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EVALITA. Evaluation of NLP and Speech Tools for Italian

 | 
Pierpaolo Basile
, 
Franco Cutugno
, 
Malvina Nissim
, 
et al.

Part II: EVALITA 2016: Task overviews and participants reports

Samskara

Minimal structural features for detecting subjectivity and polarity in Italian tweets

Irene Russo et Monica Monachini

Résumé

Sentiment analysis classification tasks strongly depend on the properties of the medium that is used to communicate opinionated content. There are some limitations in Twitter that force the user to exploit structural properties of this social network with features that have pragmatic and communicative functions. Samskara is a system that uses minimal structural features to classify Italian tweets as instantiations of a textual genre, obtaining good results for subjectivity classification, while polarity classification needs substantial improvements.

I compiti di classificazione a livello di sentiment analysis dipendono fortemente dalle proprietà del mezzo usato per comunicare contenuti d’opinione. Vi sono limiti oggettivi in Twitter che forzano l’utente a sfruttare le proprietà strutturali del mezzo assegnando ad alcuni elementi funzioni pragmatiche e comunicative. Samskara è un sistema che si propone di classificare i tweets italiani come se appartenessero a un genere testuale, interprentandoli come elementi caratterizzati da strutture minimali e ottenendo buoni risultati nella classificazione della soggettività mentre la classificazione della polarità ha bisogno di sostanziali miglioramenti.

Texte intégral

1 Introduction

1After 15 years of NLP works on the topic Sentiment Analysis is still a relevant task, mainly because we assist every day to an exponential growth of opinionated content on the web that require computational systems to be managed. Detected, extracted and classified, opinionated content can also be labeled as positive or negative, but additional categories (ambiguous, neutral etc.) are possible. Resources and methodologies created for the detection and classification of subjectivity and polarity in reviews are not applicable with good results on different data, such as tweets or comments about news from online fora.

2There are several reasons behind this: first and foremost, opinions can be expressed more or less explicitly depending on the context; lexical cues from lexical resources such as SentiWordNet (Baccianella et al., 2010) or General Inquirer (Stone, 1966) could be useless when people write their point of views in complex and subtle ways. Secondly, different media and platforms impose different constraints on the structure of the content expressed.

3Twitter’s limits in terms of characters force the use of abbreviations and the omission of syntactic elements. But users try to exploit creatively these limitations, for example adding pragmatic functions with emoticons.

4Features and functionalities anchoring the text to extra-linguistic dimensions (such as mentions and pictures in tweets or like/agree from other users in online debates) should be considered in Sentiment Analysis classification tasks because of to their communicative functions.

5In this paper we present Samskara, a Lari lab system for the classification of Italian tweets that took part in two tasks at Sentipolc2016 (Task 1,subjectivity and Task 2, polarity classification). The system is described in par. 2, with results presented in 2.2 where we discuss the limitations of the system.

2 System description

6Samskara is a classification system based on a minimal set of features that wants to address the issue of subjectivity and polarity classifications of Italian tweets. Tweets are considered as instantiations of a textual genre, namely they have specific structural properties with communicative and pragmatic functions. In our approach, focusing on the structural properties means:

  • abstracting the task from lexical values of single words that could be a deceptive cue because of lexical sparseness, ambiguity of words, use of jargon and ironic exploitations of words;

    • 1 For the moment we think that sequences of syntactic relations are not useful because of the poor pe (...)

    taking into account features used in authorship attribution to represent abstract patterns characterizing different styles, e.g. PoS tag n-gram frequencies(Stamatos, 2009)1;

  • choosing a tagset for PoS that includes tags peculiar of tweets as a textual genre, i.e. interjection and emoticon.

7More generally, we want to capture high-level linguistic and extra-linguistic properties of tweets, also considering basic sequential structures in forms of sequences of bigrams.

2.1 Data analysis, data preprocessing and feature selection

8Before starting with the selections of features, data analysis of the training set helped in the investigation of several hypotheses.

9Polarised lexical items have been widely used in sentiment analysis classification (Liu and Zhang, 2012) but resources in this field list values at sense level (such as SentiWordNet) or conflate the senses in a single entry (such as General Inquirer and LIWC). Without an efficient word sense disambiguation module, using SentiWordNet is difficult. One strategy is to sum all the values and to select a threshold for words that are tagged as polarised in text. That means to overstimate positive/negative content, without finding a clear boundary between, for example, positive and negative tweets.

