 219–220, 222, 227, 229, 232(n)–235(n), 276–278, 280, 286, 294–297, 301, 303–304, 306, 312, 318(n)–319(n), 323, 351–352, 362, 366–367

Pravda, 115, 192(n), 199–200, 221, 236(n), 238(n), 243, 247, 251, 267(n), 293, 339

Prchlík, Václav, 139, 147

proletarian internationalism, 5, 9, 14–15, 40(n), 54, 60, 139, 218–219, 347

PSI, 38, 67, 79(n), 102–104, 124(n)–125(n), 194(n), 330–331

PSIUP, 103, 124(n)–125(n), 172–173, 194(n), 226, 231, 239(n), 286

PSOE, 346

PSU, 75, 103, 154, 158, 160, 170–172, 181, 188(n), 193(n)–194(n), 226, 239(n), 309–310, 312, 322(n)

Radical Party, 73, 114

Rákosi, Mátyás, 54

re-alignment, 21, 31, 54, 113, 131–132, 203, 229–230, 241, 249, 254, 256, 258, 264–265, 273, 275, 289, 293, 297, 300, 304, 313, 323–324, 342–344, 362, 368, 372

Red Army, 198
revisionism, 55, 70, 72, 77(n), 86, 91, 118, 177, 189(n), 245, 252, 266(n), 278, 303–304, 314(n), 317(n)

Rinascita, 169, 171–172, 174, 179, 192(n)–194(n), 196(n), 244, 266(n), 355(n).

Risorgimento, 22

Roasio, Antonio, 90, 121(n)

Rochet, Waldeck, 13, 40(n), 72, 76(n), 80(n), 90, 111–112, 114–116, 121(n), 125(n)–127(n), 131, 151–152, 159, 162–166, 178, 181–182, 187(n), 190(n)–192(n), 195(n), 217–218, 220, 222, 227–229, 237(n)–240(n), 242, 247–249, 252, 254, 257, 265(n), 267(n)–272(n), 297, 299–300, 305, 307–308, 311, 319(n), 321(n)–322(n), 336, 362, 368

Romania, 41(n), 55, 84, 87, 95, 100, 139, 142–147, 164, 177, 185(n), 193(n), 198–199, 209, 241, 251, 254–256, 259, 265, 270(n)–271(n), 326, 358(n), 368

Romanian Communist Party, 146, 344

Rossanda, Rossana, 194(n), 244, 280–281, 291–293, 315(n)

Rouge, 231

RPF, 73

Salazar, Antonio, 329

SALT, 326

Sartre, Jean-Paul, 43(n), 72, 75, 189(n)

Second World War, 9, 15, 22–24, 43(n), 50–51, 61, 107, 202, 285, 302

SED, 4, 78(n), 90–91, 110, 116–119, 121(n)–122(n), 125(n), 127(n), 159, 180, 189(n), 192(n), 195(n), 209, 241, 244–245, 247, 250, 252, 266(n)–268(n), 272(n), 303, 317(n), 319(n), 321(n), 334–335

SFIO, 72–75, 114, 116, 154–155, 158, 160, 163, 189(n), 230, 240(n), 309, 312, 322(n)

Šik, Ota, 134, 135, 138, 169, 172, 183(n), 193(n), 205, 234(n), 303, 352, 405

Sino–Soviet conflict, 47–48, 71, 120(n), 256, 287, 289, 367

Slánský, Rudolf, 135, 148, 183(n), 319(n)

Slovak Communist Party, 206

Solzhenitsyn, Aleksandr, 321(n), 339

Soviet foreign policy, 1, 43(n), 53, 59, 77(n), 84, 92, 94, 108–109, 122(n), 230, 309, 313

Soviet Union, 1–2, 6–8, 11–13, 15–19, 21–22, 25–33, 37–38, 41(n)–43(n), 44(n), 47, 48(n), 49, 51, 53–55, 58–61, 63–68, 70–74, 76, 76(n)–77(n), 83–87, 89, 91–92, 94, 97, 100, 106, 112, 115, 117–120, 120(n), 122(n)–123(n), 127(n), 129, 139–145, 147–148, 154–155, 158–160, 164–166, 168, 171, 175–178, 189(n), 192(n), 195(n), 203, 209–211, 213–216, 218, 220–222, 225–232, 233(n), 241–245, 247–251, 255–257, 412, 259, 262, 264–265, 267(n), 271(n)–272(n), 273, 275, 280–281,284–285, 287–288, 291–292, 299–300, 303–306,310, 312–313, 316(n), 319(n), 323–329, 331, 333, 335–342, 344, 346–353, 354(n), 356(n), 358(n), 361, 362–363, 365–366, 368–372

Soviet-aligned communism, 6, 14, 30, 48, 56, 224

Spain, 8, 39(n), 56, 60, 77(n), 87(n), 90, 99, 120(n), 209, 235(n), 240(n), 257, 260–262, 269(n), 320(n), 324, 328, 332–333, 341, 346–347, 356(n), 358(n), 362.