10Considering the Italian version of LIWC2015 (Pennebaker et al., 2015) we see that frequencies are unable to distinguish between positive and negative tweets in the Sentipolc2016 training data (see Table 1). To avoid this, we defined for internal use a subset of SentiWordNet 3.0 (Baccianella et al., 2010) that we call SWN Core selecting:

  • all the words corresponding to senses that are polarised;

  • from the set above, all the words corresponding to senses that display single-valued polarity (i.e. they are always positive or always negative);

  • from the set above we delete all the words that have also a neutral sense;

  • we sum polarity values for every lemma in order to have for example a single value for lemmas listed in SWN with two different positive values or three different negative values.

Table 1: Absolute and relative frequencies of Italian LIWC2015 lemmas in positive and negative tweets (Sentipolc2016 training set).

class

tokens

LIWC+

LIWC-

pos

92295

234 (0.26%)

225 (0.25%)

neg

114435

78 (0.07%)

683 (0.6%)

11The English SWN Core is composed by 6640 exclusively positive lemmas and 7603 exclusively negative lemmas. Since in these lists items have a polarity value ranging from 0.125 to 3.25, with the idea of selecting lemmas that are strongly polarised we set 0.5 as threshold; as a consequence of this decision we have 1844 very positive and 3272 very negative lemmas. After deletion of multiword expressions these strongly opinionated words have been translated to Italian using Google Translate, manually checked and annotated with PoS and polarity.

12We clean the lists, deleting lemmas that appear two times, lemmas that have been translated as multiword expressions and lemmas that do not have polarity in Italian. At the end we have 890 positive and 1224 negative Italian lemmas. Considering their frequencies in the training set (see Table 2) we find out that only negative items are distinctive. Because of the presence of ironic tweets positive lemmas tend to occur in tweets that have been tagged as negative. The exploitation of positive words in ironic communication is a well-known phenomenon (Dews and Winner, 1995) - the positive literal meaning is subverted by the negative intended meaning - and neglecting this aspect of the Sentipolc2016 training set could imply lower classification performances. If we allow positive items from SWN Core in the system the classification of negative tweets is made difficult. As we mention above, structural properties of tweets can be treated as sequences of PoS. To reduce data sparseness and to include dedicated tags for Twitter we choose the tagset proposed by PoSTWITA, an Evalita2016 task (Bosco et al., 2016). It looks promising because it contains categories that:

  • could be easily tagged as preprocessing step with regular expressions (for example MENTION and LINK);

  • are suitable for noisy data, tagging uniformly items that can be written in several, non-predictable ways (ahahahha, haha as INTJ);

  • contains tags that have communicative and pragmatic functions, such as emoticon and interjection (see Table 4).

Table 2: Absolute and relative frequencies of SWN Core lemmas in Sentipolc2016 training set.

SWN Core+

SWN Core-

obj

536 (0.76%)

264 (0.37%)

subj

2307 (1.4%)

1608 (1%)

pos

1055 (4.8%)

200 (0.9%)

neg

839 (2%)

1096 (2.6%)

13We preprocessed all the tweets in the training set substituting elements that are easy to find, such as mention, hashtags, email, link, emoticon (all tags included in PoSTWITA).

14After that, Sentipolc2016 training set has been tagged with TreeTagger (Schmid, 1997); TreeTagger tags have been converted to PostTWITA tagset (see Table 3) and additional tags from PosTWITA have been added, building dedicated lists for them that include items from PoSTWITA training set plus additional items selected by the authors (see Table 4).

Table 3: Comparison between TreeTagger and PoSTWITA tagsets.