Stalin, Joseph, 40(n), 50–51, 53, 61–62, 65, 69–70, 80(n), 202, 255, 270(n), 288, 316(n)

Stalinism, 8, 26–27, 39(n), 41(n)–42(n), 50, 55, 58, 62, 64–66, 69–70, 76, 76(n), 80(n), 104, 134, 142, 148, 150, 181, 194(n), 228, 270(n), 298, 340
student movements, 16, 20, 102, 112–113, 133, 140, 142–143, 153–156, 158–159, 168, 170, 173–175, 181, 184(n), 187(n)–188(n), 194(n), 207–209, 239, 279–281, 289–290, 292–293, 301–302, 304, 309, 318(n)

Suez crisis, 24, 68

Suslov, Mikhail, 59, 121(n), 163, 178, 185(n), 191(n), 210, 236(n), 269(n), 280

Svoboda, Alois, 137, 199–200, 205–207, 216, 222, 277, 314(n)

TASS, 115, 216, 222, 236(n)

Temps modernes, Les, 161, 188(n)–190(n)

Terracini, Umberto, 64, 179, 196(n), 210, 211, 224, 237(n), 266(n)

Third Way, 100, 331, 333, 353

Third World, 13, 16, 25, 53, 59, 84, 88, 93, 107–108, 121(n), 279, 281–282, 284, 289, 308, 326, 371

Thorez, Maurice, 43(n), 58, 61–62, 64, 66, 69–72, 76, 79(n)–80(n), 112, 126(n), 151, 187(n), 192(n), 217–218, 227, 356(n)

Thorez-Vermeersch, Jeannine, 126(n), 151, 217–218, 227

Tillon, Charles, 302–303, 321(n)

Tito, Josip Broz, 55, 66, 70, 80(n), 87, 185(n)

Togliatti, Palmiro, 39(n)–41(n), 58, 61–62, 64–66, 68–69, 79(n), 106, 120(n), 124(n)
totalitarianism, 9, 40(n)
trade union, 9, 13, 16, 33, 40(n), 52, 59–60, 68, 78(n), 151, 155–156, 159, 167, 171, 173, 210, 286, 290, 311, 344

Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of

Nuclear Arms, 144

Trentes glorieuses, 33.

Trentin, Bruno, 108
troika, 93, 177

Trybuna Ludu, 243, 266(n)

Ukraine, 143, 145

UNEF, 155

Unità, L’, 103, 121(n), 169, 172, 192(n)–194(n), 210–211, 215–216, 235(n)–237(n), 239(n), 243, 245, 265(n)–266(n), 276, 287–288, 313(n), 316(n)–317(n)

United States, 7, 21, 25, 28, 37, 45(n), 61, 68, 80(n)–81(n), 84, 92–94, 96, 99, 103, 109, 115, 123(n), 145, 155, 158, 198, 213, 257, 259, 281, 307, 316(n), 325–329, 331–332, 335, 344, 354(n), 371

UP 175, 195(n), 210, 277, 314(n)–315(n)

Vietnam war, 25, 93, 101, 122(n), 326, 328, 362

Vysocany Congress, 205–206, 216, 222 270(n)

Warsaw Pact, 1, 16, 26, 54, 122(n), 139–140, 143–144, 147, 223, 231

WCM, 16, 32, 57, 63, 66–67, 89, 91, 121(n), 124(n), 129, 162–163, 176, 252–253, 259, 263, 266(n), 305, 307, 315(n), 321(n), 341, 347, 358(n), 369–370

welfare state, 34

West Germany, 28, 37–38, 53, 77(n), 90, 95–96, 98–101, 109–110, 116, 121(n)–123(n), 140, 143, 145, 151, 158, 168–169, 198–199, 209, 233(n), 250, 269(n), 287, 307, 325–326, 329, 332, 334, 371

Western Europe, 1, 3, 7, 9, 13, 21, 24–25, 30, 32, 36–37, 39, 43(n), 51–52, 55, 59–60, 62, 66, 85, 92, 94–101, 108–109, 115, 123(n), 139, 155, 165, 175, 181, 185(n), 212, 213, 215, 242, 244, 321(n), 325, 328, 330, 342–345, 347–349, 351, 354(n), 357(n), 359(n), 361, 365–366, 372

world communist movement, 1–2, 4(n), 8, 11, 16–17, 21, 25, 29–33, 43(n), 48, 48(n), 56–57, 59, 62, 66–67, 70, 73, 77(n), 79(n), 83–84, 88–91, 93–94, 97–98, 101, 106–108, 110–111, 117–118, 120(n), 129, 131, 133, 145, 149, 153, 165, 171, 174, 176, 180, 182, 185(n), 197–199, 209, 212, 214, 216–219, 221, 223, 227, 229, 233(n), 241–243, 245–246, 248–253, 259–260, 262–265, 271(n), 273, 275–276, 278, 282, 284, 287, 304, 306, 308, 321(n), 323–324, 333, 339, 341–343, 345, 347–351, 353, 362, 363, 366–370

World Conference of Communist

Parties, 55, 118, 144, 241, 324, 369

World Federation of Democratic

Youth, 16, 123(n), 209, 315(n)

World Peace Council, 16, 149, 209

World Student Union, 16, 209

World Trade Union Confederation, 16

Yalta Memorandum, 106, 124(n)

YLC, 55

Yugoslav League of Communists, 55, 125(n), 146, 301

Yugoslavia, 55, 70, 79(n)–80(n), 86, 95, 105, 107, 123(n), 139, 144, 146, 155, 176, 198, 209, 241, 251, 254–256, 260, 270(n), 318(n), 368, 371

Zagladin, Vadim, 59, 243–244, 266(n), 280, 357(n)

Zhdanov, Andrei, 15, 53, 215, 226, 300

Zoryn, Valentin, 192(n), 159, 189(n), 191(n)

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