TreeTagger

PoSTWITA

AUX

[A-Z a-z]+ AUX

DET

[A-Z a-z]+ DET

PRO

[A-Z a-z]+ PRON

NPR

[A-Z a-z]+ PROPN

PUN

PUNCT

SENT

PUNCT

VER[A-Z a-z]+cli

VERB CLIT

VER

[A-Z a-z]+ VERB

Table 4: Examples of lemmas tagged according to Twitter-specific PoSTWITA tags.

new tag

type

examples

PART

particle

’s

EMO

emoticon

:DD, :-)))), u u

INTJ

interjection

ah, boh, oddioo

SYM

symbol

%, &, <

CONJ

coordinating conjunction

ebbene, ma, oppure

SCONJ

subordinating conjunction

nonostante, mentre, come

15Thanks to TreeTagger we have all the words lemmatized and so all the lemmas included in the negative counterpart of SWN Core can be substituted by the tag VERYNEG. At this point, with the intention to have a minimal sequence of significant tags, we created 4 version of the training set according to 4 minimal structures, deleting all lemmas and leaving only PoS tags:

  • minimal structure 1 (MSTRU1): EMO, MENTION, HASHTAG, URL, EMAIL;

  • minimal structure 2 (MSTRU2): EMO, MENTION, HASHTAG, URL, EMAIL, PROPN, INTJ;

  • minimal structure 3 (MSTRU3): EMO, MENTION, HASHTAG, URL, EMAIL, PROPN, INTJ, ADJ, ADV;

  • minimal structure 4 (MSTRU4): EMOTICON, MENTION, HASHTAG, URL, EMAIL, PROPN, INTJ, VERYNEG.

16We performed classification experiments with these features and we get better results with MSTRU4 (see par. 2.2).

17For Samskara each tweet is represented as a sequence including its EMO, MENTION, HASHTAG, URL, EMAIL, PROPN (Proper Noun),

18INTJ and VERYNEG lemmas from SWN Core (see tweet in example 1 represented in example 2). This minimal, very compact way to represent a tweet is very convenient because partially avoids any noise introduced by PoS tagger (containing only VERYNEG and PROPN as elements that should be properly tagged with this tool).

  • @FGoria Mario Monti Premier! #Italiaresiste.

  • MENTION PROPN HASHTAG.

19Additional features for the classification of subjective and positive or negative tweets are listed in

20Table 5, with BOOL meaning boolean feature and NUM numeric feature (they correspond to absolute frequencies). The features have been selected thinking about their communicative function: a1 for example is useful because there is a tendency to communicate opinionated content in discussions with other users while we choose a2 because neutral tweets often advertise newspapers’ articles in a non opinionated way including the link at the end of the tweet, but the URL is significant in other positions a6, a6_1. Together with emoticons, interjections are items that signal the presence of opinionated content. For the kind of asynchronous communication that characterize them, tweets can contain questions that don’t expect an answer, that are rethorical a8_1, thus making the tweet opinionanted.

Table 5: Additional features for subjectivy and polarity classification of tweets.

features

description

type

a1

the tweet starts with MENTION

BOOL

a2

the tweet ends with a LINK

BOOL

a3

the tweet has PoS of type PUNCT

BOOL

a3_1

number of PoS of type PUNCT in each tweet

NUM

a4

the tweet has PoS of type VERYNEG

BOOL

a4_1

number of PoS of type VERYNEG in each tweet

NUM

a5

the tweet has PoS of type INTJ

BOOL

a5_1

number of PoS of type INTJ in each tweet

NUM

a6

the tweet has PoS of type URL

BOOL

a6_1

number of PoS of type URL in each tweet

NUM

a7

the tweet has PoS of type EMOTICON

BOOL

a7_1

number of PoS of type EMOTICON in each tweet

NUM

a8_1

the tweet contains a question

BOOL

a8_2

the tweet contains a question at the end

BOOL

a9

the tweet contains two consecutive exclamation marks (’!!’)

BOOL

a10

the tweets contains connectives such as anzitutto,
comunque, dapprima, del resto

BOOL

2.2 Results and Discussion

21The system adopts the Weka2 library that allows experiments with different classifiers. Due to better performance of Naive Bayes (default settings, 10-fold cross validation) with respect to Support Vector Machine we choose the first; best performances were obtained with MSTRU4 considering frequencies of unigrams and bigrams of PoS as features. We took part to Sentipolc2016 only with a constrained run, choosing slightly different set of features for subjectivity and polarity evaluation. Adding the additional features in Table 5 we selected for Task 1 a subset of them after an ablation test. More specifically, the feature set 1 (FS1 in Table 7) is composed by features a1, a2, a4, a4_1, a6, a6_1, a7, a7_1, a8_1, a9. The system performance is reported in terms of F-score, according to the measure adopted by the task organizers (Barbieri et al., 2016). Results on the training data look promising for Task 1, less promising for Task 2 (see Table 8). We didn’t succeed in optimising features for the polarity detection sub-task. The performance on the training set was not satisfying but nevertheless we decided to submit results for Task 2 on test set using all the features. In Table 9 the official results submitted for the competition are reported. Samskara was first among the constrained systems for subjectivity classification, while not surprisingly the performance in Task 2 was bad. Results in Task 2 can be explained by the absence in the system of structural features that are meaningful for the positive-negative distinctions or by the unsuitability of such a minimal approach for the task. It is possible that richer semantic features are necessary for the detection and the classification of polarity and polarised lexical items should be revised, for example, representing each lemma as a sentiment specific word embedding (SSWE) encoding sentiment information (Tang et al., 2014).

22With Samskara we prove that classification of tweets should take into account structural properties of content on social media, especially properties that have communicative and pragmatic functions. The minimal features we selected for Samskara were successful for the classification of subjective Italian tweets. The system is based on a minimal set of features that are easy to retrieve and tag; the classification system is efficient and fast for Task 1 and as such it is promising for real-time processing of big data stream.

Table 6: Classification results for Task 1 obtained on Sentipolc2016 training set.

MSTRU4 + FS1

obj F-score

0.532

subj F-score

0.811

Avg F-score

0.724

Table 7: Classification results for Task 2 obtained on Sentipolc2016 training set.

MSTRU4 + AllF

pos F-score

0.424

neg F-score

0.539

both F-score

0.047

neu F-score

0.526

Avg F-score

0.48

Table 8: Classification results for Task 1 and Task 2 on Sentipolc2016 test set.

F-score

Rank

Task 1

0.7184

1

Task 2

0.5683

13

Bibliographie

 

Stefano Baccianella and Andrea Esuli and Fabrizio Sebastian. 2010. SentiWordNet 3.0: An Enhanced Lexical Resource for Sentiment Analysis and Opinion Mining. In Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC’10).

Barbieri, Francesco and Basile, Valerio and Croce, Danilo and Nissim, Malvina and Novielli, Nicole and Patti, Viviana. 2016. Overview of the EVALITA 2016 SENTiment POLarity Classification Task. In Proceedings of the 5th Evaluation Campaign of Natural Language Processing and Speech Tools for Italian (EVALITA 2016).

Bosco, Cristina and Tamburini, Fabio and Bolioli, Andrea and Mazzei, Alessandro. 2016. Overview of the EVALITA 2016 Part Of Speech on TWitter for ITAlian Task. In Proceedings of the 5th Evaluation Campaign of Natural Language Processing and Speech Tools for Italian (EVALITA 2016).

Shelly Dews and Ellen Winner. 1995. Muting the meaning: A social function of irony. Metaphor and Symbolic Activity, 10(1):319.

Bing Liu and Lei Zhang. 2012. A Survey of Opinion Mining and Sentiment Analysis. In C. C. Aggarwal & C. Zhai (Eds.) Mining Text Data, pp. 415–463, US: Springer.

James W. Pennebaker, Ryan L. Boyd, Kayla Jordan, and Kate Blackburn. 2015. The Development and Psychometric Properties of LIWC2015.

Helmut Schmid. 1997. Probabilistic Part-of-Speech Tagging Using Decision Trees. In New Methods in Language Processing, UCL Press, pp. 154-164.

Efstathios Stamatatos. 2009. A Survey of Modern Authorship Attribution Methods. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology.

Stone, Philip J. 1966. The General Inquirer: A Computer Approach to Content Analysis. The MIT Press.

Duyu Tang, Furu Wei, Nan Yang, Ming Zhou, Ting Liu and Bing Qin. 2014. Learning Sentiment-Specific Word Embedding for Twitter Sentiment Classification In Proceedings of the 52nd Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics.

Notes

1 For the moment we think that sequences of syntactic relations are not useful because of the poor performance of Italian syntactic parsers on tweets.

2 http://www.cs.waikato.ac.nz/ml/weka/

Auteurs

Istituto di Linguistica Computazionale “Antonio Zampolli“ (ILC CNR) Lari Lab - irene.russo@ilc.cnr.it

Istituto di Linguistica Computazionale “Antonio Zampolli“ (ILC CNR) Lari Lab - monica.monachini@ilc.cnr.it

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